click for referencing advice

Society and Science: Home Page   Dictionary   People   Books   Web links the ABC
Study Guide index home page to
web site

Social Science History: Time line for the history of society, science and social science

A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and to other resources, including extracts and works of authors and the timelines for crime - America - mental health - sunrise - earthcore and local London .

But why? The timeline began because social scientists need history. It was a resource for a foundation course in social sciences at Middlesex University.

home page for
society and

home page for
society and

Main Chronological Headings

Quick jump to: Begining - Africa - Sumeria - Egypt - China - Greece - Christ - Islam - 700   900   1000   1100   1200   1300   1400   1500   1600   1700   1800   1900   2000  

In the begining
Prehistory (through archeology and myth)
Prehistoric imagination, art and craft (stone and pigment)
copper - bronze
Pyramids and maths on tablets
Chinese civilisation
Ancient Greece Plato's Republic
Birth of Christ
materials of medicine
a map of the heavens
a critical turning

5th Century
6th Century
Indian mathematics
Birth of Muhammad
Medieval Europe
7th Century

8th Century
9th Century

10th Century
987: books of all nations in Arabic

11th Century
a critical turning
Ibn al-Haytham
1066 and 1086
Omar Khayyám

12th Century
Euclid rediscovered
a Common Law for England
1199 size of London

13th Century
Thomas Aquinas

14th Century
Geoffrey Chaucer

15th Century
Slavery and social science
1492: Columbus hears about cannibals

16th Century
Paracelsus - alchemy and experiment
new knowledge contrasted with schools
a triangular run
1517: individual judgement: bible over church
1528: map of the universe
1538: weddings, christenings, buryings
1544: map of the world
1557: arithmetical signs and algebra
1577 state of nature theory
1593 God's gift of reason
1597: The music of the spheres and a great herbal

17th Century
1601 - 1603 - 1607 - 1607 - 1609 - 1610: by God called gods
1611 Authorised Bible - 1613 - 1614 - 1618 - 1620 - 1621 - 1623 - 1625 - 1628 - 1629 - 1632 - 1635 - 1637 - 1640 -
1642: English Civil War
1646: King contained - 1649: King beheaded
1651: Hobbes' Leviathan
Louis 14: "l'etat c'est moi"
1660: Restoration and Royal Society
1662: Bills of mortatlity
1686: Newton's mathematical physics
Vauban on geometry and war
1688 Bloodless English revolution
Locke's politics and theory of science.
1697: balance of trade figures

18th Century
Coffee houses and newspapers
1713: Probability
1729: English translation of Newton's Mathematical Principles
1734: The Koran for Christians
1740: David Hume's Treatise of Human Nature
1748: Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws
1750: Time changes
1759: British Museum
1761 Transit of Venus
1762: Rousseau's The Social Contract and Emile
Steam and Machine
1764: Beccaria's Essay on Crimes and Punishment
1768: Priestley's principles of government and 1774 dephlogisticated air
1769 Another transit of Venus
Life giving air
1776: Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations and Bentham's A Fragment on Government
1787: Federalist Papers
1789: French Revolution
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
French Constitution of 1789
1790-1799 Scotland's happiness, statistics and improvement
French Constitution of 1791
Rights of woman
France at War
French King Guillotined
French Constitution of 1793
1795 Speenhamland
metric system adopted in France
Institut National des Sciences et Arts
1798: Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population

19th Century
1801: First British census
1805: Children's Books
1806: the decomposition of matter into its elements by electricity
1812: Owen's Essays on the Formation of Human Character
1815: End of war - A new start for geology
1819: Idyllic country villages and a Manchester massacre
1820: James Mill's Essay on Government
1822: Utilitarian Society
1827: London University
1831: The spirit of the age
1833: Statistical Societies formed
1834: New Poor Law
1835: An ordinary guy
1839: Speed annihilates distance as sociology is born
Hungry Forties
Womens' Rights Movement
1841: Feuerbach - anthropology and humanism
1841 British census with names
the steamship and the railway and the thoughts that shake mankind
1842: Women and children in coal mines
1843: The birth of anthropology
1843: Superphosphates and classic field experiments
1844: The Claims of Labour and Vestiges of Creation
1848: All Things Bright and Beautiful - Principles of Political Economy - and The Communist Manifesto
1848 Revolutions
1850: History of "the social movement"
1851: The Enfranchisement of Women and the first of the great exhibitions
1853: Crimean War
1857: Association for the Promotion of Social Science
1859: The Origin of Species
1861: History of the family
1862: Les Misérables
1863: Emancipation of United States slaves
1865: London sewerage system
1869: The Subjection of Women
1869: Nature launched wreathed in poetry
1870: European war and German worker's parties
1871: The Descent of Man
1872: Durkheim's nephew born
1872: The secret of Giuseppe Villella's skull
1874: Mary Paley and economics
1876: L'uomo delinquente
1879: Psychology laboratory
1880: electric light and the experimental method applied to the novel
1883: He has not heard that God is dead
Emile Durkheim and Max Weber
1886: New York and Liverpool: World Cities.
1887: without wires
1887: Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft
1889: Life and Labour of the People of London
1890: Alfred Marshall's Principles of Economics
1891: Our Baby
1893: Evolution and ethics
La donna delinquente
1895: Recorded sound - London School of Economics and Political Science - Radioactivity
1896: Olympics
1899: International association

20th Century   germs   magic blood and science words  
1900: Freud's Interpretation of Dreams
1901: Measuring poverty and Nobel prizes
Psychological and sociological societies
Sociological Review
1904: Conditioned reflexes
1908: Social Psychology
1910: Linguistics proper
1911: Genes, genotypes and genetics
1911: Galton Chair of Eugenics
1913: Behaviourism and Ecology
1913: Measuring class
1914: First World War
1917: Russian revolution
1919: The ABC of Communism
1920: The New Psychology and its Relation to Life and The Outline of History
1922: Stalin
1923: Political Science and Critical Theory
1925: Nazi theory
1925: The City
1928: USA Sociology
1929: Our Baby's discipline and The Science of Life
Wall Street Crash
1931: death of George Herbert Mead
A National Plan for Britain
The scientific treatment of criminals
1932: an atom split
1933: betrayed by evolution - Nazi Germany - Shelf Appeal - Garbo
1935: Turing's meadow computation
1936: Heavy rain
Mass Observation
1937: Symbolic confrontation
Musée de l'Homme founded in Paris.
Second World War
1941: National Income and Expenditure
1942: Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism, by Franz Neumann
1943: this holocaust
1944: Friedrich Hayek's The Road to Serfdom
1945: United Nations
Cold War
1949: Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex
new international sociology
1951: Talcott Parsons'The Social System
A new British Sociological Association
1953: The Institute of Community Studies
1954 "The Complementary Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid" (DNA)
1955: Unsupported mothers - child soldiers
1956: Karl Popper's Science, Conjectures and Refutations article
1956: New Scientist magazine launched
1957: International Geophysical Year
1958: a new sort of political mobilisation
1959: Outline of Human Genetics
1960s: a global village    Goffman    Foucault
computers and statistics
1960: wheels of inclusion
1962: New Society magazine launched - the people's university
1963: sex and sexual abuse
1964: times changing
1965: speaking Russian
1966: criminology for criminals - psychology so far
1967: summer of love     Ethnomethodology
1968: anti-everything
A Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
1970: sexual politics and a crisis looms in USA Sociology.
1971: Ronald Fletcher's The Making of Sociology and the Open University
1972: anti-Oedipus in France as crisis in sociology hits Britain. Evidence based medicine?
1973: women's studies and peace studies
1974: Juliet Mitchell's Psychoanalysis and Feminism
1974-1979: The coming (and going) Corporatism
1975: prison and society
1978: chips with everything
the Adam Smith revival
1979: Postmodern?? Condition: Report on Knowledge??
re-structuring society
1980 Enterprise Culture
1981 Communicative action
1984 Education and race
1985: Glasnost
1986 Big bangs and risk
1988 Diana H. Coole's Women in Political Theory
Dependency Culture
Black film, British cinema
1989 Revolutions
1990 The avalanche of post-modernism and a Soviet summer school
1992: Do your own word processing! - EarthSummit
1993: the world wide web
1995: Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics
1996: Manuel Castells' The Information Age and ... Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity
1997: human domination
1998: Sociology top ten
1999: Globalised: Anthony Giddens' Reith Lectures

2000: A millennium bug in liquid modernity
2000: Human genome - the most wonderous map
2000/ 2001: Free and democratic encyclopedia
11.9.2001: New international relations
2003: full time mother
2004: A prize for humanities and social science
The will to make poverty history?
2005: False findings
2006: Life after Durkheim?
2007 A social science and humanities pin- up list
2008: Pope against gender theory
2009: Global age financial crisis
2010 Royal Society claims 350 years
An arab spring
2011 Laurie Taylor interviews Stuart Hall - Recession mapped
Saving Norway from cultural marxism
2012: Happiness counted
2013: International Year of Statistics
2014: Brain rain(e) on Hendon
27.2.2014 Climate Change - Evidence and Causes
2015 Social science predicts its significance.

Predicting a future
2023 The Closing Speech
2032 Britain's last Quaker
2073 Mary Shelley's Social Science utopia

Alphabetical index
of names

Theodor Adorno
Cecil Alexander
Louis Althusser
Jane Adams
Stephen Pearl Andrews
Thomas Aquinas
Hannah Arendt
Mary Astell
Joe Bataan
Babikir Badri
Francis Bacon
Johann Jakob Bachofen
Leo Baekeland
Roland Barthes
Janina Bauman
Zygmunt Bauman
Mary Beard
Cesare Beccaria
Ulrich Beck
Howard Becker
Clifford Beers
Daniel Bell
Ruth Benedict
Jeremy Bentham
Jacques Bernoulli
Peter Berger
Oto Bihalji-Merin
William Blackstone
Jean Bodin
William Adrian Bonger
Blondie Boopadoop
Charles Booth
William Booth
Pierre Bourdieu
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Ernest Burgess
Edmund Burke
Cyril Burt
Judith Butler
Sebastian Cabot
Georg Cantor
Thomas Carlyle
Alexander Morris Carr-Saunders
Manuel Castells
George Catlin
Judi Chamberlin
Geoffrey Chaucer
Harriette Chick
Frederic Clements
John Cockcroft
George Combe
Auguste Comte
William Cooke
Diana Coole
Charles Horton Cooley
Henry Cowles
Marie Curie
Louis-Jaques-Mandé Daguerre
Robert Dahl
John Dalton
Charles Darwin
Humphry Davy
Simone De Beauvoir
Daniel Defoe
Gilles Deleuze
Geoff Dench
René Descartes
John Dewey
Jan van Dijk
Wilhelm Dilthey
Pedanius Dioscorides
Benjamin Disraeli
Mary Douglas
Emile Durkheim
École normale supérieure
Enfield College of Technology
Albert Einstein
Friedrich Engels
Norbert Elias
Leonhard Euler
Michael Faraday
William Farr
Paul Fauconnet
Enrico Ferri
Robert Filmer
Jean Finot
Shulamith Firestone
Ronald Fisher
Walther Flemming
Ronald Fletcher
Henry Ford
Julienne Ford
Michel Foucault
Charles Fourier
Frankfurt School
Paulo Freire
Sigmund Freud
Betty Friedan
Erich Fromm
Francis Galton
Raffaele Garofalo
Harold Garfinkel
William Gibson
Anthony Giddens
Morris Ginsberg
David Glass
William Godwin
Erving Goffman
Benjamin Gompertz
Olympe de Gouges
Antonio Gramsci
John Graunt
Robert Greene
Jürgen Habermas
Stuart Hall
Edmund Halley
Michael Haralambos
David Hartley
David Harvey
Friedrich Hayek
Friedrich Hegel
Heinrich Hertz
Adolf Hitler
Thomas Hobbes
Leonard T. Hobhouse
Richard Hooker
Max Horkheimer
Luke Howard
Joan Hughes
David Hume
ICSU International Council for Science
William James
Inigo Jones
Kathleen Jones
Immanuel Kant
Jomo Kenyatta
John Maynard Keynes
Imam Khomeini
Oskar Kokoschka
Julia Kristeva
Jean Jacques Lacan
Ronald Laing
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Mary Lamb
Claude Levi-Strauss
Lucien Levy-Bruhl
Carolus Linnaeus
Joseph Lister
London (size)
London Schoool of Economics
London University

Martin Luther
John Locke
Cesare Lombroso
Charles Lyell
Jean-François Lyotard
Thomas B. Macaulay
Niccolò Machiavelli
Bronislaw Malinowski
Thomas Malthus
Henri François Marion
Alfred Marshall
Thomas Marshall
David Martin
Karl Marx
Marcel Mauss
Roderick McKenzie
Marshal McLuhan
George Herbert Mead
Margaret Mead
Gregor Mendel
Charlotte Mew
Juliet Mitchell
Robert King Merton
Ralph Miliband
James Mill
John Stuart Mill
Enid Mills
Charles Montesquieu
Elaine Morgan
Lewis Morgan
William Morris
Max Müller
Franz Carl Müller-Lyer
John Nash
Franz Neumann
Isaac Newton
Barthold Georg Niebuhr
Florence Nightingale
Alexander Ivanovich Oparin
Maureen Orth
George Orwell
Robert Owen
Andrea Palladio
Robert Park
Talcott Parsons
Ivan Pavlov
Karl Pearson
Lionel Penrose
Frank Pearce
Jean Piaget
Karl Popper
James Cowles Prichard
Joseph Priestley
Ptolemaic Egypt
Ptolemy (astronomer)
Alfred R. Radcliffe-Brown
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Franz Leopold Ranke
Rosalie Rayner
Robert Recorde
David Ricardo
Sheila Rowbotham
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Bertrand Russell
Ernest Rutherford
Alfred Schütz
Mary Seacole
Henri Saint Simon
Jean Paul Sartre
Ferdinand de Saussure
Jimmy Savile
Roger Scruton
Andrew Scull
William Shakespeare
Mary Shelley
Percy Shelley
Irving E Sigel
Georg Simmel
George Eaton Simpson
George Simpson
John Sinclair
Burrhus Skinner
Adam Smith
William Smith
John Snow
Pitirim Sorokin
Herbert Spencer
Oswald Spengler
Benjamin Spock
Ed Stephan
Thomas Stevenson
Samuel A. Stouffer
William Sumner
Joseph Swan
Arthur and Edith Tansley
Harriet Taylor
Alfred Tennyson
William Thompson
Alexis de Tocqueville
Ferdinand Tönnies
Peter Townsend
Alan Turing
Edward Burnet Tylor
James Usher
Ludwig Von Bertalanffy
Ernest Walton
James D. Watson
John Watson
Charles Wheatstone
Max Weber
Alfred Wegener
Fay Weldon
Betty Westgate
Anna Wheeler
Alfred North Whitehead
Joseph Whitworth
Norbert Wiener
Peter Willmott
Mary Wollstonecraft
Women's Institutes
William Wordsworth
C. Wright Mills
Christopher Wren
Wilhelm Wundt
John Wycliffe
Michael Young
Jock Young

15,000,000,000 years ago The creation of the universe according to Physical Sciences information gateway (psigate) (26.9.2006 - last surviving archive traced)

13,800,000,000 (13.8 billion) years ago The creation of the universe according to present estimates of "big bang" - "Stephen Hawkings and others... estimate between 11 and 18 billion with 13.8 being the closest estimation".

4,540,000,000 years ago Formation of planet Earth - - Usher's date was 4,004BC

Pre-Cambrian - Before even old Welsh rocks. See Wikipedia

3.700,000,000 years ago Did life first come into being in a primordial soup of compounds? In 1924 Alexander Ivanovich Oparin argued that it did. (See biological bases - circumstances - primeval swamp).

600,000,000 years ago First traceable fossils dated to this time. (psigate) [Edgeworth David (1928 and before) analysed pre-Cambrian rocks in Australia and found traces of micro- biological material]

The soft bodies of worms would not have been preserved as fossils.
See Darwin on worms.

541,000,000 to 485,400,000 years ago Cambrian (Welsh) Period, including the "Cambrian explosion" of fossil remains.

485 to 444 Ma (millions of years ago): The Ordovician period. Deposits that made Westmorland Green slate formed around 450 million years ago. Grains being deposited in water led to patterning. About 50 million years later, the material was altered by heat and pressure (metamorphosed) to slate, during mountain-building. (Kirk and Cook)

443 to 416 MA (million years ago) Silurian period.

"When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the Silurian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled. Judging from the past we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to distant futurity." (Charles Darwin)

470,000,000 years ago First evidence of plants on land. Cryptospores - possible affinity with today's liverworts.

408,000,000 to 359.200,000 years ago Devonian period. Some life left the water.
Primeval swamp?

Late Devonian So called "seed ferns". See Marie Stopes
360,000,000 years ago Ferns first appear in the fossil record

359.200,000 to 299,000,000 years ago Carboniferous

230,000,000 years ago "The first dinosaurs appeared about 230 million years ago and for the next 160 million years, the Earth belonged to these ancient reptiles" Natural History Museum

about 75,000,000 years ago According to Ron Hubbard, science fiction writer and founder of the scientologists, Xenu, ruler of a Galactic Confederation of 76 planets, transported billions of his charges in spaceships to Teegeeack (Earth), placed them near volcanoes and killed them by exploding hydrogen bombs, Their "thetans" (souls) later inhabited the bodies of humans, causing the dysfuntions that scientology claims to be able to repair.

65,000,000 years ago Asteroid impact in what is now Quebec, Canada, created crater 70 kilometres in diameter and wiped out many species (psigate) - Dinosaurs (and 90% of all species) wiped out after a meteorite.

34,000,000 years ago Impact at Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, created crater almost 200 kilometres across, caused global devastation and possible extinction of dinosaurs, along with an estimated 85% of all life - (psigate)

"Six million years are said to separate human beings from other great apes" (Tomasello 1999, p.2);
Ardipithecus ramidus 4,400,000 years ago Earliest known hominid [human, not ape] fossils dated to this time (psigate) -

Ardipithecus ramidus, named September 1994, found in Ethiopia by research team headed by Tim White.

4,000,000 years ago to 2,000,000 years ago Australopithecus genus in Africa.

2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago Pleistocene [From Greek for most recent]. Current ice age with permanent ice sheets in Antarctica and perhaps Greenland, and fluctuating ice sheets elsewhere.

The ice across much of Russia preserved remains of Pleistocene mammals such as this mammoth from near Moscow whose mounted bones are diplayed in the entrance hall to the Orlov Museum of Paleontology


Paleolithic (Old stone age)

2,600,000 to 2,550,000 years ago Oldest known stone tools (See Wikipedia). "Archaeology studies human history from the development of the first stone tools.." (Wikipedia). It is one of the main ways in which social theorists have tried to access pre-history (the human story before writing). Another major way has been through speculation on the content of myths. Artefacts, like stone tools, can be dated in a way that inferences from myths can not. On the other hand, myths may give access to the mind in a way that artifacts do not.

Lower Paleolithic

"Compared with its australopithecine forebears-who were four feet tall with ape-sized brains and no stone tools - Homo was larger physically, had a larger brain, and made stone tools." (Tomasello 1999)

1,800,000 years ago "Early human migrations began when Homo erectus first migrated out of Africa over the Levantine corridor and Horn of Africa to Eurasia about 1.8 million years ago". (Wikipedia)

400,000? years ago First use of fire

400,000 years ago Common ancestors of neanderthal humans and homo erectus began separation. Neanderthal developed in Europe and homo erectus in Africa.

Middle Paleolithic

200,000 years ago "It is most likely that modern Homo sapiens born 200,000 thousand years ago, somewhere in Eastern (Central) Africa" (Dates in the history of biology) (I have assumed it means 200,000)

Modern humans, Homo sapiens, evolved in Africa up to 200,000 years ago and reached the Near East around 125,000 years ago. From the Near East, these populations spread east to South Asia by 50,000 years ago, and on to Australia by 40,000 years ago, when for the first time H. sapiens reached territory never reached by H. erectus. H. sapiens reached Europe around 40,000 years ago, eventually replacing the Neanderthal population. East Asia was reached by 30,000 years ago. (Wikipedia)

"Since the earliest appearance of modern humans more than 150,000 years ago during the Pleistocene (Ice Age), people had always relied on hunting herds of wild animals, fishing, and gathering wild plants to feed themselves... All human groups during the Paleolithic ("Old Stone") period during the Ice Age were nomadic hunters and gatherers." (Gil Stein)

100,000 years ago Noam Chomsky's date for the chance mutation that he considers made the sudden appearance of language possible.

50,000 to 10,000 years ago Upper Paleolithic

Prehistoric imagination, art and craft

    "It was in the upper Palaeolithic that for the first time man gave expression to his beliefs, his feelings and thoughts with figurines, engravings and exorcist rock-paintings". ( Schenk, G. 1961 , p.111)

Between 35,000 and 40,000 years ago Venus of Hohle Fels

About 30,000 years ago, modern homo sapiens entirely replaced earlier man-like forms. Weapons and tools of flint and bone survive along with female carved stone figures with exaggerated sexual features, suggesting fertility symbols and magical ceremonies.

26,000 years ago

The mammoth hunter of Dolni Vestonice was found in Southern Moravia. It is an ivory figurine of a face:

    "finely strung, lively, sympathetic and also suffering, a being which stood facing the world devout, pure and humble. This picture...has all the characteristics of human elevation. Everything points to the Ice Age hunter having depicted himself". ( Schenk, G. 1961 , p.127) [Known as Venus XV. Consensus now seems to be that it depicts the woman who made the ceramic figures from Dolni Vestonice]
22,000 years ago

The Venus of Willendorf was found in Austria. It is thought to be a carving of a woman, without facial features, fat, with pendulous breasts and a huge, perhaps pregnant, belly. Many figures with similar characteristics have been found from Russia to France [Microsoft Encarta, 1994]

Interpretations of Stone Age Art
Venus of Willendorf weblinks

17,500 to 18,300 years ago "Examples of pottery found in a cave at Yuchanyan in China's Hunan province may be the oldest known to science". (BBC News 1.6.2009). See clay.

Darren Brewer's events in science and history (archive) begins between 15,000 and 10,000 BC with the world warming up from the ice age and people painting in caves.

David Lee's science timeline begins about 10,000 BC, when wolves were probably domesticated. [Darren Brewer "dog domesticated" about 12,000 BC

About 10,000BC End of last glacial period (ice-age), beginning of Holocene, or present period with ice at the north and south and on mountains. [About 11,700 years ago End of the Pleistocene, start of the Holocene]

12,000BC to 10,200BC Natufian period: sedentary hunter-gatherers

"The round pit-houses in Natufian settlements at Jericho and Abu Hureyra are some of the world's earliest known villages." (Gil Stein)

10,000 to 8300 BC also known as Epipaleolithic (end of the
Old Stone Age
10,200BC Neolithic (new stone age)
Early neolithic in some parts of the Middle East

Jericho: Earliest permanent settlement at Jericho dated between 10,000 and 9.000 BC

About 8,000BC
Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age and then the Neolithic Period (or "New Stone" Age), about 8300-6000 BCE.

8,300 to 7,500 BC Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) - cultivation of wheat and barley.

Remains of an ancient farming village at Jericho have been carbon-dated to around 7,000 BC. The same excavations uncovered materials pre-dating agriculture which have been carbon-dated 800 years earlier (Carlo Cipola 1962, pp 18-19)

7,500 to 6,000 BC Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) - domestication of sheep and goats, cattle and pigs.

Between 6,430 and 6,120BC Calibrated carbon dating of an underwater oak tree bole at the foot of the underwater cliff at Bouldnor in the Isle of Wight. Mesolithic remains recovered from this underwater site include string (6,220-5,980BC), worked wood (6,240-6000BC), flint tools and flakes, and burnt (cooked?) hazel nuts. There is an imaginative re-construction of this as a "Mesolithic Village" at CosmOnline

About 6,000BC Rising sea level cuts Britain off from Europe. About 5,000BC Rising sea level submerges Bouldnor Cliff

About 6,000 to 4,000BC Neolithic or New Stone Age marked by the adoption of agriculture, the development of pottery, polished stone tools and larger, more complex settlements. 6,000BC or earlier: beans, lentils, peas, and chickpeas believed to have become part of the eastern Mediterranean diet.

about 5400BC The Sumerian settlement of Eridu (Eridug) founded on a site that was then close to the Persian Gulf near the mouth of the Euphrates River. It appears to be the earliest settlement in the region. The Sumerian King List begins by saying that "After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years." Sumerian was the first language to be written. No related languages are now known. It died out as a spoken language about 2000BC

Enki, the god of wisdom, was the patron god of Eridu. Sumerians believed that he created civilisation by bringing humanity's skills together in a cohesive world order. Sumerian language, writing and culture continued after their passing, in Mesopotamia, under the Akkadians and Assyrians. Assyrians belied that Enki gave his people metal working skills. (Haidar, D. 2011). See also Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Godesses

From prehistoric to historic times: Time and space Narrative

Fifth millennium BC

5000BC to 4000BC Millennium between pre-history and (recorded) history. History is story told by human beings about human beings, and our first written records come from Sumerian (southern Mesopotamia) and Egyptian cultures in the fourth millennium 19th century historians were inclined to start written history much later, at the end of the second millenium BC.

antiquity is the (long) period before the middle ages. Sometimes classical antiquity is used for the period of ancient Greece and Rome. Christian antiquity refers to the early centuries of the Christian church.

4700BC Possible beginning of Sumerian calendar.
4228BC Possible introduction of Egyptian calendar.

Fourth millennium BC

4004 BC was the creation of the world in Usher's chronology
See above.

Days of creation: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 -
Adam and Eve in more detail

Quran: thy Lord said to the angels: "I am about to create man from clay". Adam is considered the first of the prophets in Islam. Others include Ibrahim (Abraham) - Musa (Moses) - Daud (David) - Sulayman (Solomon) - Isa (Jesus) - and Muhammad

Sumerian writing on clay tablets using picture signs. See Eridu - 2400BC - library.

By 4000BC the sumerians could melt copper - and so extract the metal from its ore. (Haidar, D. 2011).

[Sumerian] "census (for taxation purposes)" - Start of Ed Stephan's demography timeline and [Ireland's] the census through history an [UK] census-taking in the ancient world [Does anyone know the evidence?]

about 3500BC Limestone tablet engraved with pictographic writing Kish, Mesopotamia. Contains pictographs of heads, feet, hands, numbers and threshing-boards. Now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Photographed by José-Manuel Benito.

The cuneiform (wedge shaped) writing of
Sumeria (now Iraq) starts about 3400BC. It is the earliest form of writing known that does not use pictures. The early stages of Egyptian hieroglyphics date from about 3200BC

Metallurgists dealt with copper for thousands of years until bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, was discovered. The Bronze Age in Mesopotamia started around 3300BC and it denoted that bronze tools, decorations and weapons were commonly used and owned items. The transition from the Copper to the Bronze Age was simplified because the melting temperature of bronze is less than copper, between 1084°C and 232°C 449.4°F) depending on the percent of tin, so new techniques to cast and forge bronze were not required. (Haidar, D. 2011)

About 3100BC. Reign of Narmer in Egypt. The Narmer Palette (left) was discovered by James E. Quibell in 1898 in Hierakonpolis. On it, Narmer displaying the insignia of both Upper and Lower Egypt, giving rise to the theory that he unified the two kingdoms and was the founder of the first dynasty.
5000BC - calendar - hieroglyphics - Narmer - papyrus - geometry - Old Kingdom - Middle Kingdom - Thebes library - New Kingdom - Eighteenth Dynasty 1549-1292 - Amenhotep 4 - Nineteenth Dynasty 1292-1189 - Ramesses 2 - Twenty-sixth Dynasty 672-525 - Amasis - Ptolemaic (Hellenistic) - Argead Dynasty 332-305 - Ptolemaic Kingdom 305-30BC - Cleopatra

Papyrus, depicted on the Narmer Palette, is a plant that grew in the river Nile from which a writing material, also called papyrus, was made.

Third millennium BC

See Wikipedia article on Ancient History which has table from different parts of the world from 3000BC

3000BC: Five thousand years ago, the Egyptians began the invention of practical geometry. The waters of the river Nile overflowed every year and wiped out the land boundaries. Perhaps geometry was invented because it was necessary to reconstruct the fields for taxation purposes and to tell people where to plant their seeds.

One of the geometrical rules discovered was the 3,4,5 Rule for constructing right angles. It may have been discovered by people laying out fields, or perhaps by builders or architects. This way of making right angles was used as a trick of the trade. It was not known why the rule works, but it does, and it was used to make temples and pyramids.

about 2900BC Eridu (in southern Mesopotamia), argued to be the oldest city in the world has been said to have become a substantial city of mudbrick and reed houses covering 20 to 25 acres. Eridu is south of the (later) city of Ur. This are "was the birthplace of cities and of civilisation about 5,000 years ago and home to the Sumerians and the later Babylonians". (Stuart Campbell, Manchester archeologist. See below)

Old Kingdom of Egypt

The first pyramid of Egypt. The Pyramid of Djzosèr built at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630-2611 BC. Said to have been designed by Imhotep, who may be the first architect whose name we know, and who was defied 2.000 years later as a god of medicine and healing. The picture is taken from the Wikipedia website. Clicking on it will take you to more information
The pyramids in the Egyptian deserts are monumental tombs for the rulers of ancient Egypt, who were believed to be gods.

The Great Pyramids at Gizah were erected about 2650BC. One of these, the grave of Cheops, is built of stone blocks averaging 2.5 tons in weight. The pyramid, 481 feet high, is of great geometrical accuracy.

The way the pyramids were built and the mathematical calculations involved are subjects of much speculation.

"In China a complex civilisation flourished from about 2500BC which developed its own independent outlook on the world" (Colin Ronan, The Atlas of Scientific Discovery, 1983, page 12).

pottery - Xia Dynasty 2100-1600 BC - Shang Dynasty 1600-1046 BC - Zhou Dynasty 1045-256 BC [Hundred Schools of Thought including Confucius] - Qin Dynasty 221-206 BC - Han Dynasty 206BC-220AD [Census AD2] - Three kingdoms - Jin Dynasty 265-420 - Southern & Northern Dynasties 420-589 - Sui Dynasty 581-618 - Tang Dynasty 618-907 - Liao Dynasty 907-1125 - Song Dynasty 960-1279 [Zhu Xi] - Yuan Dynasty 1271-1368 [Wenxian Tongkao] - Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 - Qing Dynasty 1644-1911 - Republic of China 1912-1949 - People's Republic of China 1945 -

"The Wen-tong-hian-kao" [Wenxian Tongkao] "... contains a section entitled Hou-keou-men ... which presents various population counts made in China since the reign of the first dynasties until year 1223 of the Christian era." (Edouard Biot 1836)

2400BC Sumerian baked clay tablets with arithmetic . There is a large body of mathematical tablets dating back to the old Babylonian period (1800 to 1500BC).

2286BC One of the classical dates for the foundation of the city of Babylon, originally a small semitic, Akkadian speaking city. See Old Babylonian Period - Hammurabi - Ninevah falls - and Nebuchadnezzar

2200BC Approximate date for the erection of the standing stones at Stonehenge. The earlier earthbank and ditch have been dated about 3100BC

2015BC Word Siqlu, as a unit of weight, in use in Mesopotamia. The Hebrew term shekel derives from this.

Some argue that the Sumerian language, as a mother tongue, had died out by the end of the third millennium.

Second millennium BC

"Old Babylonian Period" used for south Mesopotamia from about 2000BC to 1600BC. Initially a number of (city?) states dominating the region: Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna and, from 1894BC, Babylon.

Excavation of Tell Khaiber, 20 kilometres from Ur

about 2000BC "We provisionally date the site to around 2,000 BC, the time of the sack of the city and the fall of the last Sumerian royal dynasty." Stuart Campbell, (April 2013) ,Manchester archeologist excavating at Tell Khaiber, 20km from Ur, "the last capital of the Sumerian royal dynasties". - Web page of Ur Region Archaeology Project

The naked lady features on the 2013 Report

The Jewish book of Genesis say that Abraham came from "Ur of the Chaldees" (Genesis 11:31)

2000BC Time that Cadmus would have introduced the original (Phoenician) alphabet to Greece if the speculations of Herodotus were correct. See Hobbes on the invention of letters.

"You might as reasonably expect to understand the nature of the adult man by watching him for an hour.. as to suppose that you can fathom humanity by studying the last four thousand years of its evolution" (Herbert Spencer quoted by Paul Hirst, 1976, p.32)

about 1850BC The "Petrie Papyri", from Kahun and Gurob, (named after Flinders Petrie who discovered them in 1889). "Principally of the Middle Kingdom" They include literary, medical and vetinary papyri and mathematical fragments. The three pages of medical text are all gynaecological and include a brief passage that suggests crocodile dung and/or honey to prevent child-birth. I think this is the bit with the crocodile:

1812BC to 1637BC (175 years). Traditional Jewish dates for the life of Abraham. "He lived, an hundred threescore and fifteen years". A Christian term for Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and other revered rulers of families (tribes) in the Bible is the Patriarchs. The same term is used for high ranking bishops in the church. See Die Familie (1912). In Jewish tradition "Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, known as the Patriarchs, are both the physical and spiritual ancestors of Judaism". The word "Jew" is derived from Y'hudah (Judah), the fourth son of Jacob.

1792BC to 1750BC Reign of Hammurabi, who extended the rule of Babylonia throughout Mesopotamia

Code of Hammurabi - Babylonian law code.

1700BC to 1100BC Possible date range for the (oral) composition of the Rigveda. - See artificial limb

1670BC According to Lenormant, a royal library was established at Thebes in Egypt. See Amasis


1500BC Domestication of silk worm in China. [I think this is far too late a date]

The Hitites began to smelt iron between 1500BC and 1200BC and the practice spread to the rest of the Near East after their empire fell in 1180B. The subsequent period is called the Iron Age. (Wikipedia)

1400BC Possible date for Jews settling in what became Israel. Traditionally, the ten commandments and the rest of the Torah (Five books of "law" or Pentateuch) is conceived to have been received by Moses before this.

1380BC to 1050BC Approximate period covered by the Jewish book of Judges. "In those days there was no king in Israel: every man did that which was right in his own eyes". See John Locke on justice in a state of nature.

1300BC Suggested date for the (mythical) journey of the ship Argo in which Jason and the other Argonauts sought the Golden Fleece

1348/1346BC Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep 4th raised Aten (the Sun) to the status of supreme God. This, and the "Great Hymn to the Aten" have been considered as origins of monotheism (belief in one God). Amenhotep's chief wife was Nefertiti.

about 1279 to 1213BC Ramesses 2nd. The Ramesseum in Thebes is the 'mortuary temple' of this Egyptian king. The Petrie Papyri were found beneath this.

Iron age in the middle east sometimes dated from about 1200BC, with the diffusion of iron technology following the collapse of the Hittite Empire (centred in what is now Turkey)

1194BC to 1184BC Dates of possible conflict behind the stories of a "Trojan War". Roughly corresponds with archaeological evidence for burning of Troy 7.


First millennium BC from 1000BC

1050BC Conventional date for start of Phoenician alphabet which was spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, Aramaic and Greek alphabets developed from this.

911BC to 891BC Adad-nirari 2, King of Assyria begins to found the Neo-Assyrian Empire. A large increase in the use of iron for tools and weapons took place from the neo-Assyrian period onwards.

India See Rigveda

"During the time between 800 and 200 BCE the Shramana-movement formed, from which originated Jainism and Buddhism. In the same period the first Upanishads were written." (Wikipedia)

ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME "Freeman and slave"
See slavery and social science

Engels in 1884 spoke of this period as entering "the field of written history", which coincided with the advent of the "patriarchal family" and a period where "comparative jurisprudence can give valuable help". The history of writing is much older, but picture and cuneiform scripts were only re-deciphered in the 19th cenury.

Bronze relief from the Balawat Gates (in the British Museum) dated to the Shalmaneser 3. It shows a six wheeled Assyrian battering ram with a metal tip. The metal tip may well have been of iron. See (Haidar, D. 2011)

859BC to 824BC Shalmaneser 3 king of Assyria. Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser 3 was erected in Nimrud in 825BC. It was excavated in 1845 and is now in the British Museum. It includes this bas relief of tribute from Jehu, king of Israel.
"The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears."

850BC: Date assigned to Homer by Herodotus. Stories recited as poems transmitted culture. See Wikipedia on Odyssey.

800BC - 480BC Archaic period in Greece. Rise of the polis (city states)

776 BC First Olympiad: The olympic games were held every four years and became the standard measure by which Greek and Roman historians dated time. See Olympics

770 to 221 BC "Hundred Schools of Thought" of Chinese philosophy includes Confucius

21.4.753 BC A traditional date for the foundation of Rome
The oldest
gentes claimed to have originated before the foundation of Rome. - Roman Kingdom 753 to 509 BC - Roman Republic 509 to 27 BC - Roman Empire 27 BC to AD 476. Romulus, the legendary founder of Rome, is said to have called together one hundred elders to form a senate to advise him. [consulere senatum: calling together the old]. The institution continued beyond the fall of the empire in AD 476.

755BC to 745BC Ashur-nirari 5 king of Assyria. Followed, 745BC to 727BC, by his son, Tiglath-Pileser 3.

740BC "The year King Uzziah died" (Judea). Start of the teaching of Isaiah the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible.

727BC to 722BC Shalmaneser 5, son of Tiglath-Pileser 3, king of Assyria.

722BC is the usual date for the fall of Samaria (capital of Israel) to the Assyrians. Much of the population of Israel is said to have been moved, but a Jewish dispora was not created as they did not retain their identity as Jews.

The oldest surviving royal library in the world is that of Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria 668 to around 630BC (British Museum)

612BC Battle of Ninevah led to the destruction of what was at the time the world's largest city. In 626BC Babylon replaced Nineveh as the seat of the Mesopotamian Empire.

597 - 587 BC Nebuchadnezzar 2nd, King of the Babylonians, conquered the Jews and took many into exile in Babylon. They included an elite "skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science" who were to serve amongst the "wise men of Babylon". One of these was Daniel. See Diaspora

Tisha B'Av, 586BC On Sunday 9th Av, Nebuchadnezzar's forces set the Temple on fire and destroyed it.

The book of Daniel (Chapter 4) says that Nebuchadnezzar lost his reason and ate grass for many years. See mental health timeline

569-525 BC Amasis, a common man, was Pharaoh in Egypt. He allowed the Greeks (previously excluded for bad behaviour) to enter Egypt to trade, but not to study in the Royal Library. His golden foot-pan trick gave Aristotle an illustration, used in his comparison of state and family politics

551 to 479 BC Confucius

About 550 to 330 BC The Achaemenid Empire or First Persian Empire [Iran] Darius 1st (Reigned from 522BC) and subsequent Kings owed religious allegiance to Ahura Mazda.

Ahuramazda has granted unto me this empire. Ahuramazda brought me help, until I gained this empire; by the grace of Ahuramazda do I hold this empire.

Map of the Persian Empire about 500BC drawn by William Robert Shepherd 1923

536BC Return of some Jews to Jerusalem, followed by the construction of the second Temple

509BC Roman Republic established "patrician and plebeian"
See theory of social class

Early years of the Roman Republic Burgess and Locke (1945) (p.20) say the patriarch of the Roman family in this period was a "very close approximation" to "absolute power" in the Large Patriarchal Family. They say that "Among the Greeks the power of the head of the house was less absolute, since it was considered a trust to be administered for the welfare of the family. In the Hebrew patriarchal family the power of the father was limited by the Mosaic Law" See Die Familie (1912)

In Greek philosophy the nature of " reason " is explored. Human thought consciously sought to define what reason is and to use it as the key to understanding the world. The Greek philosophers were drawn on by later thinkers in the Arabic and European worlds. They include Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Euclid.

PYTHAGORAS Pythgoras's theorem

Pythagoras, who died about 500BC, founded the Pythagorean School of thinkers. They created mathematical ways of representing and analysing musical harmony, and theories explaining sight mechanically: thinking of light as an emission of particles travelling in straight lines between the eye and the object seen. Mathematics, experiment, theory, aesthetics and religious speculation were all part of the Pythagorean imagination. They established the relationship of harmonious sound between families of notes produced by striking metal bars of different lengths, and the numbers that relate the lengths to the notes. Pythagorus also believed in the harmony of nature: See
Derek Antrobus, 7.2002 Philosophy of diet - or philosophy of life?

5th century BC (500BC-401BC) Possibly in this century that the Hebrew Book of Job was written with its image of Leviathan - See 1651

484BC to 425BC Life of the Greek historian Herodotus

449BC Traditional date for completion of the "Law of the Twelve Tables" (Latin: Leges Duodecim Tabularum which were posted in the Roman Forum so all Romans could read and know them. (See Wikipedia)

451BC In Rome the laws were inscribed on tablets. These were the foundation of Roman jurisprudence. (The science of law). The Ten Commandments of the Jews, another source of jurisprudence, were also originally inscribed on tables of stone.

Before 469BC Socrates (philosopher) born in Athens, Greece

431BC Start of the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta) [Thucydides Book 2]

429BC Pericles (leader of the democracy in Athens) died of fever during a long war between Athens and Sparta. Political turmoil followed his death.

Plato (philosopher) born

404BC Athens surrendered to Sparta. Government of the thirty tyrants came to power in Athens.
403BC Restoration of democracy in Athens.

4th century BC (400BC-301BC)

399BC Socrates tried for misleading the Athenian youth with his philosophy. Sentenced to death.


386BC Plato, a pupil of Socrates, established the Academy - the first university - where he taught for the rest of his life. See later academies

Socrates, Plato
Aristotle in Raphael's School of Athens Plato argued that:
  • truth and reason are external.
  • we must govern our personal and social lives using reason.
  • humans can reason to external truth.
  • 384BC Aristotle (philosopher and naturalist) born.

    363BC Aristotle studied under Plato.

    347BC Plato died. Following Plato's death, Aristotle left Athens.
    342BC Aristotle tutor to Alexander, who became the Emperor Alexander. Strabo wrote that Aristotle was "the first man, so far as I know, to have collected books and to have taught the kings in Egypt how to arrange a library".

    335BC Aristotle returned to Athens, where he opened a school called the Lyceum. Most of his writings were composed during the following thirteen years.

    331BC onwards Alexander destroyed the power of Persia, and established an empire which stretched from Macedonia to Egypt, and to the Indus.

    322BC Aristotle died. He bequeathed his library and the school (Lyceum) to Theophrastus (about 371BC to 287BC)

    323BC Alexander died. His empire was divided between the Antigonids, who controlled Greece, the Seleucids, who ruled most of Asia Minor, Syria and Mesopotamia, and the Ptolemies, who ruled Egypt.

    Ptolemy 1st, one of Alexander's generals, ruled Egypt from 323 to 283BC. His son, Ptolemy 2nd, ruled from 309 to 246BC. During this time, a library was established at Alexandria. [See Berti and Costa 2009]

    3rd century BC (300BC-201BC)


    About 300BC Euclid taught in Alexandria, Egypt. Building on the practical geometry of the Egyptians, Euclid laid the foundations of theoretical geometry
    Read: Euclid's axioms

    ARCHIMEDES - born about 287BC - died 212Bc

    2nd century BC (200BC-101BC)

    The Dead Sea Scrolls are probably a library of the Essenes, mainly from the period from about 200BC to 68AD, although some date back to the third century BC. (See Jewish Virtual Library)

    167BC Judas Maccabeus led a Jewish revolt that led to the restoration of the Temple of Jerusalem in 165BC. [Extracts from the first book of Maccabees - link to book another]. The Maccabees founded the Hasmonean dynasty, which ruled from 164BC to 63BC. From 129BC to 63BC, Judea was independent. Roman rule began in 63BC.


    1st century BC (100BC-1BC)

    69 BC Cleopatra, the last great queen of Egypt, born in Alexandria. Died 12.8.30 BC (aged 39)

    58BC to 51BC Conquest of Gaul (France and north west Europe) by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar (13.7.100BC - 15.3.44 BC)

    Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War) ascribed to Julius Caesar, describes the north-west European tribes the Roman legions fought. A source of images of Druids practising human sacrifice. It is also the source of the statement (6.19) that, amongst the Gauls, "Husbands have power of life and death over their wives as well as over their children". [See John Stuart Mill 1869]

    44BC Julius Caesar, constitutional dictator of Rome, declared himself dictator for life and, shortly afterwards, was assassinated. See Neumann's dictatorship types

    31BC The Age of Augustus, from 31BC to 14AD, is taken as the transition from the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire. The empire may have included a larger percentage of the world's population than any other, before or since. Its survival was dependent on trade. Roads it built survive today. Its engineers also constructed long tunnels and bridges, including aqueducts. The arithmetic of its trade and commerce was calculated using counting boards and hand abaci. See problems of arithmetic with Roman Numbers


    AD1 Alleged date of the birth of Jesus Christ. Calendar dates back from here (BC: Before Christ) and forward from here. Time and space

    Centuries are also numbered backwards and forwards from here.


    1600 AD to 1699 AD is the 17th century AD not the 16th century
    1900 AD to 1999 AD is the 20th century AD not the 19th century
    2000 AD to 2099 AD is the 21st century AD not the 20th century

    The system of numbering things at equal intervals (years in this case) from an arbitrary starting point (the birth of Christ in this case) with items being counted backwards and forwards from the starting point, is called an Interval Scale.

    The birth of Jesus took place in Bethlehem (instead of Nazareth) because the Roman Emperor, Caesar Augustus, ordered people throughout his empire to go to their family home to be counted for taxation. This is an example of political arithmetic, state arithmetic, or statistics.

    AD2 First "tolerably accurate census of the Chinese empire" (under the Han dynasty) although Chinese census counts "go back to back to the second millennium BC" "There was little pretence of scholarly interest in the numbers... the emperor was interested in revenue" (Hollingsworth T. H. 1969 pp 65-66 and 67)

    18.9.14 AD Tiberius the Roman Emperor

    Strabo's Geography was finished within the reign of Tiberius. Strabo died in 23AD

    37-41 Reign of the Roman Emperor Caligula who banished or murdered most of his relatives, executed large numbers of people, confiscated property and, for entertainment, had people tortured and killed whilst he was eating. He made himself a God. A Jewish philosopher, Philo Judaeus, went to Rome to plead with Caligula for the lives of Jews who had refused to worship him as God. Philo is remembered as a theorist who fused Greek and Jewish thought. Caligula was assassinated and is remembered by many social theorists as an example of an undesirable ruler. They read about him in the works of Philo.

    about 40 to 90AD Pedanius Dioscorides, a Greek physician who compiled five volumes about the (largely herbal) materials of medicine in Greek. Translated into Latin as De Materia Medica.

    43 Romans invaded Britain

    90 to 168AD Claudius Ptolemaeus or Ptolemy: Astronomer and geographer who lived in Alexandria and compiled a large compendium of astronomy, with the earth as the centre of the universe. His compendium was called the Almagest when translated into Arabic.

    Tisha B'Av, 135AD The Fall of Betar. End of the revolt of the Jews against the Romans led by Simon bar Kokhba. See Diaspora

    170AD to 180AD Note "to myself" of the Roman Emperor, Marcus Aurelius. "I ... have seen the nature of ... him who does wrong, that it is akin to me, not only of the same blood or seed, but that it participates in the same intelligence and the same portion of the divinity,.. we are made for co-operation, like feet, like hands, like eyelids, like the rows of the upper and lower teeth." (Meditations Book one) - See organism

    The two centuries from 200AD to 400AD are a critical turning point in the Saint-Simonian system of history between the epoch with polytheist ideas and a society based on slavery, and that with "theological" ideas and a feudal organisation of society.

    About 251 to 356AD Anthony (or Antony) one of the earliest of the desert fathers, from whom developed monasticism.

    306 to 337 Constantine Emperor of the Roman Empire. He rebuilt Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinopolis (Constantinople), which became the new capital of the Empire, tolerated Christianity and other religions, and promoted Christianity throughout the empire.

    about 350AD Traditionally, the Talmud known as the Talmud Yerushalmi (Jerusalem Talmud) was thought to have been redacted (made into one book) by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel.

    376 Start of first war between Visigoths and Rome

    393-397 AD Synods of the Christian Church decided which books would form the Christian Bible. This is composed of an "Old Testament" (the Hebrew Bible) and a "New Testament" (books about Jesus and the early Christians). The whole is arranged in approximate chronological order, giving a history of the material world from its beginning (Genesis) to future end (Revelation) [See 1611]

    405 AD Jerome completed his translation (commenced in 382) of the Bible from Hebrew and Arabic into Latin: the language common to educated christendom. It became known as the versio vulgata or Vulgate [external link   another ]

    Mythologiae (mythologies), a book accredited to the the Christian writer Fulgentius, re-told classic Greek stories of the Gods, and tried to explain them in Christian terms. - [early 5th century AD]

    410 Sack of Rome by Alaric 1

    De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii ("On the Marriage of Philology and Mercury") by Martianus Minneus Felix Capella, in which the seven female servants of Philologiae (word-love) are Grammar, who cuts out errors with her knife, Dialectic, Rhetoric, Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy and (musical) Harmony. Architecture and Medicine, were present but kept silent, because they are earthly rather than heavenly arts.

    429 Conquest of North Africa by the Vandals

    The Talmud Bavli (Babylonian Talmud) was finished in the late fifth century using document from the third to fifth centuries.

    4.9.476 Romulus Augustus, last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, deposed by Odoacer, a Germanic [Teutonic] chieftain

    476 to about 800 The European "dark ages" were so called because historians considered they were a time of ignorance and lack of progress (Webster's dictionary 1960). [In the mid-1960s I attended adult education classes about this being a mistake]

    "Among our Teutonic forefathers the village community was apparently the chief sphere of sympathy and mutual aid for the commons all through the 'dark' and middle ages" (Charles Cooley 1909)

    A graph with a broader world-view

    The graph is taken from "One Thousand Years of Missing History" by Salim Al-Hassani


    Brahmagupta `Bhillamalacarya' (589-668) Rajasthan (India). His textbook Brahmasphutasiddhanta is sometimes considered the first textbook "to treat zero as a number in its own right." It also treated negative numbers. Brahmagupta was also among the first to express equations with symbols rather than words. [See Great Mathematicians - Wikipedia - and Weber's Introduction to The Protestant Ethic... ]

    The legendary King Arthur of medieval romances is said to have led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders before his death at the Battle of Camlann about 542.

    "The Chronicles of Arthur relate how King Arthur, with the help of a Cornish carpenter, invented... the miraculous Round Table at which his knights would never come to blows... "no knight will be able to raise combat, for there the highly placed will be on the same level as the lowly"." (Mauss p.81)

    597 Augustine (of Canterbury) arrived in Kent to try to convert the inhabitants to Christianity. St Martin's Church, Cantebury, is said to have been the private chapel of Bertha, the Queen of Kent, before 597. The oldest surving Anglo-Saxon church may be the Chapel of St Peter-on-the-Wall built between 660 and 662


    "lord and serf" - "guild-masters and journeyman" -
    See feudal and feudalism

    There is well established division of European history into antiquity or the Classical Period (ancient Greece and the Roman Empire), which comes to an end about the 5th century AD, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period, which stretches from there to about the 15th century, and then Modern Civilisation. [External Link]. This last period may be what present day theorists mean by modernity.

    Foucault: Middle Ages

    External link to Fordham University's Internet Medieval Sourcebook

    James Richards (2001) of Gordon University, Georgia, maintains that European culture has a "core of recurring basic ideas, values, beliefs, and aspirations" - archive


    ARABIC CIVILISATION empire   weblinks

    26.4.571 is one date given for the birth of the prophet Muhammad

    About 570 to 632 Muhammad. The Quran, the revelations of God to Muhammad from 610 to 632, was compiled into a single book shortly after Muhammad's death. It is the primary source of Shariah law. A translation into English was made in 1734.

    11.12.630 Muhammad's army conquers Mecca, which becomes the holy city of Islam

    Pages of the Quran discovered in a Birmingham archive are written on goat or sheep skin that has been carbon dated between 568 and 645, with a probability of more than 95%.

    See The Quran: The long journey into British life

    622AD is the first year of the Hijri era used in the Islamic lunar calendar. It marks the year that Muhammad and his followers moved from Mecca to Yathrib (later Medina).

    The works of the Greeks and Egyptians originally reached Christian Europe via the translations of scholars living in muslim countries. See 8th century

    At about the time that Muhammad was born, Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms were emerging in England (external link: Anglo-Saxon Origins: The Reality of the Myth by Malcolm Todd) - archive

    Early Germanic law codes were oral compilations of custom. Under contacat with Rome, and literate civilisation, these laws began to be set down from the 7th century on. (Medieval Sourcebook)

    about 680 AD death of Caedmon, who gave birth to English poetry

    673 to 735 The Venerable Bede of Jarrow. (external link: visit his world). Bede's The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (AD 731) was the first history to use the AD dating system.

    30.4.711 Islamic leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad landed at Gibraltar and by the end of the campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula was under Islamic rule. An Islamic presence continued until 1492 when Muhammad 12th surrendered Granada.

    10.10.732 The Battle of Tours or Poitiers (Christian) or Battle of Court of the Martyrs (Muslim) held Muslim advances and helped lay the foundations of the Christian Carolingian Empire.

    751 Battle of Talas between Abbasid caliphate and Tang dynasty. The Abbasids obtained the secret of papermaking from Chinese prisoners.

    762 Abbasid caliphate established its capital at Baghdad

    Charlemagne (Charles the Great) was king of the Franks from 768 to 814

    Under slave the Oxford English Dictionary says that the Slavonic peoples were reduced to a servile state by conquest during the 9th century.

    809 to 877 Hunain ibn Ishaq who directed the translation of numerous texts from Greek to Arabic at Baghdad

    About 820 al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wa'l- muqabala (later translated into Latin as Hisab al-jabr w'al- muqabala written by Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (780 to 850). "Al'Khwarizmi was an Islamic mathematician who wrote on Hindu-Arabic numerals and was among the first to use zero as a place holder in positional base notation." The word algorithm derives from his name and the word algebra from the title of the book. (See St Andrew's biography)

    859 The University of Al-Karaouine or Al-Qarawiyyin founded at Fes in Morocco.

    From Jeff Israel's map showing pre-colonial cultures of Africa

    The Sankofa bird recovers history
    The Ghana Empire or Wagadou Empire in West Africa existed from before about 830 until about 1235)

    The history of hourglass shaped talking drums can be traced back to the Ghana Empire. [See electric telegraph]

    The Akan have roots in ancient Ghana. They may have migrated from the Sahara into the forested region around the 11th century

    868 "the 'Diamond Sutra' is the world's earliest complete survival of a dated printed book". (British Library)

    Woodblock printing made the written word available to many more people during the Tang Dynasty (618 to 907) in China

    From about 900 an English parish church was often built by the manorial lord, generally close to his house. Most would probably have been built of wood (timber), like that at Greensted in Essex whose timbers have been dated between 1063 and and 1108 (Researching the history of churches)

    987/988 Abu'l-Faraj Muhammad bin Is'haq al-Nadim's Kitab al-Fihrist "an Index of the books of all nations, Arabs and non-Arabs alike, which are extant in the Arabic language and script, on every branch of knowledge; comprising information as to their compilers and the classes of their authors, together with the genealogies of those persons, the dates of their birth, the length of their lives, the times of their death, the places to which they belonged, their merits and their faults, since the beginning or every science that has been invented down to the present epoch : namely, the year 377 of the Hijra."

    "lord and serf"
    See feudal - 1066 - and medieval
    Feudalism? Marc Bloch's Feudal Society covers the period (roughly) from the middle of the ninth century to the first decades of the 13th in western and central Europe. He divides the period into a first and second feudal age, separated by "profound and widespread changes" towards the middle of the eleventh century

    The High Middle Ages was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention end around 1500. (Wikipedia)

    The two centuries from 1000 to 1200 are a critical turning point in the Saint-Simonian system of history between the epoch with "theological" ideas and a feudal organisation of society and that with positive, scientific ideas and an industrial social organisation.

    Kalmar County Museum (Kalmar Läns Museum) in Sweden has a "Meet the Middle Ages" website that describes life in the 11th and 12th centuries.

    About 990 to 1050 Guido d'Arezzo (Guido Aretino) lived. Guido was an Italian monk trying to find ways of improving the teaching of monks to sing the Gregorian Chants that were a large part of their religious duty. He used a system of recording music as writing by arranging symbols for notes on either side of a line (later lines) so that, if you understood the notation you could sing the music. As music became writing it became possible to compose on paper instead of having to work as a group developing and transmitting it. Writing music created a system of concepts for the analysis and manipulation of a sphere of deep sensual experience believed to be sacred. It was part of the development of rational analysis out of religious tradition in Europe.

    1021 Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics in Iraq.

    1066 Norman conquest of England

    ["A Norman Ship" drawing by C.H.B. Quennell. In ships like this the last succesful invaders crossed the channel]

    See French - Latin - Old English

    A new society "knit together by the firm organisation of the
    feudal system" (Quennell 1948, vol. 1, pp 1-2)

    1086 " William 1st commissioned a detailed inventory of all the land and property in England and Wales. The results of this first major statistical enumeration were set out in the Domesday Book" - First entry UK Statistical System Timeline

    1088 Convenience date for the foundation of the University of Bologna, Italy - the first in Europe. See L'Antico Studio di Bologna But where is it? by Mary Tolaro Noyes, January 1996 and Wikipedia article on universities
    See Paris and Oxford - 13th century - 14th century - 15th century

    Late 11th century on: European translations from Arabic into Latin of Greek authors, including the anatomist, Galen

    1095 Pope Urban 2nd called upon all Christians to join a war against the Turks. First of the Christian Crusades against the Muslims that ended in the late 13th century. See Wikipedia articles on Crusades.

    1048-1131 Omar Khayyám - Persian philosopher - Author of Al-jabr wal mugabalah of Omar Khayyam, a Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra - and of the poems known as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

    "towards the 12th century Carolingian script was replaced by a heavier, more pointed Gothic style. One of the reasons for this was that quill pens began to be cut at an angle, making it easier to produce these shapes." [External Link]. The term gothic (German) was used in the 17th century to distinguish this style of writing from the (French) Carolingian. Gothic then was applied to the architecture of the period.

    About 1120 Euclid rediscovered

    1130-1200 Life of Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi), Chinese neo- Confucian philosopher who wrote:
    "I have seen on high mountains conchs and oyster shells, often embedded in the rocks. These rocks in ancient times were earth and mud, and the conchs and .and oysters lived in water, Subsequently everything that was at the bottom came to be at the top, and what was originally soft became solid and hard"
    See William Smith 1815

    A Common Law for England: Henry 2nd (ruled 1154-1189) established royal courts at Westminster and divided England into circuits, over which his judges travelled and tried the more important civil and criminal cases in county courts. The judges did not impose a law from above, but brought together the traditional law they found in the different parts of the country to create one law that was common for the whole nation. To establish what the law of a district was, the traditional practice of trial by a jury of local people was revived. See law and crime time line

    Jews were encouraged by Henty 2nd to settle in England's towns. They were a source of finance and taxation.

    Before 1170? The University of Paris developed out of the Cathedral schools of Notre Dame. The short history of Oxford University says it (Oxford) developed rapidly after 1167, when Henry 2nd "banned English students from attending the University of Paris".

    1175 Ptolemy rediscovered

    Friday 2.10.1187 Fall of Jerusalem to Salah ad-Din

    1189 English king Richard 1st succeeded Henry 2nd. Time of "legal memory".

    16.3.1190 The entire Jewish community of York (about 150) died in attacks on the Royal Castle at York, where they had taken refuge.

    about 1199 Peter of Blois, archdeacon of London, stated in a letter to Pope Innocent 3rd that the City of London contained 120 parish churches and 40,000 inhabitants. (About the size of Ramsgate, Kent, in 2011). Charles Creighton in 1891 suggested that the population of London from Richard 1st to Henry 7th (about 300 years) varied between about forty to fifty thousand. See 1532 - 1602 - 1724 - 1801 - 1931 - 1945

    "guild-masters and journeyman"

    The Early English Period was the 13th century acording to Panoyre and Ryan 1958 or the reign of Richard 1st to 1307 according to the oriinator of the term Thomas Rickman

    " Towns were growing rapidly... banded together in gilds [guilds] craftsmen and merchants grew powerful" (Quennell 1948, vol. 1, pp 68-2). In a craft guild, a worker started as an apprentice (unpaid trainee), might become a journeyman (paid by the day), and finally might become a master.

    Universities founded at Cambridge (1209) - Salamanca (1218) - Padua (1222) - Naples (1224) - Toulouse (1229) - Siena (1240) - Montpellier (1289) - Lisbon (1290)

    1213 Magna Charta

    1220 Start of the building of the (new) Salisbury Cathedral - the one we now have. It took about hundred years to build. [external link]. The Norman Westminster Abbey was replaced in the middle of the 13th century. The oldest parts of the present building date from this period. [external link]

    1225 to 1274 Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas created a synthesis between Christian theology and Aristotelianism. He asserted that political power is natural, as hierarchic relations already exist among the angels in heaven.

    1253 A reference to "Secole lan' extra Neugat' in suburbio London" in connection with a Charter of Henry 3rd is one of the clues that suggests coal was brought from north-east England to London by boat in the thirteenth century.


    "To the Sheriffs of London, 23 July, 1264 Contrabreve to purvey for the King in the City of London without delay and without fail a boat- load of sea-coal and four millstones for the King's mills in Windsor Castle and convey them thither by water for delivery to the constable of the castle."

    1271 Last of the Christian Crusades against the Muslims.

    ["A Thirteenth Century Ship" drawing by C.H.B. Quennell. In ships like this Christians sailed to fight what they regarded as holy wars against Islam. The drawing is based on the Dover seal of 1284]

    By 1291 muslims had re-captured all the territory in Syria held by the Crusaders

    This is a war ship with castles at each end from which bowmen would shoot arrows. Quennell comments on the influence of tall Mediterranean ship design on
    northern ship design allowing archers to shoot down on lower ships. The steering is still by rowers rather than rudders.

    Early English parish chirch from Panoyre and Ryan 1958

    about 1275 "Holy church is a house of prayer, born of heaven Christ does it call, to worship therein our saviour".

    1290 Edward 1st's Edict of Expulsion expelled all Jews from England. Jews did not return until 1657.

    1299 Osman I declared himself Sultan. His territories became known as the Ottoman Empire. Centred in what we now know as Turkey, The (Islamic) Ottoman Empire established itself in Asia, Europe and Africa. Constantinople, the capital of the (Christian) Byzantine Empire, was captured by the Ottoman Empire in 1453

    1245-1322 Life of Ma Duanlin 1245-1322, Chinese writer who wrote the Wenxian Tongkao [Wen-tong-hian-kao]

    Edward 2nd ruled England from 1307 to 1327

    Europe: The Renaissance (cultural rebirth) is generally regarded as beginning in Florence, Italy, in the early 14th century. However, some historians speak of an earlier renaissance in 9th century France.

    "The civilisation of Greece and Rome, which ever since the fourteenth century obtained so powerful a hold on Italian life, as the source and basis of culture, as the object and ideal of existence, partly also as an avowed reaction against preceding tendencies - this civilisation had long been exerting a partial influence on medieval Europe, even beyond the boundaries of Italy. The culture of which Charles the Great was a representative, in the face of the barbarism of the seventh and eighth centuries, essentially a Renaissance, and could appear under no other form. Just as in the Romanesque architecture of the North, beside the general outlines inherited from antiquity, remarkable direct imitations of the antique also occur, so to monastic scholarship had not only gradually absorbed an immense mass of materials from Roman writers, but the style of it, from the days of Eginhard onward, shows traces of conscious imitations." (Burckhardt, J. 1960 pp 176 and 178. See also p.5.)

    Oxford English Dictionary: Renaissance "The revival of art and literature under the influence of classical models between the 14th and 16th centuries, begun in Italy; the period of this movement". Mid 19th century term

    Universities founded at Rome in 1303 - Prague in 1348 (external link) - Krakow in 1364 (external link) - Vienna in 1365 (external link) - Heidelberg in 1386 (external link) - Erfurt in 1379 - Cologne in 1388 (external link)

    Illustration of Reeve and Serfs in August calendar of a Psalter (now known as Queen Mary's) produced about 1310-1320 and now in the British Library.

    1327 Edward 3rd king of England aged 14, following his father being deposed.

    1337 Conflict between Edward 3rd of England and Philip 6th of France over feudal rights in France led to the start of the "hundred years' war"

    1340 Edward 3rd of England asserted his claim to be king of France
    1347-1350 Black Death (Bubonic Plague) in Europe. "In England it reached a peak in July 1349"... "between a third and a half of the population died, the total falling from about 4.7 million to about 2 million, with a consequential severe shortage of labour." (Michael Warren). Further outbreaks (England) in 1361-1362, 1369, 1379-1383, 1389-1393, and during first half of the 15th century.
    ["A Fourteenth Century Ship" drawing by
    C.H.B. Quennell. In ships like this rats and fleas brought the bubonic plague]

    1349 English "Ordinance of Labourers"

    Ornamental gardens and civilisation

    "The creation of ornamental gardens indicates a degree of civilisation and a settled economy.... Such conditions had obtained in China long before the Christian era and also for a long time in Persia, whence they spread to Turkey about A.D. 1360." Richard Gorer The Growth of Gardens 1978, page 38.

    1362 The English Statute of Pleading required English as the language of the courts

    1362 Piers Plowman by William Langland published. New versions were published in 1377 and 1392.

    Mental Health 1377 Bethlem

    1381 Peasants' revolt in England

    1384? Completion of the translation of the Vulgate into English now known as the Wycliffe Bible. Wycliffe Bibles are the most common manuscript literature in Middle English. Over 250 of them survive. Those who believed that the Bible could be interpreted directly by lay people, without the intervention of the church, became known as lollards.

    1387 Geoffrey Chaucer (1328-1400) started writing The Canterbury Tales. The East Midland dialect he wrote in became the basis from which standard English evolved.

    Before the age of printing
    Rhymers like Geoffrey Chaucer
    Were needed to preserve in public verse
    The life of the people.
    Whilst in the monasteries
    Chorister's memory preserved
    Plain song, whose metrical rhythm
    Underpinned the mathematics still to come.
    And in ways like this, modern science
    Was made possible by medieval poetry.

    Although she was the daughter of a town Mayor, Margery Kempe (about 1373-1438) was unable to read and write, but heard many sermons, and books read. When she came to write her book, she dictated it.

    1389 Death of Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari (born 1318), founder of the Sufi Muslim order known as the Naqshbandi.


      From Robin Rowles:

    "I am puzzled as to why you think that from AD1 (alleged year of birth of Jesus called the Christ) to AD99 is a century. At best it is 99 years and were Jesus to have been born in December AD1 as we celebrate it (unlikely), it is nearer 98 years. Why is the (eg) seventeenth century so called? Because it ends with 1700 so that is what it is! Mind you, this is a common mistake, after all the entire world celebrated the millennium a year early so you are not alone!"


    A schoolman is a teacher in any of the universities of medieval Europe - a medieval scholastic - someone versed in the traditional philosophy and theology of medieval scholasticism. The terms were developed in the 16th and 17th centuries to distinguish old knowledge from new knowledge.

    Scholasticism by Joseph Rickaby, Oxford, 1908

    Wikipedia article on scholasticism

    John Stuart Mill on importance of

    The ancient regime in France ended with the French Revolution in 1789. It is the revolutionaries term for the social and political order they abolished. But when did it begin? Wikipedia dates it from the 15th century. Others date it from 1610 France


    Mental Health 1409 Spain

    Universities founded at Leipzig in 1409 (external link) - St Andrews (1413) - Rostock (1419) - Leuven (1425) - Bordeaux (1441) - Barcelona (1450) - Glasgow (1451) - Greifswald (1456) - Bratislava (1465) - Uppsala (1477) - Copenhagen (1479) - Aberdeen (1495)

    1413-1415 Margery Kempe's pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
    She sailed from Norfolk to the continent in the Autumn of 1413 and followed the Rhine River to Switzerland, and then followed paths over the Alps to Italy, arriving in Venice in January 1414 and spent thirteen weeks, leaving in April 1414.
    She travelled from Venice to the Holy Land by sailing in a galley (a ship moved mainly by oars) probably to Jaffa, arriving in May. On a mule or donkey she travelled through Ramlah to Jerusalem and visited Bethlehem. Returning to Italy she stayed in Assisi before going to Rome, where she arrived in September 1414. Leaving Rome in Easter 1415, she travelled home though Middelburg (in today's Netherlands), and sailed from Zealand to England (probably Yarmouth) on a two day voyage in a small ship in mid-May 1415. (Sources 1 - 2)

    1422 to 1509 Paston family letters

    Burgess and Locke (1945) (p.20) say these give a "clear picture" of "the small patriarchal family of medieval society" in which " marriage was arranged by parents with stress upon economic rather than romantic considerations". See Die Familie (1912)

    2.4.1453-29.5.1453 Siege and fall of Constantinople: The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror ended the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman) Empire after more than a thousand years by capturing the capital, Constantinople Consequent closure of the traditional overland route from Western Europe to the Far East.

    Ancient civilisations, like that of Greece were made possible by slavery. In western Europe this method of production gave way to feudal relations and then to free labour. But, as free labour developed in Europe, Europe developed slave labour abroad. From the 15th century, a system of colonial slavery was developed by the European powers. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the theoretical analysis of slavery played an important part in the development of social science. In the 18th and early 19th century, these theoretical developments, in their turn, played an important part in undermining the colonial slavery that Europe had established throughout her colonies.

    1447 to 1455: Pope Nicholas 5th authorised the Portuguese, and others, to make war on muslims and pagans, and to make them slaves. He applauded the trade in negroes, and hoped that it would end in their conversion.

    "many Guineamen and other negroes, taken by force, and some by barter of unprohibited articles, or by other lawful contract of purchase, have been sent to the said kingdoms. A large number of these have been converted to the Catholic faith" (The Bull Romanus Pontifex (Nicholas 5), 8,1.1455)

    About 1450 Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press (but see China) - Which is probably why the middle of the 15th century is the most popular date for starting "modern history" (see above) - Another suggested start is towards the end of the sixtenth century - - Although the Penguin Dictionary of Modern History starts in 1789 (and finishes in 1945!)
    See Diamond Sutra - printed Euclid - English New Testament - printed Herbals - Copernicus - London 1635 - Beccaria: Printing enables human rights

    In 1456 a comet appeared sufficiently brilliant for Pope Calixtus third to issue a declaration against "the Devil, the Turk and the comet". (Story possibly untrue). Detailed observations were made by Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli in Florence from 8.6.1456 to 8.7.1456. Not available to Halley, they were rediscovered in 1864 and allowed Giovanni Celoria to establish the comet's 1456 orbit with great precision. (Perihelion: 9.6.1456)

    1476 William Caxton established a printing press at Westmenster in England where he first printed an edition of Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales

    The first printed edition of Euclid was a translation from arabic into latin in 1482

    22.8.1485 Battle of Bosworth Field. Richard 3rd, last of the Plantagenets, replaced by Henry 7th, first of the English Tudor monarchs. A skeleton believed to be that of Richard 3rd was disinterred in Leicester in September 2012. Richard's identity was "proved" by his mitochondrial DNA, handed down in an unbroken chain through the female line from his sister to two living relatives.
    Death and Humility: Richard 3rd and the Historical Desecration of Corpses by Sarah Bond. "Accounts of the battle do hint at degradation of his body".

    1488 The rounding of the Cape of Good Hope by the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias was a significant step in establishing a sea route, round Africa, from Europe to India and the far east.

    1492 Christopher Columbus's first voyage to America. He visited Haiti. America

    On behalf of Spain, Columbus made four voyages to America

    ["Ship of the time of Christopher Columbus" drawing by
    C.H.B. Quennell, who argues that the "development of trade meant a corresponding improvement in ships" (p.186). Columbus's flagship, the Santa Maria, was about 93 feet long and 25 feet broad.]

    23.11.1492 "The Indians aboard call this Bohio and say it is very large and has people there with one eye in the forehead, as well as others they call cannibals, of whom they show great fear. When they saw I was taking that course, they were too afraid to talk. They say that the cannibals eat people and are well armed" [Log entry of Christopher Columbus translated by Robert H. Fuson 1992. p.115 source]

    1493 Pope Alexander 6th apportioned the non-European world west of the Azores to Spain, that east of the Azores to Portugal. The grant was conditional on their converting the natives to Christianity.

    Marx and Engels wrote in the Communist Manifesto (1848) that "Modern industry has established the world market, for which the discovery of America paved the way". An earlier passage, however, also includes the opening of the Indian and Chinese markets.

    1494 ship of fools

    Part of the Hunt of the Unicorn tapestry, dyed with weld (yellow), madder (red), and woad (blue). Dating from between 1495 and 1505

    Bethlem 2015 "The earliest recorded uses of colour by man were from pigments from plant extracts".



    The transport of Africans to the West Indies, as slaves, began early in the 16th century. Slave ships made a triangular run. They took a cargo of manufactured goods (see Bristol 1746) from their European home port to the west African coast, where this was bartered for slaves and other produce. With slaves packed in the cargo holds, the ships than went across the Atlantic (the Middle Passage - where some cargo died) to colonies in the Caribbean and on mainland America. Slave were there auctioned and mainly became plantation workers. The ships returned to their European home with goods like cotton, sugar, coffee and tobacco.

    Early in the 16th century, Paracelsus (1493-1541) studied alchemy and chemistry at Basel University and learned the properties of metals and minerals in mines. His unorthodox mystical theories lost him the position of town physician of Basel (1526-1528), but through empirical experiment in pursuit of his dreams he made new chemical compounds and changed medicine and pharmacy. (See mental health history)

    1513 Niccolò Machiavelli's manuscript De Principatibus (About Principalities) circulating. Published in 1532 as Il Principe (The Prince)

    1517 The publication of Luther's ninety-five theses became the official launch of protestant christianity. The Bible was given priority over the church as the source of authority. The scope for religious disagreements multiplied as more and more people were able to read it for themselves. The movement for the reform of the Catholic (universal) church and the breakaway of protestant and reformed churches is called The Reformation.

    1518: Royal College of Physicians founded

    1525 William Tyndale's The New Testament in English printed in Germany and shipped into England against official hostility

    1525 An anonymous herbal, an English translation of an unknown manuscript, published by the London printer, Richard Banckes, was the first English printed herbal. It was small, without illustrations, and therefore relatively cheap.

    about 1525 An alphabetical list of herbs 'necessary for a garden' compiled for Thomas Fromond (Surrey landowner, died 1543. Alphabetical list followed by groups of plants for specific purposes and by plants for a pleasure garden. First clear indication of gardens soley for pleasure in Britain. (Harvey 1989)

    1528 Copernicus finished a book arguing that the earth goes round the sun, not the sun round the earth. The first printed copy was in 1543 (see Galileo)

    26.8.1531 Perihelion of a comet that had appeared in the sky above the earth. Peter Apian had observed that the comet's tail was always oriented into the direction away from the sun.

    November 1532 Bills of mortality were produced intermittently in the several parishes of the City of London during outbreaks of plague. The first bill of mortality is believed to date from November 1532. Working with the data that is available from this date, Charles Creighton in 1891 made to following estimates of the growth in London's population: 1532-1535: 62,400 1563: 93,276 1580: 123,034 1593-1595: 152,478 1605: 224,275 1622: 272,207 1634: 339,824 1661: 460,000

    Creighton (p.481) says the earlies figures (1532 and 1535) were produced to see if London was safe for King Henry 8th and his court.

    England breaks from Rome

    November 1534 Act of Supremacy established Henry 8th as head of the Church of England

    1534 - 1543 Travels around England of John Leland. "The advent of the first English antiquary... may, if we wish, be taken for a sign that the Middle Ages were indeed passing away and becoming matter for retrospect". (Trevelyan, G.M. 1942 p.99)

    1535 Coverdale's Bible. Ecclesiasticus 39:13 calls on people to flourish (flower) "as the rose garden", sing a song of praise.

    1536 Latin publication of John Calvin's Institution of the Christian religion: embracing almost the whole sum of piety and whatever is necessary to know the doctrine of salvation. French translation in 1541. Weber says that "the gracious and kindly father of the New Testament... dominates the first books of the Institutio Christiana, and behind him the Deus absconditus as an arbitrary despot"

    29.9.1538 Parish registers for every church ordered to be kept in England, recording "the day and year of every wedding, christening and burying".


    Sebastian Cabot's map of the world

    1548 According to Edward Step in 1903: "The Oriental Plane is popularly supposed to have been introduced to England from the Levant by Francis Bacon, but if Loudon's statement that it was "in British gardens before 1548" rests on good evidence, Bacon's claim is dismissed, for he was not "introduced" until 1561."

    Step in 1903 suggests the oriental (eastern) and occidental (western) planes could be treated as "two varieties of one species". The form then (1903) familiar in London, known as the "Maple-leaved Plane" being a variety of the eastern whose leaves approached the form of the western. In the 1941 revision the London Plane is presented as a hybrid of the eastern and western appearing in 1670.

    Division of labour and manufacture: "That co-operation which is based on division of labour, assumes its typical form in manufacture, and is the prevalent characteristic form of the capitalist process of production throughout the manufacturing period properly so called. That period, roughly speaking, extends from the middle of the 16th to the last third of the 18th century". (Marx 1867 chapter 16). One of Marx's main examples is the division of labour in the manufacture of needles. (Compare Adam Smith and pins). See also Communist Manifesto

    1557 "Because no two things can be more equal" than two parallel line segments of the same length, Robert Recorde used the sign = for equals (As in 2+3=5). Recorde wrote all his mathematics texts in English, using clear and simple expressions. O'Connor and Robertson say that "Recorde virtually established the English school of mathematics and first introduced algebra into England". However, the = symbol was not widely used until the eighteenth century (See Euler in 1765, whe explains terms such as +, - and =)

    1558 Elizabeth 1st queen of England and Wales from 1558 to 1604, in succession to Mary. Elizabethan domestic architecture might use brick or stone or timber frames according to local materials. In London, narrow, timber framed houses commonly overhung the streets with each story wider than the one beneath.
    1559 The earliest surviving map of London depicts the crowded city and its suburbs just outside the wall.

    11.11.1563 Council of Trent doctrines on matrimony and celibacy.

    In the second half of the sixteenth century the words negro and niger entered the English language. Niger meant black in Latin. From it derived Negro as black in Spanish and Portuguese. In the 15th century this had come to mean black people, especially African people from south of the Sahara. Due to colonial slavery, negro was also used for slaves, as when a writer in 1589 writes of "Spaniards, with their servants and Negroes".

    1562 Commotion when a needle is lost. This tool was precious. "Until far on in the sixteenth century, there was not a needle to be had but of foreign manufacture" (Stone 1840)

    "A lytle thing with an hole in the end, as bright as any syller,
    Small, longe, sharpe at the poynt, and straight as any pyller."
    [ Gammer Gurton's Needle

    1566 to 1568 Start of "the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain" - See 1648

    1570 I quattro libri dell'architettura (The Four Books of Architecture) published in Venice by Andrea Palladio (1508-1580).

    Palladio derived laws of architectural proportion for the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. He set out the principles for buildings in the "classical era" which has been dated as between 1620 and 1800 in England.

    According to Zygmunt Bauman and Timothy May, "It was roughly towards the end of the sixteenth century that in parts of western Europe" a picture of the social world as naturally ordered "began to fall apart". (Bauman, Z. and May, T. 2001 p.117) - See nature and culture. Before this time, they say, is "often referred to as 'pre-modern'. The modern period "established itself in the western world approximately three centuries ago" (1700), so the 17th century is their century of transition.

    In th history of social theory, we could relate the transition between "pictures of the social world" to the publication of Bodin's Six Livres de la Republique.

    1577 Jean Bodin published Six Livres de la Republique, the first major systematic treatment of politics since Aristotle. He argued that property and the family form the basis of society. His arguments from the material world (in contrast to Aquinas who argues from theology) make him a founder of the philosophical approach to social theory known as state of nature theory.

    Marx and Engels argued that one of the qualifications required by science is that its theories should start from material premises rather than theological ones. In this sense, Bodin is one of the earliest founders of social science.

    1578 There is a series of tables showing weekly christenings and burials (from plague and other causes) in London for the five years from 1578 to 1582. Creighton (p.479) says "everyone was christened in church under Elizabeth, and there were no Dissenters' burial grounds".

    1579 The Shepheardes Calender with twelve pastoral poems, one to each month, by Edmund Spenser. Woodcut for May. In the woodcuts, astrological signs represent heaven above the earth. See 1597 and 1632.

    1580 to 1640 Indigenous populations in Mexico declining due to new infectious diseases. Africans brought to Spanish colonies in deals with the Portuguese, who controlled the African slave market. See "The black people 'erased from history'" and Afro-Mexicans

    Filmer (author of Patriarcha) and Thomas Hobbes (author of Leviathan) born

    1593 to 1597 Richard Hooker published the first five volumes of his
    Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity. These argued that the Bible is not the only guide to truth that God has provided, because God has established the universe according to laws and provided human beings with reason by which they can discover those laws. Three other volumes were published after Hooker's death. Locke's arguments in his Two Treatises of Government, and elsewhere, have strong similarities with Hooker's.

    Rene Descartes born

    1597 William Shakespeare, in Merchant of Venice describes the music that the heavenly spheres create as they circle the earth. See Copernicus

    1597 John Gerard's (1545 - 1611 or 1612)'s Great Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes. Enlarged and revised by Thomas Johnson (Died 1644, probably aged under 44) in 1633 (also re-published 1636).

    1598 In Catholic France, Henry 4th enacted the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to the Protestants. He was assassinated by a Catholic in 1610. France

    1598 James 6 of Scotland (James 1 of England) published The True Law of Free Monarchies. Theories from this and other writings of the king were used by Filmer.

    1598 First publication of John Stow's A Survey of London - See mental health timeline


    In his play, As You Like It, William Shakespeare said that the whole social world is a stage on which the same people play different parts at different times. This is the basic idea of role theory, later developed by social scientists. The same passage defines the "seven ages of man".

    In Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar, Cassius says "Men at some time were masters of their fates. The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, But in ourselves that we are underlings."

    John Donne "To his mistress going to bed", sometime late 16th century

    "In this love's hallowed temple, this soft bed.
    "... thou, Angel, bring'st with thee
    "A heaven like
    Mahomet's Paradise;

    "License my roving hands, and let them go
    "Before, behind, between, above, below.
    "O my America! my new-found-land,


    See Social Science History, chapter two:
    Hobbes, Filmer and Locke:
    17th Century Models for a Science of Society

    1600 William Gilbert in De Magnete coined the word "electrica" for "quae attrahunt eadem ratione vt electrum" (that which attracts in the same manner as amber). His word referred only to the property of attracting lightweight objects, which we now call static electricity. As the science of electricity developed, so the word took on expanded meaning.

    1601 Elizabethan Poor Law under which each parish was responsible for looking after its own poor.

    1603 Death of Elizabeth 1. James 6 of Scotland became James 1 of England

    Brick replacing timber: English Heritage describe brick buildings being built in 17th century London as small groups of two or three in streets, yards, and alleys, and as ribbon development along the main raods. They were not just houses, but workshops, offices, shops, and taverns, each with a rear private space used either as a garden or as a backyard for trade or washing. Few survive. See 1666

    1603 Christopher Heydon's A Defence of Judicial Astrology argued, against John Chamber's A Treatise Against Judicial Astrology (1601), that astrology is a valid science, supported by experience. Natural astrology argued that the position of the stars influenced nature, judicial astrology that they influenced individuals and society. Astrology adopted the idea of crises:

    "When the moon comes to the 22 of Gemini, she shall there begin to work a dangerous crisis, or alteration .. so preventing her ordinary working" (Heydon)

    1603 Shakespeare's The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice includes the phrase "making the beast with two backs"

    1604/1605 Shakespeare's All's Well that Ends Well. Critics have never been sure if it ends well or badly. It includes a weaving analogy

    "The web of our life is of a mingled yarn, good and
    ill together: our virtues would be proud, if our
    faults whipped them not; and our crimes would
    despair, if they were not cherished by our virtues."

    Shakespeare's Macbeth, cannot be dated precisely, but appears to many to be celebrating King James's ancestors and the Stuart accession to the throne in 1603. Some have suggested their are allusions to the Gunpowder plot. (Wikipedia)

    The character of Lady Macbeth was used by Lombroso in 1876 as evidence for his conclusion that "violent women far exceed men in their ferocity and cruelly".

    Johannes Kepler recorded his observations of a comet at Prague from 26.9.1607 to 26.10.1607 and Christian Longmontanus at Malmo and Copenhagen from 1.10.1607 to 26.10.1607. (Perihelion: 27.10.1607 at at 2° 16' Aquarius). These observations were later used by William Halley.

    The summer of 1607 by Able Grimmer of Antwerp

    1609 Comentarios Reales de los Incas by Garcilaso de la Vega (1539-1616) published in Lisbon. Garcilaso de la Vega was the son of a Spanish conquistador and an Inca noblewoman and his book is based on stories he had been told by his Inca relatives.

    21.3.1610 Speech to Parliament in which King James said "kings are not only God's lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon God's throne, but even by God himself they are called gods". (external link)

    14.5.1610 Francois Ravaillac assasinated Henry 4th of France. Henry's widow initially acted as Regent for their son, Louis 13th. Under the guidance of his minister, Cardinal Richelieu, Henry 13th consolidated his royal power. An "absolute monarchy" was established in France in his reign and that of his son, Louis 14th. France

    1611 Official (King James or Authorised) version of the Bible in English published. [See 393] The Bible story is largely chronological - beginning with the genesis of the world and ending with divine revelation of its end. It provided the framework for many historical explanations of nature and society. Usher gave it precise dates. For generations this book, more then any other, provided the English speaking peoples with poetry, history, religion, politics, ethics, names, imagery and visions, as well as a framework for natural and social science. Its downfall as the basis of science in the 19th century was a cultural cataclysm. However, the Bible, critically read, continued to be a major source of material for emerging social sciences such as anthropology.

    The Westminster Confession (1647/1648) effectively, although only for a short time, set the Bible up against the King: Which was not what James had intended!

    1613 Francisco de Suarez, a Spanish Catholic theologian, published Defensio Fidei Catholicae, criticising James 1st's theory of the divine right of kings. Saurez's book was burned in London.

    1614 In France, the Queen Regent called the States General (a representative body like the English parliament) together in an effort to counter the power of the nobility. It was dismissed in 1615, and did not meet again until 1789 France

    1618 Start of the thirty years war that concluded with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648

    Inigo Jones finished the Queen's House in Greenwich, England, in 1619

    Picture from Panoyre and Ryan 1958 p.118, who date the "buildings of the classical era" (in Britain) from 1620 to 1800

    1620 Francis Bacon published Novum Organum, one of the works in which he publicised his new method of gaining knowledge (science) by a process of induction.

    Francis Bacon was the Lord Chancellor of England from 1617 to 1621. On 16.6.1620 he and others recommended that the Attorney General, Henry Yelverton, should be tried in the Star-chamber on the ground of having officially passed a charter to the city of London containing unauthorised provisions. "James 1 was always in want of money, and not over nice in his methods of raising it" (Edward O'Donoghue 1914)

    1621 Oxford Physic Garden founded by Henry Danvers, Earl of Danby, See 1632. Renamed the Oxford Botanic Garden in 1840.

    12.9.1621 A light display in the sky witnessed by Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) and Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) led them to use the term aurora borealis: northern light or northern dawn. The next one so far south was in 1716.

    1623 Probably after this date that Hobbes translated several of Bacon's essays into Latin and took down his thoughts as Bacon dictated them.

    See Social Science History, chapter one:
    John Stuart Mill and his problems with Francis Bacon

    1623 Devotions upon Emergent Occasions by John Donne: "No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friend's or of thine own were: any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee." (Meditation 17)

    1624 Njinga Mbandi (born 1581) took power and became queen of Ndongo and Matamba. She "defined much of the history of seventeenth- century Angola". Her tactics in warfare and espionage, her diplomatic skills, her ability to forge numerous strategic alliances, and her knowledge of trade and religious issues served her well in tenaciously resisting Portugal's colonialist aspirations until her death in 1663" (UNESCO "Women in African History: An E-Learning Tool", launched 12.11.2013)

    1625 Charles 1st succeded James 1st. See Richard Cust The Personality and Political Style of Charles 1. "His reform of the royal court ... introduced a style of ritual similar to Louis 14th's Versailles in an attempt to create an ideal society for his subjects to emulate" [That is, the dramaturgical procedures of the English court preceded those of the French]

    1625 De Jure Belli ac Pacis (On the Law of War and Peace) by Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) published. "He wrote this volume while the Thirty Years' War raged around him in the hope that rational human beings might be able to agree to legal limits on war's destruction."


    17.3.1628 Benjamin Rudyerd in the English House of Commons: "This is the crisis of Parliaments: we shall know by this if parliaments live or die. If we persevere, the King to draw one way, the parliament another, the Commonwealth must sink in the midst."


    Charles 1st decided to rule without Parliament. Parliament was not recalled until 1640

    1629 John Parkinson's Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris Or A garden of all sorts of pleasant flowers which our English air will permit to be nursed up. With a kitchen garden of all manner of herbs, roots and fruits, for meat or sauce used with us, and an orchard of all sort of fruitbearing trees and shrubs fit for our land. Together with the right ordering, planting and preserving of them and their uses and virtues Collected by John Parkinson Apothecary of London.


    In Italy Galileo published his A Dialogue on the Two Principal Systems of the World-Ptolemaic and Copernican.   See Ptolemy and Copernicus. Notes on Hobbes and Galileo and Hobbes on Deductions from simple axioms

    The Latin edition (engraving left) was published in 1635, making the book international. In the engraving, Aristotle discusses with Ptolemy (holding an earth centred universe) and Copernicus (whose earth circles the sun)

    If Copernicus was right, where is heaven?

    1632 Inscription on the new gate to the Oxford Physic Garden "Gloriae Dei optimi maximi Honori Caroli I. Regis in Usum Academiae et Reipublicae Henricus Comes Danby, Anno 1632". [To the glory of God and the greatest honour of King Charles I Henry Earl of Danby for the use of both the University and the state in the year 1632]. (source)

    1632 John Locke (author of Two Treatises of Government) born

    1633 In Johnson's edition of Gerard's Herbal he describes two small plants of the American or Western (Occidental) Plane growing in John Tradescant's garden in Lambeth. (Louden 1836). It has been inferred that Tradescant (the younger?) brought seed to England about 1630. See 1670


    In 1635 there were twenty two master printers of London - Some licensed, some not survivors' history

    31.7.1635 Royal proclamation "For settling of the letter Office of England and Scotland". Origin of the public post office in Britain.

    1637 In France, René Descartes published Discourse de la méthod, a slim book in which he argued reason as the foundation of knowledge and the source of certainty. He also reviewed his previous argument that the body is a machine which, in humans, but not animals, is directed by the soul.


    November 1640 Hobbes left England to live in Paris because he thought parliament might arrest him as a supporter of the king's powers against parliament.


    Newton born


    Saint Simon refers to "the two English revolutions of the 17th century". One I take to be the civil war and the other the bloodless revolution of 1688 [See revolution]

    November 1642 English civil war began between Charles 1st and parliament over the power of each. [See Hobbes, Filmer and Locke]

    1643 Filmer arrested by Parliamentary forces and kept for several months in Leeds Castle, Kent. It is not clear how much of 1643-1647 he was imprisoned, but he was at liberty in 1647

    In 1644 the seven General Baptist churches issued the London Confession which said that men must be allowed to obey their own conscience and understanding. In 1647 George Fox (Quaker) began preaching under the conviction of the "inner light". The civil war, and the republican Commonwealth that followed it, were a period of intense religious ferment, individual thought and social disorder. Knowledge by the inner inspiration of God was known as "enthusiasm". Locke's Essay on Understanding (1690) sought to establish science as a common knowledge that could control the divisiveness of enthusiasm.


    19.2.1645 New Model Army Ordinance. "The scoutmaster-general ... was responsible for reconnaissance and collecting intelligence on enemy movements".

    1646 In Paris Hobbes became mathematical tutor to the exiled Prince of Wales (later Charles 2nd)

    May 1646 King Charles 1st surrenders himself to the Scottish Covenanters, who ally with the English Parliament in the summer. He is still King - But from now on he is a king under duress. From June 1646 he was held by the army. He is still free enough (in prison on the Isle of Wight) to initiate a new civil war by a concluding a military alliance with the Scottish Covenanters that threatened the English Parliament - 1647/1648. (See Open University Civil War Timeline) - archive

    1647/1648 The Westminster Confession: An official document (no longer official in England after 1660) specifying the Bible as a foundation of belief superior to (though not, presumably, contradicted by) nature. [External link to Michael Marlow's introduction]

    1648 Filmer published political pamphlets in support of absolute monarchy and the divine right of king's

    30.1.1648 End of the war between Spain and the Netherlands. Treaty of Münster signed 15.5.1648 (first of the Peace of Westphalia treaties). Karl Marx referred to "the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain" as the "only model" for the English revolution of 1648. The revolt had begun in 1566/1568. [See revolution]

    May to October 1648 Peace of Westphalia - It is argued that the peace treaties recognised the territorial integrity of nation states.


    17.8.1648 - 19.8.1648 Battle of Preston (Lancashire). The New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell defeated the Royalists and Scots commanded by the Duke of Hamilton. End of the Second English Civil War.

    6.12.1648 Begining of "Pride's Purge" removing members of Parliament sympathetic to King Charles and leading to the declaration of a republic. Karl Marx refers to an "English revolution of 1648" in which "the bourgeoisie was allied with the modern aristocracy against the monarchy, the feudal aristocracy and the established church." [See revolution]. The purged parliament is known as the Rump Parliament.

    30.1.1649 Execution of Charles 1st.

    From a German engraving published in 1649.
    Abolition of the monarchy and the House of Lords in England. Commonwealth established. Under the Commonwealth Filmer lost some of his property as a result of his loyalty to the king

    The Interregnum (period between reigns) was a republican period in the England, Ireland and Scotland, ending with the restoration of Charles 2nd in 1660

    1650 Rene Descartes died

    Between 1650 and 1654, James Usher's Annales Veteris at Novi Testamenti (years of the old and new testaments) dated the events in the Bible. The creation was fixed as taking place in 4,004 BC. Usher's dates were not only printed in the margins of many Bibles, but were accepted as scientific for a long time.

    April 1651 Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan or The Matter, Form and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiastical and Civil published in London (Hobbes still in France). It distressed some of his previous supporters because it defended absolute rule, but not necessarily monarchical rule.

    Lecture notes on Hobbes
    Social Science History, chapter two: Hobbes, Filmer and Locke
    Extracts from Leviathan
    Hobbes weblinks

    Louise 14th and absolutism France
    7.9.1651 Procession to mark the formal ending of the minority of Louis 14 of France. Hobbes watched the procession from his window. From 1661, when he threw his chief minister into prison, until his death in 1715, Louis 14 ruled personally. "L'etat c'est moi" (I am the state), he said.
    See his system of power and Wollstonecraft's comments

    End of 1651 Hobbes returned to England


    Quaker disturbances in north-east England. George Fox and others drawing people out of the national church and setting up an alternative organisation.


    20.4.1653 Oliver Cromwell, Commander in Chief of the Parliamentary Army, dissolved Parliament.

    30.5.1653 Sir Robert Filmer died

    16.12.1653 Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector under a constitution that combined his rule with a Parliament.

    1654 Community care under the Old Poor Law


    1660 Restoration of English monarchy under Charles 2nd, who attempted to unify the country around a common religion. Charles landed at Dover on 25.5.1660 (Pepys). From then to 1662 there was a period attempting to include moderate puritans (not baptists, ranters and quakers) in the established church.

    " In the reign of Charles II. a degree of licentiousness was deemed the characteristic of a liberal education. It was connected, according to the notions of those times, with generosity, sincerity, magnanimity, loyalty, and proved that the person who acted in this manner, was a gentleman, and not a puritan" Smith, A. 1759

    Mary McIntosh (1968) says "there was no homosexual role, with its associated preclusion of heterosexual activity and justificatory belief systems" before this. The homosexual role "did not emerge in England until towards the end of the late 17th century."

    28.11.1660 Meeting that decided to start a "College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning" which led to the "The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge" (the Royal Society). John Locke became a member 26.11.1668. Isaac Newton became a member 11.1.1672. Thomas Hobbes did not become a member.

    External link to Royal Society web:. This includes a history of the Society and (via library and archives) information on its members.

    Trailblazing timeline 1650-2005 To celebrate the 350th anniversary in 2010 - Articles published by the Royal Society. - See Philosophical Transactions

    18.12.1660 Charles 2nd granted a charter to The Company of the Royal Adventurers into Africa.


    1.1.1661 to 4.1.1661 Venner's Rising.


    19.5.1662 Act of Uniformity requiring the use of the Book of Common Prayer and an oath of allegiance.

    Act of Settlement said one acquired a right to relief in a parish by being born there, married there or serving an apprenticeship there. Adam Smith later (1776) criticized this Act for interfering with the mobility of labour.

    Ed Stephan's A Sociology Timeline begins with the birth of John Graunt on 20.4.1620. In 1662 Graunt published his Observations on the Bills of Mortality which drew social conclusions from the tables of London deaths (See words). The time line concludes with Ed Stephan's own The Division of Territory in Society in 1995.

    "We have (though perhaps too much at Random) determined the number of the inhabitants of London to be about 384,000"

    1662: Simon Patrick in Brief account of the new sect of Latitude Men, together with some reflections on the New Philosophy argues that the mechanical idea of the world will mend a clock, but the scholastic will not. A fashionable version of the mechanical philosophy is that everything is the result of the inter-action of atoms. There was a hope (soon to be disappointed) that microscopes would reveal this. - See external link Atomism in the 17th century

    1662 Anonymous publication of The Port Royal Logic: La logique, ou l'art de penser (logic or the art of thinking), by Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694) and Pierre Nicole (1623-1695) of the Jansenist convent of Port Royal just outside Paris. Written in everyday French, and translated into everyday English and other modern languages, it popularised "the art of using reason well in the acquisition of the knowledge of things". (See Mill A System of Logic)

    29.1.1663 Death of Robert Sanderson who is said to have planted the London Plane trees at Buckden Towers in Cambridgeshire.

    February 1665 Announcement at an ordinary meeting of the Royal Society of the publication of Philosophical Transactions, which the society claims as the "world's first and longest-running journal of science".

    Philosophical Transactions was initially a project of Henry Oldenburg (born about 1619, died 5.9.1677) who was secretary to the Royal Society and its foreign correspondent. The early journal consisted of letter-excerpts, reviews and summaries of recently-published books, and accounts of observations and experiments from European natural philosophers (scientists). After his death it continued to be produced by a succession of individual proprietors until 1752, when the Royal Society took over financial responsibility for it.

    See Royal Society events to mark 350th anniversary and Philosophical Transactions: 350 years of publishing at the Royal Society (1665 - 2015) and 350 year birthday

    Sunday 2.9.1666 for five days: Fire of London.
    Bethlem rebuilt. and Quakers re-located. - See St Paul's 1697

    Brick was widely adopted as a London building material after the great fire. See Plough Court.

    1667 First edition of John Milton's book long poem Paradise Lost

    About 1670 Henry and Flood (1919) suggest the possible origin of the London Plane tree in the Oxford Physic Garden as a hybrid between the Oriental and Occidental Plane. See Platantus. But see Buckden Planes - The Ely Plane is consistent with this date.

    1673 The first of the letters from Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632- 1723) to the Royal Society, in which he described what he saw through his single lens magnifier (microscope). Amongst the small living things he looked at were sperm, blood cells, bacteria, algae (spirogyra) and protozoa (vorticella). See external link

    1679 Thomas Hobbes died.

    1680 Patriarcha by Sir Robert Filmer (died 1653) published. This supported absolute divine right of kings.

    1680 Possible date for planting of the Ely Plane. The Plane at Barn Elms (In the Ranalagh Club grounds in 1919) was considered by Henry and Flood to be the same size and so they suggested the same date. It is known to have existed in the mid-eighteenth century.

    22.1.1680 Locke bought a copy of Patriarcha. It was probably at this period that Locke wrote the first treatise on Government (published 1689/1680), criticising Filmer. If so he would have kept it secret for fear of the king's police.

    March 1680 London Penny Post introduced by William Dockwra. (Link to British Postal Museum and Archive). The service used coffee houses and similar places as collecting points. "... the coffee houses in their golden age between 1680 and 1730" (Habermas, J. 1962/1989 p.32).


    Between 26.8.1682 and 10.9.1682 Edmund Halley observed the comet which was later to be named after him. (Perihelion: 15.9.1682 at 2° 53' Aquarius), and noticed how similar its path was to the recorded movements of comets seen in 1531 and 1607.

    Late November 1682 Notices in London Gazette the (private) Penny Post having been closed as unlawful, government officers would take it over, employing the same staff and using the same receiving houses, from Monday 11.12.1682.

    Summer 1683 For his safety, Locke left England to live in Holland.

    7.12.1683 Algernon Sidney beheaded for High Treason, partly as a consequence of a book he had written (not published) criticising
    Filmer's Patriarcha

    1685 James 2nd English king. He tried to enforce Catholic toleration.

    1686 First edition, in Latin, of Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (English translation 1729). See also 1713, 1723, 1740.

    Geometry and war "The New Method of Fortification as Practised by Monsieur de Vauban, Engineer-General of France and New Treatise of Geometry were published in English in 1691. They translated a book published in French in Amsterdam in 1689.

    For a "perfect" understanding of fortifications, it was necessary to learn geometry, and the gentleman on the frontispiece (left) are pointing to geometric designs.

    The Preface to my (1762) edition says the book is designed for people "addicted to the study of this part of the Mathematics, who have not the leisure or opportunity to read over the vast systems of voluminous writers... It contains... all that is requsite for the theory and practice of a good soldier".

    November/December 1688 Glorious Revolution: William and Mary (protestants) were invited to become king and queen by the English parliament. James 2nd fled to France.   -   Constitutional monarchy - The monarch having been selected by parliament, under conditions laid down by parliament, Divine Right ceased to be the legitimating argument for monarchy. Legitimacy could be built on the consensual grounds of theorists such as John Locke. This secular (non-religious) base reduced the need for all loyal subjects to be members of the established church.

    "... after the Revolution the glory of the Court grew dim... Patronage was sought elsewhere, in the lobbies of Parliament, in the ante- chambers of Ministers, in the country houses of the... aristocracy - finally in an appeal to the educated public". (Trevelyan, G.M. 1942 p.338)

    1689 Bill of Rights and Act of Toleration

    1689/90 John Locke's Two Treatises of Government published. They were probably first drafted in 1679/1680. The Two Treatises has 1690 on its cover, but it and his Letter on Toleration were both in print by the autumn of 1689. Both were published anonymously.

    1690 Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding published. This work he signed.

    1693 Locke's Thoughts Concerning Education published

    January 1693 Edmund Halley's "An estimate of the degrees of the mortality of mankind, drawn from curious tables of the births and funerals at the city of Breslaw; with an attempt to ascertain the price of annuities upon lives" published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London


    Mary Astell's A serious proposal to the ladies, for the advancement of their true and greatest interest. By a lover of her sex. Part 1. London:

    "The Incapacity, if there be any, is acquired not natural; and none of their follies are so necessary, but that they might avoid them if they pleased themselves."

    27.9.1694 Royal Charter establishing "The Governor and Company of the Bank of England", with the exclusive right to issue bank notes in England and Wales, in exchange for a loan of £1.2 million to the government.


    Gregory King's manuscript Natural and Political Observations and Conclusions upon the State and Condition of England, 1696, was not published until 1801.
    King proposed using the number of houses (where available) to estimate the population. There were 6,790 houses in Norwich City. He calculated a population of 28,546. This was calculated by multiplying by 4.2. [almost!] A local population census in 1673 had recorded 28,881 residents then living in the city. Using figures like this, historians have concluded that Norwich was the second largest city in England after London.

    1697 Britain began to keep records of the gap between its imports and its exports (the "balance of trade"). When nations kept figures from year to year (time series) in economics, weather or whatever, it made possible the production of graphs like the following which shows the British balance of trade from 1697 to 1925. Click on the picture to read the article by James Galbraith from which the graph comes.

    See also economic cycles - UK balance of payments crisis 1947 - and peaks and troughs of USA economic cycles

    2.12.1697 Christopher Wren's new St Paul's Cathedral, in the City of London, consecrated - a classical construction replacing the medieval old St Paul's destroyed by fire thirty two years before. The design for the dome was not agreed until 1697 and not completed until 1710.

    1699 Seed of a sweet scented pea sent from Sicily to England and Amsterdam. It had a small, two coloured (purple and maroon) flower, but a strong scent. Later named Lathyrus odoratus. The sweet pea self- fertilises and this led Francis Galton, in 1875 to select it for his experiments on hereditary transmission.



    Historical roots of the Public Sphere (Öffentlichkeit)

      "A public sphere that functioned in the political realm arose first in Great Britain at the turn of the eighteenth century" (Habermas, J. 1962/1989 p.57).

      "The clubs, salons and coffee-houses (there were 3000 [coffee-houses] in London in the early 1700s) supported by the growing and increasingly free press formed a critical forum, in which gentlemen independent of the court and other political institutions could get together on a basis of relative equality and discuss the great events of the day" ( Outhwaite, W. 1994 on Habermas, J. 1962).
    See Winchester Journalism on "Courants"

    1700 Leonard Plukenet's Almagesti botanici mantissa published in London. On page 153 this contains what is thought to be the earliest written description of what we now know as the London Plane tree: "Platantus orientalis et occidentalis miedliam faciem obtinens, Amnericanus, globulis grandioribus, foliis splenidenitibus atris." [See Oxford Physic Garden

    1701 Thomas Bray founded The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, which was later abbreviated to Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

    1702 Queen Anne succeded King William as the ruler of Britain. She gave her name to a style of architecture which was to last. Picture from Panoyre and Ryan 1958 p.123, who argue that the style fitted the "classical way of building to the ordinary well-to-do gentleman's home"
    It might also be said to adapt classical principles to British rain, as the roof slopes but hips instead of gables meant a horizontal eave line could be preserved all round the building. Mathematical proportion is kept with more comfort and curvaciousness. Style and convenience suited the new "sash" windows whose "ingenious mechanism", Panoyre and Ryan say, "shows clearly the new scientific approach". These spread to domestic building for all classes in the following two centuries.

    26.11.1703 Midnight: start of the Great Storm in southern Britain. It lasted until 6am [??]. Between 8,000 and 15,000 people were killed, a fifth of the Royal Navy's seaman drowned. Thirteen navy ships were lost, as well as merchant ships. Thousands of building were damaged or destroyed, millions of trees lost and the Eddystone Lighthouse swept away.

    19.1.1704 Day of fasting in repentance for the sins of the nation that had provoked the late storm. (Declared by Queen Anne)

    28.10.1704 Death of John Locke.

    About 1705 Birth of
    Ukawsaw Gronniosaw

    1705 Edmund Halley in Synopsis Astronomia Cometicae argued that comet sightings of 1456, 1531, 1607, and 1682 were of the same comet. He predicted it would be seen again in 1758. When it was, the comet became generally known as Halley's Comet. See 1910 - 1986.


    22.7.1706 Treaty of Union between England and Scotland leading to Acts of Union (1706 and 1707) which established a common Parliament of Great Britain in London.

    30.3.1707 Death of Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban (Born May 1633) Maréchal de France and Commissaire général des fortifications from 1678 to 1703.


    The 1708 Parochial Libraries Act (England and Wales) sought to preserve libraries that had been established for the use of parish clergy.


    John Arbuthnot's "An Argument for Divine Providence, taken from the Constant Regularity observed in the Births of both Sexes" (external text) published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society for 1710. "... perhaps the first application of probability to social statistics and includes the first formal test of significance. In this paper Arbuthnot claims to demonstrate that divine providence, not chance, governs the sex ratio at birth." (J J O'Connor and E F Robertson)

    1710 The dome of St Paul's completed.

    This is England's only classical cathedral. It speaks of proportion and reason as well as grandeur and adoration and was the tallest building in the City.

    See maths in the city

    Hume born

    1711 -1712 Daily London journal The Spectator sought "to bring philosophy out of the closets and libraries, schools and colleges, to dwell in clubs and assemblies, at tea-tables and coffeehouses".

    1712 Jean Jacques Rousseau (author of The Social Contract) born

    1713 Second edition of Newton's Principles contained Roger Cotes' Preface trying to show how Newton's practice was consistent with the new ( Baconian) inductive science.

    1713 Posthumous publication of Ars conjectandi (Art of Conjecturing) by Jacques Bernoulli (1655-1705), said by some to represent the "beginning of the mathematical theory of probability". A Bernoulli trial is an experiment like tossing a coin in which there are two possible outcomes. The probability of the different outcomes in a series of trials is calculated. In coin tossing, the "binomial" probability of all heads in one toss is 0.5., in two tosses 0.25, in three tosses 0.125, and so on. See Probability

    1714 First of the Georges succeded Queen Anne as the ruler of Britain. The term Georgian is applied to architecture over a long period.

    Pictures from Panoyre and Ryan 1958
    The development of terraced houses conserves space in towns
    867 to 869 High Road, Tottenham are, according to English Heritage, early eighteenth century houses. They are constructed of red brick.

    1.9.1715 Louis 15th (aged 5) King of France. Died 10.5.1774. The term Rococo "usually covers the kind of ornament, style and design associated with Louis 15th's reign and the beginning of that of Louis 16". (1835 Dictionary of the French Academy) [See Habermas]

    6.3.1715, and for three nights: Northern lights (aurora borealis) visible in London, and in Europe from Prussia to Italy. The last aurora to be seen so far south was in 1621.
    1719 Daniel Defoe, author of the account of the Great Storm of 1703, published his most famous work, the story of Robinson Crusoe. See 1722 - 1724 - 1870


    August 1720 Peak of prices in shares on the London before they fell. The burst of this "South Sea" bubble coincided with the end of the "Mississippi" bubble in Paris towards the end of the year and led to collapse in Amsterdam as well. Foucault calls this the "disaster of 1720" (Foucault The Order of Things)

    1722 A Journal of the Plague Year being observations or memorials of the most remarkable occurrences, as well public as private, which happened in London during the last great visitation in 1665. Written by a Citizen who continued all the while in London. Never made public before Signed H.F. Now attributed to Daniel Defoe.


    27.2.1723 David Hume, aged 12, started at Edinburgh University. He did not take a degree, but for two or three years was exposed to the new philosophy particularly that of Sir Isaac Newton.

    Kant, author of the Critiques of Pure and Practical Reason, born.

    Between 1724 and 1727, Daniel Defoe published A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, divided into circuits or journies. "When a survey is demanded of Queen Anne's England and its everyday life, our thoughts turn to Daniel Defoe, riding solitary and observant through the countryside" (Trevelyan, G.M. 1942 p.293) [But note that the journeys were through Great Britain and so included Scotland.]

    "London was, in Defoe's day, the only town in England that could be reckoned large by modern standards. Bristol and Norwich, which came next to it in population, had in the 1720s probably no more than 30,000 inhabitants." Greater London possibly half a million. (Cole. Persons and Periods p63)


    Westwood Trust established by London Quakers for "the putting out to Apprentice such two poor Friends sons within the limits of the Monthly Meeting as are not entitled to any allowances of that sort" - See 1958

    1726 William Rufus Chetwood's The Voyages and Adventures of Captain Robert Boyle (London) contains the sentence "There may be about 20,000 Whites (or I should say Portuguese, for they are none of the whitest,) and about treble that number of slaves." [White distinguishing people by skin colour. Oxford English Dictionary entries go back to 1604]. See 1737

    1727 Isaac Newton died


    1729 English translation of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World (Published, in Latin, in 1686)

    1734: The Koran: Commonly called the Alkoran of Mohammed An English translation, directly from arabic, by George Sales, a London lawyer, who included a long Preliminary Discourse explaining the history and context of Mohammed. Served for centuries its declared purpose of making the Koran (Quran) available to christians. My copy (Frederick Warne 1889), first bought for the Seafarers' Education Service, then joined the small library of Herbert Henry Moss, a primitive methodist, from whom I would borrow it in the late 1950s.


    The Table of the Animal Kingdom (Regnum Animale) in Carolus Linnaeus's first edition (1735) of Systema Naturae (System of Nature) includes "Homo" (Latin: man) in "Anthropomorphia" (Latin: of human form) along with "Simia" (Latin: ape or monkey) and "Bradypus" (Latin: sloths). Homo is divided into European, American, Asian and African. In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae (1758) Linnaeus introduced the term Homo sapiens (sapiens Latin: wise). The full title of System of Nature (in English) is "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with characters, differences, synonyms, places". [See Race]


    Publication of Matthew Hale's History of the Pleas of the Crown (1736), vol. 1, ch. 58, p. 629: "But the husband cannot be guilty of a rape committed by himself upon his lawful wife, for by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract." [See domestic violence]


    John Atkins published A Voyage to Guinea, Brasil, and the West Indies 1723-35 in which he wrote "I am persuaded the black and white Race have, ab origine, sprung from different-coloured first Parents" (p.39).

    1740 David Hume's Treatise of Human Nature. Hume attempted to be the Newton of Social Science.

    See Social Science History, chapter three:
    What is science?:
    The Ideas of Locke, Hume and Wollstonecraft

    Extracts from Hume: on the origin of our ideas and on virtue and vice

    31.5.1740 to 17.8.1786 Reign of Friedrich 2nd of Prussia (Frederick the Great), who modernized the state bureaucracy and promoted religious tolerance


    1745: First edition of John Mason's Self-knowledge, a treatise shewing the nature and benefit of that important science and the way to attain it. (Google books) "One of the most popular works of moral advice and self-help of its time... By 1836 it had gone through more than twenty editions... in Britain and America, and had been translated into Welsh and several European languages". (Alan Ruston, DNB)

    16.8.1745 Charles Edward Stuart landed in Scotland beginning the Jacobite rising against the Hanovarians. March south ended at Derby on 4.12.1745, where the decision was made to retreat to Scotland. London was preparing for an invasion and even the Quakers assisted in preparations for defence.


    "The old order ends"
    16.4.1746 Defeat of the Stuart army, under Charles Edward, by the Hanovarian army at the Battle of Culloden Moor. "No individual soldier in the Stuart Army has a grave... grey tombstones have written upon them that here is the grave of the MacDonalds, here is the grave of the Mackintoshes, and so forth". (Cole and Postgate 1949, chapter one) [The photograph below was taken by Kirsty Smith 15.10.2004]
    Time and space
    "The confict between this very ancient society and the modern society which was challenging it" was settled after Cullloden. "In the language of Marxian economistss", Charles Edward had marched "with a feudal army into into a bourgeois society" (Cole and Postgate 1949, chapter one). See also George Carnegie

    1746 Abury [Avebury], a Temple of the British Druids: and some others described; wherein is a more particular account of the first and patriarchal religion; and of the peopling the British Islands ... By William Stukeley. His Stonehenge, a temple restored to the British Druids was published in 1740 - External link to Earth Mysteries website archive

    1746 Champion's Brass Works established at Warmley, near Bristol, by the Quaker industrialist, William Champion (1709-1789). It closed in 1768, and in 1769 an inventory of what was in the factory was made. This shows that everything produced was for the African trade - probably to be exchanged for slaves. (Dalrymple and Horton 14.12.2003)


    September 1747 Engraving "The Engine to Raise Water by Fire" The Universal Magazine, volume 1, August 1747 (London, John Hinton), pp 163-165. [An engraving of Newcomen's Atmospheric Engine] (external link)


    In The Spirit of the Laws, Charles Secondat "Baron de Montesquieu" (l689-l755) explored natural and human laws in a way that enabled people to analyse society as a whole, in relation to its parts, in relation to its history and in relation to its environment. [Montesquieu's satirical Lettres persanes (Persian Letters) was written in 1721]

    Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-1751) published L'homme machine. Translated into English as Man a Machine (external link) in 1749 - See Foucault

    Eulogy on La Mettrie by Frederick 2nd (the "Great"), King of Prussia (external link)

    Jeremy Bentham, (author of A Fragment on Government ) born
    Olympe de Gouges (author of Declaration of the Rights of Woman) born Marie Gouze

    1750s "Until the 1750s the Polyanthus, due to the dominance of the red gene, consisted only of red, and dull muddy or sepia flowers. At this date a new variation occurred, one which sparked off the interest of the workers in the industrial towns and became one of the most popular of flowers. Today this flower, the 'Gold-Laced Polyanthus' has almost disappeared, though due to the tenacity of an American hybridist a new strain has been introduced. The interest in the Gold Lace Polyanthus was immense, and remained so for almost a century, however by the early 1870s they had been discarded and virtually died out." John S. Harrison 1976, who speaks of "an immense following especially in the industrial areas of Lancashire, Yorkshire and the Midlands" and suggests "the anomic workers drawn into the infant conurbations by the necessity of work, gained solace from their abject misery either by indulging in gin drinking, or by creating tiny gardens of plants which represented the freshness, freedom and beauty they had forsaken in search of a living."

    Jean Jacques Rousseau's Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts.

    16.1.1750 A vivid red arch of light in the night sky, sending up wavering streams, visible throughout Britain. The "remarkable Aurora Borealis" "seems to have drawn as much attention, as that in 1716". 23.1.1750 Fiery clouds seen over Dublin and Oxford. 1.2.1750 "A prodigious tempest of thunder and lightning, with wind, rain and hail" on Bristol "overwhelming the inhabitants with consternation". 8.2.1750 London earthquake, felt in Bristol also. 8.3.1750 another, more violent, earthquake, which, being a month after the first, led to predictions (not fulfilled) of third on 8.4.1750.
    "Little philosophers, who see a little, and but very little into natural causes, may think they see enough to account for what happens, without calling in the aid and assistance of a special providence; not considering, that God who made all things, never put any thing out of his own power, but has all nature under command to serve his purposes in the government of the world." (Thomas Sherlock. A Letter from the Lord Bishop of London, to the Clergy and People of London and Westminster; On Occasion of the Late Earthquakes)

    British Act of 1750 "for Regulating the Commencement of the Year; and for Correcting the Calendar now in Use" Time and space

    In England and Wales the day after 24.3.1750 was 25.3.1751 because, until the Act of 1750 changed this, the new year began on 25 March (Lady Day). Under the Act of 1750, the day after 31.12.1751 was 1.1.1752. So 1751 was a short year - 25 March to 31 December. See 1752

    1751 Experiments and observations on electricity: made at Philadelphia in America, by Mr. Benjamin Franklin, and communicated in several letters to Mr. P. [Peter] Collinson of London, F.R.S.. Peter Collinson was a merchant, born a Quaker, who traded with Philadelphia. America

    1751 First volume of Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, par une société de gens de lettres. Encyclopaedia or a systematic Dictionary of the sciences, arts and trades, by a society of men of letters. Put in order and published by M Diderot. The mathematical part by M. d'Alembert,

    The full set (17 volumes of text and 11 volumes of plates) was published between 1751 and 1772. It contained 74,000 articles written by more than 130 authors


    September 1752 Under the Act of 1750, Britain and her dominions "in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America" switched from the Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar. Eleven days were omitted from the calendar and the day after 2.9.1752 was 14.9.1752.

    1753 The Ruins of Palmyra, otherwise Tedmor, in the Desart by Robert Wood


    Micromégas by Voltaire, a short novel telling the story of inhabitants of the star Sirius (the brightest star in the night sky) and the planet Saturn to earth.

    Rousseau's A Discourse on the Origin of Inequality.
    Published in Amsterdam
    The cover engraving associates liberty with equality. Liberty - Equality
    lower than the brutes

    Saturday 1.11.1755 The Lisbon earthquake. See Wikipedia


    William Godwin born. He was to develop a political philosophy to formalise and show the foundations of radical ones like Rousseau's preceding his.

    29.1.1756 Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia elected a Fellow of the Royal Society as the one "who first suggested the experiments to prove the analogy between lightning and electricity". Peter Collinson was one of those who proposed him America

    18.5.1756 Declaration or war between Britain and France. Official start of the global "seven years war"


    14.3.1757 Execution of Admiral John Byng


    Tenth edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturae - See Wikipedia

    A comet that was sighted late in 1758 and, passed perihelion (closest distance to the Sun) on 13.3.1759 was named in Edmund Halley's honour. [Astronomers took considerable effort to find the comet's predicted return. The comet was eventually found by the German amateur astronomer Johann Georg Palitzsch on the night of 26.12.1758-27.12.1758. It was traced by a number of astronomers up to June 1759.


    Voltaire's Candide, ou l'Optimisme; traduit de l'Allemand de M. le Docteur Ralph Candide's optimism was qualified by (amongst other things) the Lisbon earthquake - the seven year's war - and the execution of Admiral Byng

    Adam Smith's The Theory of Moral Sentiments

    15.1.1759 The, new, "British Museum" opened to the public, complete with reading room, manuscripts, natural history specimens, old coins and medals, prints and drawings, and exhibits of strange objects from other cultures. (External link to official history)


    The General Subscription Library at Warrington established "without any distinction of sects or parties". See Leeds Library.


    6.6.1761 Transit of Venus -

    "Despite the fact that this transit took place during the latter half of the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), a worldwide conflict involving the major powers of the time and their colonies, it was observed by many astronomers from around sixty locations ranging from China to England and from South Africa to Norway as part of the world's first multinational scientific collaboration" (external link)

    1761 Bridgewater Canal opened to transport coal from Worsley to Manchester. See Bridgewater Foundry

    1762 Rousseau's The Social Contract and Emile. The controversial content of Emile made life in France uncomfortable for him. In 1766 and 1767 he lived in England as the guest of David Hume. He died in France in 1778. In 1794 the remains of Rousseau and Voltaire were moved to the Pantheon in Paris.

    Engraving for Epinglier (pin) article in 1762 volume of Diderot's Encyclopédie

    1762 "The New Method of Fortification as Practised by Monsieur de Vauban, Engineer-General of France. Together with a New Treatise of Geometry. The sixth edition, Carefully revised and corrected by the Original. To which are now added, A Treatise of Military Orders, and The Art of Gunnery, or Throwing of Bombs, Balls, etc to hit any Object assigned. The whole work illustrated with thirty-two Copper Plates Published London by C. Hitch and L. Hawes, in Paternoster Row [and others] 213 pages. This is a translation by Abel Swall of late seventeenth century texts. The main part, on Geometry and Fortificatiosn, having been published in English in 1691. My copy belonged to William Fergusone who was an Ensign in the 24th Regiment.

    Economic cycles Jevons calculated that, between 1763 and 1878, commerical crises went in cycles with about 10.4. years between each. The crises were 1763 - 1772-1773 - 1783 - 1793 - 1804-1805 - 1815 - 1825 - 1836-1839 - 1847 - 1857 - 1866 - 1878
    Industrial revolution
    Steam Steam came to power the machines that were developing fast (particularly in textile industries of England and Scotland), creating factories where people worked to the rhythm of the machine. Piston steam engines had been used to pump water since the end of the 17th century. In 1763 James Watt repaired a model of a steam engine designed by Thomas Newcombe. In the 1760s, Watt created more powerful engines by condensing the steam in a vessel separate from the cylinder. These made steam engines an alternative to water wheels, and moved industry from the side of highland streams to lowland coal-fields. In 1780s America and Britain, steam was first used to power paddle boats. The first rail- running steam carriages appeared in the first years of the 19th century. The revolutionary impact of steam became clear to everyone in Britain in the 1830s and 1840s as a network of railways was constructed, affecting every aspect of people's lives. Tennyson explained it to masses of English speaking readers six years before Marx and Engels explained it to small groups of revolutionaries in Europe.

    23.12.1763 "An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances. By the late Rev. Mr. Bayes, communicated by Mr. Price, in a letter to John Canton, M. A. and F. R. S." read to the Royal Society.

    10.2.1763 Treaty of Paris concluding the seven year war


    Beccaria's Essay on Crimes and Punishment

    About 1765 Leonhard Euler's Elements of Algebra


    Joseph Priestley's Essay on the First Principles of Government

    "The good and happiness of the members, that is, the majority of the members of any state, is the great standard by which everything relating to that state must finally be determined".

    1768 Leeds Library was founded.

    August 1768 Start of the scientific expedition of the Endeavour, commanded by James Cook, around the world via Polynesia and Australia.

    10.6.1768 Royal Academy of Arts founded by King George 3rd. It excluded engravers. Raymond Williams relates this to the development of a distinction between artist and artisan.


    3.6.1769 Transit of Venus (external link)

    1770 Georg Friedrich Hegel born

    The phrase sciences morales et politiques was introduced into France about 1770. It is a term representing what we might now call the social sciences. See 1795 (Porter and Ross 9.2003)

    1771 Robert Owen born

    1772 David Ricardo born

    1772? Pageant: James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw's life narrative
    A Narrative of the Most Remarkable Particulars In the Life of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, An African Prince, As related by Himself. Bath. Price Six-Pence. (Born about 1705 - died 1775).

    "It is a generally received opinion, in England, that the natives of Africa go entirely unclothed; but this supposition is very unjust: they have a kind of dress so as to appear decent, though it is very slight and thin."

    1773 James Mill born

    1774 Louis 16th king of France.

    Medical inspection of London madhouses introduced

    Joseph Priestley isolated oxygen - dephlogisticated air
    from which everything except its
    life giving properties has been removed.


    1.1.1775 "An Account of Further Discoveries in Air. By the Rev. Joseph Priestley, LL.D. F. R. S. in Letters to Sir John Pringle, Bart. P. R. S. and the Rev. Dr. Price, F. R. S." published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. This announced the discovery of a "dephlogiscated air" (later called oxygen) which was five or six times better than common air for breathing or burning.

    28.9.1775 Death and burial in Chester of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw "a blackman" - aged 70.

    1775 The thesis of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840) De Generis Humani Varietati Nativa (Göttingen) divided the human species into five races, the American, Caucasian, Ethiopian, Malay, and Mongolian, on the basis of skin colour and conformation of the head. (Oxford English Dictionary). It was published as a book (still in Latin) in 1795 - See Wikipedia.

    1776 Britain's American colonies declared themselves independent.

    David Hume died

    Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations and Jeremy Bentham's A Fragment on Government were both published in 1776

    Lecture notes on Smith
    Extracts from Wealth of Nations
    Smith weblinks
    Adam Smith revival (late 20th century)
    Lecture notes on Bentham
    Extracts from Bentham
    Brief note on Bentham - Dictionary on Utilitarianism
    Radicals, Socialists and Early Feminists
    Bentham weblinks
    crime and
timeline Bentham's
    See Social Science History, chapter five on
    the theories that Smith, Bentham, Malthus and Owen made and
    chapter one John Stuart Mill and his problems with Francis Bacon

    "Adam Smith is supposed to have brought to light the process of the increasing division of labour, Ricardo the role played by capital, and J-B. Say some of the fundamental laws of the market economy. From this moment on, political economy is supposed to have begun to exist with its own proper object and its own inner coherence." (Foucault The Order of Things)

    1778 France, Britain's traditional enemy, entered the war of independence on America's side. America
    Death of


    Luigi Galvani observed electrical current passing from a generator to a frog's leg. See Wikipedia on Luigi Galvani   Galvanic cell   Galvanism . See Frankenstein introduction

    1781 Immanuel Kant's The Critique of Pure Reason attempted to salvage the philosophy of science by arguing that whilst reason alone cannot establish the truth of what is, categories provided by the mind are needed for us to order our experiences. In The Critique of Practical Reason (1788) he argued that pure reason is practical when it comes to morality. Reason alone establishes what ought to be, as distinct from what is. His third major book, Critique of Judgement (1790) argued that beauty is the perfect compatibility of the forms with which we perceive with what we perceive.

    May and August 1783 "Great Fogg", a dust and ash haze from volcanic eruptions in Iceland (Eldeyjar) and Japan (Asama Yama) produced unusual skies in the northern hemisphere. A fiery meteor flashed across western European skies during the early evening of 18.8.1783. These events stirred the imagination of eleven year old Luke Howard. Convinced, later, that God had given form to everything, he classified the forms of clouds.

    3.9.1783 The American war of Independence was concluded by the Treaty of Versailles America

    1784 Immanuel Kant's What is Enlightenment? - See Social Science History and dictionary and listen to Guy Watson in the cabbage field: "pre-enlightenment, our inability to explain natural phenomenon led to mysticism"

    Robert Alun Jones' Timeline on Durkheim (archive) begins with the appointment of Emile Durkheim's great-grandfather, Simon Simon Durkheim, as rabbi in Mutzig (Alsace) in 1784

    18.5.1784 Edict of the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph (Giuseppe) 2nd attempting to replace Latin with German as the administrative language of the empire (cancelled 28.1.1790). In this, Joseph points to the example of France, England and Russia and says the use of "Latin in public business" is prohibited among all enlightened peoples" except Hungary, [Croatia and Slavonia], the Grand Duchy of Transylvania and Poland. The reform triggered linguistic and ethnic strife in Hungary and Galicia. (See Votruba, M. 2010?)

    28.7.1785 Jeremy Bentham left Brighton to visit his younger brother, Samuel, in Russia

    1786 An essay on the slavery and commerce of the human species, particularly the African, translated from a Latin Dissertation, which was honoured with the first prize in the University of Cambridge, for the year 1785, by Thomas Clarkson, published in London

    22.5.1787 Society for the Abolition of the British Slave Trade formed in London.
    17.9.1787 The Constitution of the United States adopted. America

    The Federalist Papers, by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, established an independent tradition of political analysis in the USA.

    1788 The cost of the American war overstrained the resources of the French King (Louis 16th) and was a reason for his calling the States General together in August 1788. This was the French representative body (like Parliament in England). But it had not met since 1614. The King hoped that it would enable him to raise new taxes.

    The Morning Dream, A Ballad was composed and used in the campaign against slavery in 1788.

    February 1788 A society called the Friends of the Negro formed in Paris to campaign for the abolition of the French slave trade. Its members included people (like Brissot, Mirabeau, Petion, Condorcet and Abbe Gregoire) who were to become leading figures in the early years of the French revolution.


    click on Stanley Morse's
Copper to visit Crimtim: The
timeline for crime and deviancy

    click on Stanley Morse's Copper to visit Crimtim: The timeline for crime and deviancy

    End of the ancient regime in France

    1789: Year of the Revolution. The States General met in May 1789. It had three parts: the first estate (clergy), second estate (nobles) and third estate (others). When it last met, 175 years before, the third estate had been overshadowed by the other two. Now the feelings of the representatives were very different. In February a pamphlet by Abbe Sieyes called What is the Third Estate? argued it was the whole nation. In other words, members of the Third Estate were claiming to represent the whole of France. The three estates sat apart, but the third estate argued that there should be only one assembly. On June 17th they took the law into their own hands and renamed themselves the National Assembly. On June 20th they resolved to go on meeting (even if the king dissolved them) "until the constitution of the realm is established" (tennis court oath). On June 27th they won: the king ordered the first and second estates to join the third.

    Karl Marx argued that in the French revolution of 1789. "the bourgeoisie was allied with the people against the monarchy, the aristocracy and the established church." [See revolution]

    14.7.1789 Fall of the Bastille. The Paris masses captured the state prison: an event that remains the symbol of the revolution and the date of the national holiday. [See Breton festivities 1909]

    17.7.1789 The beginning of the Peasants' revolt. In the countryside people began burning the records on which their lords based their claims for "feudal" dues.

    July 1789 White people from Haiti asked for representation in the French Assembly proportional to the population of Haiti, which consisted mostly of slaves. Issue of race, slavery and rights of man began to be linked in the debates of the French Assembly. America

    4.8.1789: Begining of a series of decrees abolishing feudal rights and privileges. 11.8.1789: "The National Assembly totally abolishes the feudal system"

    26.8.1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    "As the archaeology of our thought easily shows, man is an invention of recent date. And one perhaps nearing its end." (Foucault, 1970)

    5.10.1789 The Insurrection of the Women. Women marched from Paris to the King's palace at Versailles to complain about the lack of bread. On the 6th October they marched back to Paris - bringing the King and Queen with them. - [This event offends Burke]

    22.10.1789 People of mixed race from Haiti (not slaves) came to the French Assembly to ask it to recognise their rights as men.

    November 1789 Widespread persecution of people of mixed race began in Haiti.

    4.11.1789 In London, Richard Price delivered a Discourse on the Love of our Country to the "Revolution Society" (formed to commemorate 1688). The society sent a congratulatory letter to the National Assembly. In January 1790 Edmund Burke read a pamphlet containing the discourse, the letter and a reply from the president of the Assembly. This stimulated Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France (November 1790). Mary Wollstonecraft published a reply, A Vindication of the Rights of Man, in December 1790. Tom Paine's two part reply, The Rights of Man, was published in 1791 and 1792.

    FRENCH CONSTITUTION OF 22.12.1789: This gave the vote on the basis of taxation. Citoyens actifs were involved in direct and indirect elections to local councils and the National Assembly. Citoyens passifs had civic rights (freedom of expression etc), but no political rights. The Assembly had 745 deputies for France (colonial deputies were added later) and these represented départements according to area, population and revenue.

    December 1789
    In Paris, a play by Olympe de Gouges that attacked slavery was hissed off the stage after three performances.

    14.12.1789 Count Charles de Lameth told the National Assembly of France that although he owned many slaves in Haiti, I would prefer to lose all I possess there rather than violate the principles that justice and humanity have consecrated. I declare myself both for the admission of half- castes into the administrative assemblies and for the liberty of the blacks!

    1791 In Scotland, John Sinclair sent questionnaires to parishes about their geography and natural history - population - production, - plus some miscellaneous questions. In 1796 he sent "statistical missionaries" to follow up the completion of the questionnaires. Between 1791 and 1799 he published The Statistical Account of Scotland.: Drawn up from the communications of the ministers of the different parishes. By Sir John Sinclair bart. Edinburgh : W. Creech in 21 volumes.

    He thought this would form an account of "the quantum of happiness" of the communities of Scotland and also be a "means of future improvement".

    Sinclair's questions (queries) - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 -

    14.7.1790 William Wordsworth arrived in France
    "Among sequestered villages we walked
    And found benevolence and blessedness
    Spread like a fragrance everywhere...
    Unhoused beneath the evening star we saw
    Dances of liberty

    21.10.1790 Vincent Oge led an unsuccessful insurrection on Haiti. News of his brutal execution drew the attention of French people to the island.


    Spring 1791 Debates on a proposed Constitution for the French colonies. The Assembly heard evidence from people of mixed race.

    15.5.1791 Resolved by the Assembly that every mulatto whose parents were both free should have a vote.

    21.6.1791 Louis 16 attempted to leave France. He was stopped at Varennes and brought back to Paris. The king's flight led to popular protests calling for a new head to the executive.

    16.7.1791 Massacre of Champ de Mars: a meeting in Paris calling, in effect, for the king's abdication, was dispersed by the National Guard. About 60 petitioners were killed and 200 arrested.

    22.8.1791 Uprising of the slaves in Haiti. Toussaint L'Ouverture joined the uprising after about a month. As a result of the slave uprising the supply of sugar to France was cut off, leading to food riots in Paris in January 1792.

    Some historians wish to make 23rd August "Slavery Remembrance Day" - See weblinks Wilberforce No Way! - UNESCO - Petition

    24.9.1791 The decree of 15.5.1791, which gave a vote to some people of colour, was rescinded by the Constituent Assembly.

    Social Science History links: pars
    76; 81; 83;

    September 1791: French Constitution of 1791 adopted. This gave a vote to men with a minimum of income/property.

    Olympe de Gouges published her Declaration of the Rights of Woman, dated 14.9.1791   in French   in English   Social Science History   (weblinks)

    Talleyrand proposed a system of state education in France that would be confined to boys. This appears to have been the spur for Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman, written in three months and published January 1792.   See Social Science History   (weblinks). The first chapter is about being human and how we know what is right and true. See Social Science History - What is science?

    25.9.1791 French Penal Code

    October 1791 Meeting of Legislative Assembly. Brissot agitated for war.

    November 1791 Commissioners arrived in Haiti to restore order. Slave leaders tried to bargain their freedom for the re-enslavement of their followers. When the white colonial government refused the bargain, Toussaint L'Ouverture resolved to fight for complete liberty for all.

    January 1792
    Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman published. On 14.1.1792 Talleyrand arrived in London on an unsuccessful diplomatic mission. Whilst in London he called on Mary Wollstonecraft.

    March 1792 The Paris Commune opened its galleries to the public, which made it more exposed to popular pressure.

    20.3.1792 to 23.3.1792 Formation of a new French ministry led by Brissot. On 24.3.1792 the Legislative Assembly, by a large majority, passed a decree giving full political rights to free men of colour in the colonies. This became law on 4.4.1792.


    20.4.1792 France declared war on Austria. This led to war with Prussia as well. Once France was at war, the influence of the streets on government became more powerful because of popular fear of traitors within the country.

    10.8.1792 Paris masses stormed Tuileries and imprisoned the royal family.

    Early September 1792 The election of the Convention, by almost universal male suffrage, took place at the same time as the defeat of the French army at Verdun and at the same time that crowds massacred over 1,000 prisoners in Paris.

    18.9.1792 Three commissioners from France arrived in Haiti to enforce the decree of 4.4.1792

    21.9.1792 Meeting of Convention which (on 22.9.1792) abolished the monarchy and established the Republic. The Republican calendar started Year One here.

    Early October 1792 News of the imprisonment of the king reached Haiti, where the French fell out over it. On 12.10.1792 the Commissioners dissolved the Colonial Assembly and assumed full control over the colony. Haiti was becoming increasingly split by internal war and, secretly, the British government began to consider taking it over.

    December 1792. Mary Wollstonecraft moved to France to experience for herself the revolutionary civilisation. At the time she went political forces in France were moving against the people she sympathised with (The "Girondins") many of whom went to the guillotine whilst she was there. She returned to England in 1795.

    19.11.1792 A decree of the Convention offered help to all peoples wishing to recover their liberties.


    21.1.1793 Execution of Louis 16th.

    1.2.1793 France declared war on Great Britain. War with Spain followed in March and also civil war (the revolt of the Vendee from March to December 1793). Spain invaded Haiti early in the war. At first, Toussaint L'Ouverture and other black leaders fought for Spain against the French Republicans and in defence of the kings.

    Spring 1793 to summer 1794 Period known as the reign of terror in France. The Oxford English Dictionary dates it from March 1793 to July 1794. It is in relation to this that the word "terrorism" was formed. In a 1900 Dictionary "terrorism" is still defined as "A system of government by terror".

    May/June 1793 Paris insurrection and downfall of the Girondins. Rule of the Jacobins.


    June 1793 French Constitution of 1793 adopted. This gave the vote to every adult male, apart from domestic servants, but it was never put into practice. [Social Science History link: par. 93]

    19.6.1793-20.6.1793 In Haiti the Republican French Commissioners quashed a revolt of the poor whites by sending armed free coloureds and slaves into the capital, Le Cap, which was destroyed in the fighting. For many colonists the destruction of Le Cap symbolised the end of white supremacy, and a mass migration followed. The main slave armies, however, were still fighting for the Spanish in defence of the kings.

    30.7.1793 A French Commissioner reported from Haiti that The slaves remaining in the party of kings march in company with a great number of white emigres

    29.8.1793 To secure some support from the slave armies, Sonthonax, a French Commissioner, declared the abolition of slavery in Haiti, but the slave armies continued to fight against him.

    3.9.1793 White Royalists in Haiti asked for British intervention. An army left Jamaica (a British slave colony) and landed in Haiti on 19.9.1793.

    16.10.1793 Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, guillotined in Paris

    31.10.1793 Brissot and twenty other Girondins guillotined in Paris

    3.11.1793 Olympe de Gouges guillotined in Paris

    8.11.1793 Madame Roland guillotined in Paris

    December 1793 In the cause of the kings, Toussaint's slave army occupied central Haiti after a series of victories.


    4.2.1794 Slavery abolished in French colonies.

    30.2.1794 French celebrated the emancipation of slaves in the Temple of Reason.

    Early May 1794 News of the abolition of slavery by France reached Toussaint in Haiti and on 6.5.1794 he and his army deserted the Spanish to join the French.

    July 27/28 1794: Fall of Robespierre and Jacobins. End of the reign of terror in France.

    1794 École normale supérieure established in Paris. "it was intended to provide the Republic with a new body of teachers, trained in the critical spirit and secular values of the Enlightenment" (Wikipedia)

    1794 The École centrale des travaux publics [Central school of public works] founded in Paris. Renamed "École polytechnique" [School of many arts] in 1794. In London, the Royal Polytechnic opened in Regent Street in 1838


    1795 In England the parish of Speenhamland, in Berkshire, adopted a system of paying workers an allowance from public funds, on top of their wages, graduated according to the price of bread. Similar schemes were adopted by many other parishes. One of the consequences of welfare policies like these was that the money paid out on Poor Law soared.

    7.4.1795 Metric system of measurement adopted in France
    External link: Important dates in the history of the modern metric system

    25.10.1795 The Convention adopted a resolution establishing the Institut National des Sciences et Arts, which became the Institut de France in 1995. (website). This had three parts (classes), the second of which was the Classe des Sciences Morales et Politiques (see above). This covered the analysis of sensations and thoughts, ethics, social science and legislation, political economy, history and geography. The first class was the Classe des Sciences Mathématiques et Physiques and the third the Classe de Littérature et Beaux-Arts (External links: 1 - 2 - 3

    The Classe des Sciences Mathématiques et Physiques ceased to exist in a reorganisation of 1803, but was revived as l'Académie Royale des Sciences Morales et Politiques in 1832. It ceased to be Royal between 1848 and 1850

    20.3.1796 Mulattoes in Haiti, led by Vilate, revolted against the French General Laveaux. Toussaint rescued Laveaux and crushed the rebels.

    1.4.1796 Toussaint was proclaimed Lieutenant Governor

    1797 Napoleon Bonaparte given command of the French army against England.

    1797 English Bank Restriction Act suspended the convertibility of Bank of England banknotes into gold, to halt a flight of capital due to the war. Originally for six weeks, suspension lasted twenty four years. (French Wikipedia)

    1797 Baron Hume's Criminal Law of Scotland first published in which he wrote "the husband... cannot himself commit a rape on his own wife, who has surrendered her person to him" [See domestic violence]

    10.9.1797 Mary Wollstonecraft died.

    1798 Thomas Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population contained the law that population increases much faster than subsistence unless checked by famine, war or vice (birth control). This was Malthus's refutation of the idea of people like Wollstonecraft and her husband, William Godwin that an unlimited improvement in the human condition was possible. It became very popular as a refutation of the philosophy behind the French Revolution.

    9-10 November 1799 Coup d'etat of 18 Brumaire. Napoleon Bonaparte, hitherto a military leader, became, by conspiracy and a "wiff of grapeshot" fired to disperse a crowd, the political and military leader of France. Under a new constitution he was First Consul of France. See 1804, 1806, 1815,




    1800-1828 Robert Owen ran a model factory community at New Lanark in Scotland, demonstrating, he thought, that people respond to good treatment by becoming good people. This was a refutation in practice of Malthusian pessimism.

    Extracts from Owen   Radicals, Socialists and Early Feminists discusses Owen and Bentham in relation to Thompson and Wheeler. Social Science History, chapter five on the theories that Smith, Bentham, Malthus and Owen made discusses Owen in relation to the poor law.   Lecture notes   Owen weblinks

    Possibly at the turn of the century that this house was built by Quakers to guard the new entrance to their main London graveyard. It became known as the "caretaker's cottage"

    A hipped roof, oriel sash windows and symetrical proportion show the Queen Anne style as a standard of restrained middle-class domestic architecture.

    Monday 10.3.1801: First British Census
    The 1801 census recorded the number of people in each parish, the inhabited and uninhabited houses, and classified occupations into agriculture, manufacturing, commerce and handicrafts.
    Population of England and Wales: 8,893,000; Scotland: 1,608,000

    The censuses of 1801, 1811, 1821 and 1831 were purely numerical. Names were first recorded in 1841. See 1851 - 1861 - 1871 - 1881 - 1891 - 1901 - 1911 - 1921 - 1931 - [There was no census in 1941] - See 1951 - 1961 - 1971 - 1981 - 1991 - 2001 - 2011 -

    See index history of statistics - Vision of Britain - Karen Berry's history

    " London had nearly 900,000 inhabitants, more than ten times the population of its nearest rival in England, Manchester-Salford. Already there were were 123,000 people living in the five outer paishes of Kensington, Chelses, St Marylebone, Paddington and St Pancras, which a hundred before had been semi-rural villages with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants between them. By the year of the Great Exhibition, the population of the present area of the County of London had risen to 2,363,341." (R.S.R. Fitter 1945 p.63)

    October 1801 Having established the preliminaries of peace with the British, Bonaparte began preparation for a military expedition to Haiti to restore white rule. War between French forces and Toussaint.

    March 1802 to April 1803 Peace of Amiens

    1.5.1802 Toussaint surrendered to the French and retired to private life on his estates.

    About 7.6.1802 Toussaint arrested and taken on board a frigate waiting in harbour at Le Cap to go to France.

    July 1802 News arrived in Haiti that the French had restored slavery in Guadeloupe. Bonaparte formally restored all the mulatto discriminations of the Old Regime.

    24.8.1802 Toussaint imprisoned in Fort-de-Joux in the Jura mountains

    October 1802 Armies of Mulattos and ex-slaves rebelled against the French in Haiti


    Second edition of Malthus on population

    April 1803 Resumed war between Britain and France

    Autumn 1803 French forced to evacuate Haiti by the black led armies

    Immanuel Kant died

    1.1.1804 First ever black republic established. Called Haiti as it had been before European conquest.

    7.3.1804 The British and Foreign Bible Society formed in London at a meeting of members of both the Church of England and dissenting denominations. It sought to make cheap (1611) bibles available in Britain and other countries "without note or comment". The society was concerned about "recent attempts which have been made on the part of Infidelity to discredit the evidence, vilify the character, and destroy the influence of Christianity".

    21.3.1804 The French civil code promulgated. Became the Napoleon Code in 1807.

    "My true glory will not result from the forty battles that I have won. These will fade away because of Waterloo. My true glory will reside in my Civil Code, which will never be forgotten. It is my Civil Code, which will live eternally" (Bonaparte on Sainte-Hélène. See Catherine Delplanque)

    May 1804 Napoleon became Emperor.

    8.10.1804 The black leader of Haiti, Dessalines, crowned himself emperor as Jean Jacques 1st.

    1805 Thomas Malthus became the first Professor of Political Economy

    The Little Woman and the Pedlar In 1805 Mary Jane Godwin and William Godwin opened M.J. Godwin & Co. Juvenile Library, a bookshop and publisher of mainly children's books. They were joining a growing market. Their significant contribution, along with Mary and Charles Lamb, was to publish books that fed children's delight in fiction and imagination.


    1806 A portraiture of Quakerism : as taken from a view of the moral education, discipline, peculiar customs, religious principles, political and civil oeconomy and character of the Society of Friends by Thomas Clarkson published in London.

    20.5.1806 John Stuart Mill, co-author of the future of the labouring classes, born. (early life) Harriet Taylor was born 10.10.1807 (life and ideas).

    Napoleon enters Berlin October 1806, Napoleon won the battle of Jena against the Prussians. Hegel described him as "the soul of the world"

    The picture (1810) by French artist Charles Meynier of Napoleon's entry in Berlin is described by Rene Girard as the symbolic beginning of the Franco-German enmity - See symbolic end

    20.11.1806 Humphry Davy's Bakerian lecture to the Royal Society in which he described the decomposition of matter into its elements by electricity. The Institut de France awarded him a prize of 3000 francs for the most important research in electricity that year.


    25.3.1807 British Parliament prohibited slave trade. (1807 Abolition of the Slave Trade Act became law) - National Archives weblink - Wikipedia

    4.6.1807 Demonstration of gas light in Pall Mall.
    In Thomas Rowlandson's cartoon (from which the pictures are taken), a gentleman explains that coal is steamed, producing tar or paint for the outside of houses, and then the smoke is passed through, removing its substance and then burns "as you see".
    A Quaker comments that it is all vanity: "what is this to the inward light?" and a lady of the night (possibly a brothel keeper) and her male colleague complain that lighting streets will put them out of business. "Not a dark corner to be got for love or money."

    1808: John Dalton (another Quaker) published A New System of Chemical Philosophy argued that all matter consists of a range of elemental atoms (indivisible particles) each of which has a distinct atomic weight.

    The chemical combination of different atoms in different proportions producing substances qualitatively different from each other - although the constituent atoms remain the same. The experimental power of this theory (related to the calculation of weights) laid the foundations of modern chemistry - And put an end to any idea that qualities can only be explained as a result of the merging of constituent qualities. (external link)   a precise and beautiful theory

    1808 Charles Fourier Théorie des quatre mouvements et des destinées générales - (Theory of the Four Movements and General Destinies) "As a general thesis: Social progress and historic changes occur by virtue of the progress of women toward liberty, and decadence of the social order occurs as the result of a decrease in the liberty of women." (external source - See Engels and Marx 1845 - Compare with John Stuart Mill)

    1809 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's Philosophie zoologique, ou exposition des considérations relatives à l'histoire naturelle des animaux. (Zoological Philosophy. An Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals) - One of the books in which Lamarck set out his theory of evolution. - External link to extracts in English


    12.2.1810 French Code pénal de 1810

    9.6.1810 [London and Westminster Chartered] Gas Light and Coke Company established to supply gas to the Cities of London and Westminster, the Borough of Southwark, and the adjacent precincts and suburbs. On 31.12.1813 Westminster Bridge was lit by gas; the old oil-lamps were removed from St. Margaret's parish, Westminster and gas lanterns substituted. General lighting of London with gas began on Christmas-day, 1814. By 1815 30 miles of gas main had been laid in London. (See Grace's guide)

    March 1811: Percy Byshee Shelley, a young aristocrat, expelled from Oxford University for publishing a pamphlet on The Necessity of Atheism and challenging the clergy to debate it with him. In the following years he distributed pamphlets to the working class calling for revolution in the cause of liberty, equality and justice.

    Monday 27.5.1811: Second British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 10,165,000; Scotland: 1,806,000
    Owen in 1815 notes proportions employed in trade and agriculture

    The first two volumes of Barthold Georg Niebuhr's Römische Geschichte (Roman History) were published in Berlin in 1811-1812. The full three volume set was published in Berlin between 1811 and 1832. They were translated into English from 1827 onwards.


    1812 to 1814 Robert Owen wrote his four Essays on the Formation of Human Character


    1813 Humphry Davy engaged Michael Farady as his assistant at the Royal Institution and entrusted him with performing the experiments which led to the condensation of gases into liquids by pressure.
    First edition of James Cowles Prichard's Researches into the Physical History of Man

    End of the Napoleonic Wars

    April 1814: Napoleon abdicated

    Restoration of monarchies throughout continental Europe. Louis 18th King of France.

    18.6.1814 The Czar of Russia and King of Prussia, Britain's allies against Napoleon, were received at the Guildhall in London. A reenactment, called 'End of the Great War', concluded the history of London and Empire in the 1911 Pageant of London. "The world believed that the war had come to an end". [See 1910 and First World War]

    July 1814 Mary Shelley elopes: She journeys through France, Switzerland, Germany and Holland

    Humphry Davy patented the miners' safety lamp

    1815 Napoleon returned, but was defeated at Waterloo (18.6.1815).

    Marco d'Eramo After Waterloo - offline
    notes on Wellington's surgeon, John Hume
    Honeymoon trips and lakeland bonfire

    The journey from London to Paris was calculated (Observer, 18.8.1816) to take 73 hours, consisting of 12 hours to Dover, an average of seven hours waiting at Dover, six hours crossing the channel and then 48 hours to Paris.

    Marx identified the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1815 with the class victory of landed capital.

    1815 Corn Law. During the Napoleonic Wars farmers flourished because corn from abroad could not undercut their prices. Once the war was over foreign corn could come in and bring down the price of corn. To protect the rents of the landed aristocracy Parliament passed the Corn Law (repealed 1846) which put taxes on imported corn. This rise in the price of the people's staple food coincided with a period of widespread poverty and unemployment, following the end of the war. The cost of poor relief soared, leading to a movement to reform the Poor Laws

    1815 William Smith's map A Delineation of the Strata of England and Wales with part of Scotland was the first geological map to identify the layers of rock based on the fossils they contained rather than on their composition. (external link) - See Zhu Xi

    18.8.1816 The Observer reported a project in which a balloon the shape of a dolphin, powered by steam and with wings that would act as rudders would "carry the nobility and gentry to Paris, and subsequently elsewhere" in ten hours or less. [I do not know what happened]. Balloons for flight, carrying humans, had been demonstrated in France in 1783, and used by Napoleon as military observation platforms.

    1817 Ricardo's Principles of Political Economy and Taxation published. People, like Malthus and Ricardo, who wanted to abolish any form of poor relief were known as the Abolitionists. They argued that poor relief perverted the market, undermined incentive, reduced the mobility of labour and encouraged overpopulation. Such arguments were at the strongest about 1817. Between 1817 and 1834, when the Poor Law Amendment Act was passed, they were modified considerably.

    Wealth and Poverty: Malthus and Ricardo

    Major writings of Saint Simon L'Industrie (1817), L'Organisateur (1819), Du Systeme Industriel (1821), Catechisme des Industriels (1823), and Nouveau Christianisme (1825).


    Karl Marx, joint author of The Communist Manifesto was born in Germany in 1818; Friedrich Engels in 1820.

    1819 Our Village sketches by Mary Mitford in The Lady's Magazine. Idyllic pictures of an English village, its cottages and gardens and village green. Book form 1824 - 1826 - 1828 - 1830 - 1832. John Clare's Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery was published in 1820 and his The Village Minstrel, and Other Poems in 1821.

    16.8.1819 Peterloo. Troops fired on demonstrators in Manchester. (External Link- Spartacus schoolnet)

    The Times, 10.10.1819 page 4.

    1819 Act for the Resumption of Cash Payments led to bank notes being convertible to gold from 1.5.1821. Convertibility had been suspended in 1797. It was fully resumed over a period of three years (1821- 1824)


    James Mill's Essay on Government first published in the supplement to the Encyclopedia Brittanica. See 1825

    1820 Trial and acquital of Saint Simon

    the owl of Minerva 25.6.1820 The owl of Minerva does not fly until the evening - Hegel argues that we only understand history after it has happened.

    Monday 28.5.1821: Third British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 12,000,000; Scotland: 2,092,000

    1822 John Stuart Mill and his friends formed a Utilitarian Society (broken up 1826). Utilitarianism was the dominant theory of Social Science in nineteenth century Britain. It was challenged by the French Sociologist, Emile Durkheim, in the 1890s.


    David Ricardo died

    About 1823 John Stuart Mill allegedly arrested distributing birth control leaflets to working class women. [I heard he was dropping them into the "areas" of rich people's houses, where the servant girls would pick them up.] See 1886 - 1934 - 1950s - 1957 - 1961 - 1964 - 1987 - 2008


    German historian Franz Leopold Ranke (21.12.1795 -23.5.1886) wrote that rather than "judging the past" would seek "only to show what actually happened" (wie es eigentlich gewesen)

    1824 Comte and Saint-Simon fell out over the way Comte's Systeme de Politique Positive was to be presented in Saint- Simon's Catechism Des Industriels

    Finance capital, insurance, statistics and economic cycles Early in 1824 the Alliance British and Foreign Life and Fire Assurance Company was founded with four banker presidents: Moses Montefiore, Nathan Rothschild, Samuel Gurney and Francis Baring (link to another member of the family) and one MP: John Irving. In part, formed to take advantage of the mathematical abilities and knowledge of probability theory of Benjamin Gompertz (1779-1865), the company's actuary. Thomas Fowell Buxton, M.P. was one of the auditors. On 24.6.1824 the company secured an Act of Parliament breaking a monopoly on marine assurance and allowing the Alliance Marine Insurance Company to be formed with Gompertz as chief manager. The formation of the Alliance has been described as "an initial event in a speculative mania as exciting as the South Sea Bubble" - leading to the crash in December 1825. The work of Benjamin Gompertz was important in the development of statistics - See also external link and Wikipedia

    Charles Babbage (1791-1871) thought of the idea of a machine considerably more complex than an abacus to calculate and print mathematical tables in 1812. He wanted to eliminate the inaccuracies of hand calculations by large numbers of human "computers". Cogs would be more reliable. He began his first machine in 1824 and it was put together in 1832 by Joseph Clement, a skilled toolmaker and draughtsman. It was a decimal digital machine - the value of a number represented by the positions of toothed wheels marked with decimal numbers.


    1825 Michael Faraday isolated and identified benzene from the oily residue derived from the production of illuminating gas. He called it bicarburet of hydrogen. In 1836, the French chemist Auguste Laurent named it phéne. This is the word root of phenol and phenyl. [See phenothiazine]. Phenol is also known as carbolic acid.

    1825 James Mill's Essay on Government (1820) distributed in a free edition with other essays. William Thompson's Appeal on Behalf of Women written in collaboration with Anna Wheeler criticised this essay. . Thompson and Wheeler were Irish Owenites who developed socialist theories from Benthamism. See Radicals, Socialists and Early Feminists and Thompson and Wheeler weblinks

    December 1825: Two Lombard Street (London) banks failed with consequent failures of country banks. Over one hundred banks failed in a few weeks. The bank crisis was stabilised by greater reliance on gold, but this was the start of the first world wide economic depression.
    "From the time of the resumption of cash payments by the Act of 1819, and especially since the commercial crisis of 1825, the favourite explanation of every rise or fall of prices has been 'the currency;'" (Mill, J.S. 1848 book three, chapter 8 "Of the value of money, as dependent on demand and supply".

    1826 Benjamin Disraeli's Vivian Grey explored the relation of birth, wealth and intellect to power, stating that "to enter into high society, a man must either have blood, a million, or a genius". Vivian Grey regrets that he is not the "son of a millionaire, or a noble". The word millionaire had entered English from French in the late 18th century. Here it is associated with the new rich finacial and industrial classes. See also Marx and Engels 1848 paragraph 1.9 and cotton millionaires in 1850.

    Sometime in 1826: "Breast-feeding mother" by Willem Bartel van der Kooi (1768-1836), a Dutch artist famous for pictures of family and childhood. The mother is a Frisian woman from the countryside.

    23.1.1826 "The Last Man by the author of Frankenstein published

    John Stuart Mill's melancholy winter of 1826/1827. Autobiography paragraphs 5.2c - 5.6

    9.4.1827 was the end of the Liverpool Tory Government (The only English government to last longer than Mrs Thatcher's).

    30.4.1827 A foundation stone laid in Gower Street of what became London University, the first "godless" university in England. Although many who supported it were very religious, the University was founded on the principle that religious tests would not be required of staff or students. For the first time, dissenters and jews (in particular) could study for a degree without travelling to Scotland or continental Europe. (external link) - The first academic sessions started in October 1828 - On 28.11.1836 the university, renamed University College, was united with King's College as the University of London. King's College was a rival university founded by the established church. The North London Hospital was opened opposite the university in 1834. It became University College Hospital in 1837. See 1840s - 1846 - 1869 - 1871 - 1878

    Michael Farady succeeded Humphry Davy in the chair of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. He published the first edition of Chemical Manipulation

    1828 John Stuart Mill established contacts with Saint-Simonians at the London Debating Society.

    Thomas Babington Macaulay's review of James Mill's Essay on Government criticised it for using
    deduction rather than induction.

    John Stuart Mill read Comte for the first time.

    Robert Owen returned to England to find he is a guru of the labour movement.

    May 1829: The British Association for Promoting Cooperative Knowledge founded in London.

    July 1830: Revolution in France - Marx identified the revolution of 1830 with the class victory of finance capital. [See revolution]

    Eugène Delacroix's painting "Liberty leading the people" shows her bare-breasted, possibly symbolising that she breast feeds the people.

    1830-1842: Auguste Comte's Cours de Philosophie Positive (six volumes), published. The first volume is believed to have only been published (1830) in Brussels, probably due to the revolution. It was re- published in Paris later. Volume two was published in 1835 - volume three in 1838 - volume four in 1839, volume five in 1841, volume six in 1842.

    1830 Volume one of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, Being an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth's surface, by reference to causes now in operation with plates, illustrations and maps. Volume two in 1832. Volume three in 1833

    5.7.1830 Start of French invasion of Algiers. "The invasion marked the end of several centuries of Ottoman rule in Algeria and the beginning of French Algeria" (Wikipedia). This is considered te beginning of the second French Empire. The occupation of French Indo-China took place under Napoleon 3rd. See Roland Barthes the signification.

    9.8.1830 Louise Philippe proclaimed king of France. On 16.8.1830 ex-king Charles 10th left for exile in England.

    what about the workers? 28.8.1830 First threshing machine destroyed in the "Swing Riots" in England.

    15.9.1830 Railway opened between the port of Liverpool and the cotton town of Manchester.

    George Stephenson (9.6.1781 - 12.8.1848) constructed the line and his son Robert Stephenson (16.10.1803 - 12.10.1859) designed and built the steam locomotives.

    The painting (a detail) of open carriages on the first day was painted by A.B. Clayton in 1830 (Wikimedia Commons)

    Charles Tayleur and Company at Newton Le Willows opened in 1832 to produce girders for bridges, switches and crossings, and other ironwork following the opening of the railway. Robert Stephenson was a partner for a few years. Became The Vulcan Foundry Company in (or by) 1847. [See mythology Vulcan]

    See 1854 - 1899 - and Festivalof Britain 1951 and Vulcan 1951.

    15.11.1830 was the end of the Wellington Tory Government in the United Kingdom. 17.11.1830 was the start or Grey's Whig Government.

    1830: Royal Geographic Society founded. It incorporated the African Society (founded in 1788), in 1831. From 1830 to 1840 it met in the rooms of the Horticultural Society. [external link to history]. The National Geographic Society of the United States was founded in 1888.

    what about the workers? 1831

    James Clark Ross reached the magnetic north pole in 1831
    1831 to 1836 Charles Darwin's voyage on the Beagle
    In 1831, Patrick Matthew (1790-1874) published a book on On Naval Timber and Arboriculture (Edinburgh and London) the appendix to which outlined the idea of evolution by natural selection.
    Monday 30.5.1831: Fourth British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 13,897,000; Scotland: 2,364,000

    See the formation of statistical societies in 1833

    September 1831 British Association for the Advancement of Science founded. A brief (pdf) history on the British Association's website implied that an objective was to make science more open, and less elitist. The focus of the Association's activities was its Annual Meeting "which was an important forum for major scientific announcements and debate". - There is now a web brief history. (archive)

    Major scientific announcements the brief history lists are "Joule's experiments on the mechanical equivalent of heat in the 1840s, Bessemer's steel process (1856), the discovery of the first of the inert gases, argon, by Rayleigh and Ramsay (1894), the first public demonstration of wireless transmission over a few hundred yards by Sir Oliver Lodge (1894), and J. J. Thomson's discovery of the electron (1899)." It also mentions the debate on Darwin's theory in 1860. As can be seen, the emphasis is on the natural sciences, and the new statistical section (1835) was told not to be political.

    The Spirit of the Age

    Georg Friedrich Hegel, the philosopher of history as the development of ideas, died in Germany in 1831.

    German "idealism" and French "positivism" provided English speakers with alternative approaches to social science to utilitarianism.

    John Stuart Mill's articles on the Spirit of the Age (1831) showed the influence of Saint-Simon in his explanation of the way different ideas fit different periods of history. Mill was a utilitarian arguing that there is a cultural difference in what gives pleasure. He adapted utilitarianism to the philosophy of history.

    Thomas Carlyle argued against utilitarianism in a fiction called Sartor Resartus (Latin for "clothes maker repaired"), which he wrote in 1831 (published later). This argued for a social science based on the analysis of symbols. Clothes are typical social symbols. We are naturally naked, but in society we use clothes to convey meaning to one another. Although the movement of planets may be described on the model of a machine, Carlyle said social science requires the analysis of meanings. Religion had provided this, but, like old clothes, it no longer fits. The times require new clothes. Utilitarianism will not do, because it removes the significance of symbolic meanings, reducing them all to degrees of pain and pleasure in an effort to imitate the machine model used by physics.

    what about the workers? 1832

    1832 Michael Faraday (England) Joseph Henry (USA) reported their separate conversion of electricity into magnetism and back into electricity.
    Faraday sent a current through a coil of wires, creating a magnetic field which induced a momentary current in a second coil.
    This discovery of electromagnetic induction led to the development of electric motors, generators and dynamos.

    1.2.1832 Royal Commission on the Poor Laws appointed. It reported in 1834

    14.4.1832 Robert Owen's penny paper The Crisis began publication. "It is now evident to every one who observes passing events .., that a momentous Crisis is at hand".

    June 1832 Insurrection républicaine à Paris en juin 1832 - Wikipedia

    6.6.1832 Jeremy Bentham died. He left his body to medical science and you can still visit his corpse at the University of London.

    In 1832 a Whig Government passed a Parliamentary Reform Act (Royal Assent 7.6.1832). This did not add many voters, but it spread the vote more evenly over the country. There was a marked shift in the balance of power from the landed aristocracy to the urban middle classes.

    what about the workers? 1833

    Emancipation of Slaves: In August 1833, the British Parliament passed an Act prohibiting slavery in British colonies. This Act came into force on Friday 1.8.1834, which was treated as a day of celebration by the people of Britain. As in France in 1794, the common people of the slave-owning country identified with the freedom of the slaves. This is how the novel John Halifax, Gentleman (D.M. Craik, 1856) described the celebrations:

      "what a soft, gray, summer morning it was, and how it broke out into brightness; how everywhere bells were ringing, club fraternities walking with bands and banners, school-children having feasts and work-people holidays."

    Slave owners and compensation (examples): see Dr Thomas Turner and Robert Gordon

    1833 A Topographical Dictionary of Great Britain and Ireland: ..., Volume 1 Compiled by John Gorton. "Bristol, until eclipsed by Liverpool, was the principal port on the western coast of England. Its lead-branch of foreign commerce is with West Indies, which it supplies with every sort of article necessary to the black and white population; and receives back vast quantities of rum, cotton, sugar, and other West India produce in return. Sugar is the most important article,"

    Franz Bopp's Comparative Grammar was published in Berlin in six part in 1833, 1835, 1842, 1847, 1849 and 1852. The full title being Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen, Lateinischen, Litauischen, Gotischen und Deutschen (Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Gothic and German). It is the comparative study of languages that is thought of as the origin of scientific as distinct from literary philology and linguistics.

    May 1833 "Joseph Whitworth, Tool-Maker from London" established in Manchester. Whitworth produced the machine tools which made the development of railways and steamships possible. "He is best remembered for his promotion of true plane surfaces and the Whitworth screw thread. His promotion of standard measures and interchangeability brought about an engineering revolution". (Whitworth Society)

    Statistical Societies formed

    Members of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, meeting at Cambridge in the summer of 1833, formed a statistical section. - See history on website of the Royal Statistical Society). The Belgian mathematician Quetelet was invited and presented a paper on the relationship between the statistics of crime and age in France and Belgium to a small private meeting which included Thomas Malthus and Charles Babbage. Crime statistics were figures that European states had only recently begun to generate. State generated numbers opened a bright new window through which society could be looked at scientifically. Babbage proposed a statistical section of the British Association (section F) and this was agreed on the condition that it was non-political.

    Manchester Statistical Society was established before the end of 1833.

    1833 In volume three of Principles of Geology, Charles Lyell compared the fossil record in succesive strata of rocks to the records in a succesion of registers left by census officials:

    "Let the mortality of the population of a large country represent the successive extinction of species, and the births of new individuals the introduction of new species. While these fluctuations are gradually taking place everywhere, suppose commissioners to be appointed to visit each province of the country in succession, taking an exact account of the number, names, and individual peculiarities of all the inhabitants, and leaving in each district a register containing a record of this information. If, after the completion of one census, another is immediately made after the same plan, and then another, there will, at last, be a series of statistical documents in each province. When these are arranged in chronological order, the contents of those which stand next to each other will differ according to the length of the intervals of time between the taking of each census." (Lyell, C. 1833, p.32)

    what about the workers? 1834

    The Statistical Society of London, which had been projected at
    Cambridge, was established in the spring of 1834, and

    "since that time the pursuit of this science has extended very rapidly". Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol.1, no.1 May 1838 p.4

    The decision to found was made at a meeting at Babbage's house on 21.2.1834 and the society held its first meeting within two weeks, setting down its aims as 'the collection and classification of all facts illustrative of the present condition and prospects of society, especially as it exists in the British Dominions'. The Council was elected at a meeting on 3.5.1834. (Archive)

    9.4.1834 Start of the second revolt of the canuts and la semaine sanglante (week of blood) in France. (external link)

    1834 POOR LAW

    1834 Poor Law Amendment Act. By this Act a Poor Law Commission was created to regulate the poor law centrally. Under its influence local authorities were encourage to build workhouses and to refuse poor people any welfare payments unless they left their home and lived in the workhouse. The Act was hated by the working class who called workhouses the English "Bastilles". To erect some workhouses the government had to provide an army guard. Malthusianism was blamed for the New Poor Law. So evil were its motives thought to be that many thought they would be poisoned in the workhouse to control population.

    See Social Science History, chapter five:
    Social Science and the 1834 Poor Law
    The Theories that Smith, Bentham, Malthus and Owen made

    England's Poor Law Commissioners and the Trade in Pauper Lunacy 1834-1847
    Mental Health, for the effect of the Act on the growth of asylums.

    what about the workers? 1835

    The first volume of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America published in French. The second volume was published in 1840. John Stuart Mill wrote a review in The Edinburgh Review, vol 72, 1840. Tocqueville's Recollections were written in 1850/1851. His The Ancien Regime and the French Revolution was published in 1856. He died in 1859

    1835 Adolphe Quetelet published his conception of the qualities of an average person as the central values of measurements grouped in "curve of possibility" - which we now call a "normal curve".
    This bell shaped picture drawn by Quetelet illustrates a distribution according to laws of probability. Quetelet showed that the distribution of naturally occurring features, such as the heights of adult men, approximated to the same shape. So, there would be very few very short men (left), large numbers of medium height men (around the central axis) and very few very tall men. Hidden in this picture was the possibility of measuring normality and abnormality (deviance) "scientifically". This external link illustrates the relation between the normal curve and probability - archive

    Farr in "Mortality of lunatics" has the idea of a natural death rate as something distinct from the (statistically) normal death rate - without using these words

    1835 Roderick Impey Murchison and Adam Sedgwick's "On the Silurian and Cambrian Systems, Exhibiting the Order in which the Older Sedimentary Strata Succeed each other in England and Wales" since described as the germ of the modern geological time scale.

    what about the workers? 1836

    James Mill died

    1836 The post of Registrar General (births, deaths and marriages) for England and Wales created by the Births, Deaths and Marriages Registration Act. Registration began in 1837. William Farr was appointed (first) Superintendent of the Statistical Department in 1838. The Registrar General was responsible the census in England and Wales from 1841,

    Bridgewater Foundry built beside the Bridgewater Canal and the Liverpool to Manchester Railway. The foundry had a railway running through it which moved the heavy engineering goods it made from one point to another as they were worked on.

    1836 Edouard Biot (1803-1850) [in French] "The Population of China and its Variations since the year 2400 BC, until the thirteenth century AD"

    what about the workers? 1837

    1837 A Descriptive and Statistical Account of the British Empire: Exhibiting its extent, physical capacities, population, industry, and civil and religious institutions by John Ramsay McCulloch assisted by numerous contributors, published in two volumes under the superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. (Read online). The chapter on "Vital statistics, or, The statistics of health, sickness, diseases, and death" was written by Wiliam Farr. ["Vital Statistics" means "life statistics"]

    1837 to 1839 Thomas Carlyle's two volume The French Revolution established him amongst the chief writers of the day.

    May 1837 William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented their electric telegraph which used a battery to send an electric current down five wires to five needles which pointed to letters and numbers on a panel. It was first used by the Great Western Railway. [See drum telegraph]

    1.7.1837 Registration of births, deaths and marriages in England and Wales required by law. - External link to General Register Office

    Poor Law Commission decide to extend the law to the north. Opposition spread faster than the Commissioners. An Anti-Poor law campaign and a campaign to control factory working hours merged with the campaign for the Charter. The Charter called for a vote for every adult male. Chartists believed that if the working class could gain control of Parliament they would gain control of the welfare system and of the economy. Tied to the Charter was a plan to bring it about. A large demonstration would present a monster petition to Parliament asking that all men should have a vote. They would wait outside Parliament and when the petition was rejected they would declare themselves a National Convention -a kind of People's Parliament which would take over from the official Parliament - To enforce their will they would call a sacred month or national strike of the working classes. The use of the word "Convention" was seen as deliberate reference to the French Revolution. The idea of the "sacred month" was common amongst the Owenites.

    Aborigines' Protection Society (London) founded in the aftermath of British emancipation of slaves. The Ethnological Society of London was founded in 1843

    20.6.1837 Victoria became Queeen on the death of her uncle, William 4th.

    French Wikipedia (in English) The Victorian era (L'époque victorienne) in the United Kingdom marks the height of the British industrial revolution and the British Empire. Queen Victoria reigned for 1837 to 1901, but some historians prefer to start the Victorian period at the Reform Act of 1832. The Victorian era is preceded by the Georgian and followed by the Edwardian era. - See also German Wikipedia - Victorian America - 1865

    A young portrait of Victoria was used from her first coins of 1838 until 1887 for gold and silver coins, but continued in use until as late as 1895 on some bronze coins.

    Victorian (and subsequent) pennies were legal currency in the United Kingdom until 1971. The early Victorian ones were worn very thin by over a century of use.

    Isambard Kingdom Brunel (9.4.1806 - 15.9.1859) designed the first steamship purpose-built for regularly scheduled trans-Atlantic crossings. The ship was part of a project that would link London, England to New York in the USA. This was completed on 30.6.1841 when the Great Western Railway from Paddington to Bristol opened.
    The Falmouth Art Gallery has this wood engraving by W. Serjent

    "The Great Western Steam Ship of Bristol"

    Listen to the news on the day the Great Western Steamship (archive - new) was launched at Bristol. It left on its first voyage for America in 1838. There is also a feature on the lunacy commission described in the news bulletin.

    Hegel died in 1831.

    The Doktorklub, later renamed Die Freien of Young Hegelians met in Berlin in the late 1830s and early 1840s

    This cartoon of Die Freien is by Engels. I do not have a date.

    what about the workers? 1838

    Charles Lyell The Elements of Geology - Originally planned as volume four of Principles

    Objective statistics In an 1820 paper to the Royal Society, Benjamin Gompertz criticised life assurance societies for selecting mortality tables that they hoped would be favourable to them, rather than seeking objectivity. In 1838 he was a member of a committee formed by seventeen assurance offices to pool information in the search for reliable statistics.

    1838 William Ewart Gladstone The State in its Relations with the Church "We have no fear for the Church of England in her competition with the denominational bodies around her."

    One spring morning 1838 A mirror image of Boulevard du Temple, Paris at "huit heure du matin" (8 a.m.) captured by Louis-Jaques-Mandé Daguerre using a light-sensitised silver plate. The plate was exposed in a camera for about ten minutes to take the picture. Moving objects were not recorded but a shoe-shiner and his customer were still enough to be immortalised. See photograph

    September 1838 The London to Birmingham Railway opened. The first main line in the world. [See steam] the train from

    In October 1838, Charles Darwin read Malthus on Population. This eventually led to his theory of evolution by natural selection.

    23.11.1838 A "Natural-History Society" established in Warrington, which "is already in possession of a Phrenological Society".

    what about the workers? 1839
    In volume four of Cours de Philosophie Positive, Auguste Comte coined the word Sociologie. In 1843, this entered English as Sociology.

    The speed of the train may annihilate distance: The first volume of The Quarterly Review (January-March) for 1839 started with an article in which the author suggested the current speed of possibly 30 miles per hour might increase to sixty or even a hundred.

    "It will be evident that the first effect of this increasing series is the gradual annihilation, approaching almost to the final extinction, of that space and of those distances which have hitherto been supposed unalterably to separate the various nations of the globe; and that in proportion as this shall be effected, the centralisation, whether for weal or woe, of the human family, must be accomplished. For instance, supposing that railroads, even at our present simmering rate of travelling, were to be suddenly established all over England, the whole population of the country would, speaking metaphorically, at once advance en masse, and place their chairs nearer to the fireside of their metropolis by two-thirds of the time which now separates them from it; they would also sit nearer to one another by two-thirds of the time which now respectively alienates them. If the rate were to be again sufficiently accelerated, this process would be repeated ; our harbours, our dock-yards, our towns, the whole of our rural population, would again not only draw nearer to each other by twothirds, but all would proportionally approach the national hearth. As distances were thus annihilated, the surface of our country would, as it were, shrivel in size until it became not much bigger than one immense city, and yet by a sort of miracle every man's field would be found not only where it always was, but as large as ever it was!"

    7.5.1839 First presentation of the Charter to Parliament.

    12.5.1839 La Société des saisons launched an usuccesful republican revolt against the July monarchy (French Wikipedia)

    9.7.1839 Completion of thirteen miles of electric telegraph between the Paddington and West Drayton stations of the Great Western Railway.

    10.9.1839: John Frederick William Herschel to William Henry Fox Talbot: I have not tried Daguerre's process - But I yesterday succeeded in producing a photograph on glass ... The process ... consists in depositing on the glass a perfectly uniform film of Muriate of Silver - dry (by subsidence from water) - drying it - then washing it with Nitrate to render it sensitive... When placed glass foremost in the focus of a Camera This takes the image with much greater sharpness than paper."

    what about the workers? Hungry Forties
    The Hungry Forties; life under the Bread Tax was the title chosen by Jane Unwin, in 1904, for a collection of documents from the 1840s. The term caught on as the British labour movement of the early twentieth century recounted to itself the struggles of its predecessors, and British communists studied the Communist Manifesto and tried to relate it to the decade that gave birth to it.

    The "hungry forties", when a large part of the Irish peasantry starved to death and the condition of the English workers was also miserable, had a strong effect on the ideas about society of people of many different political persuasions.

    But the date 1840 is artificial, the period really begins in the 1830s. The 1830s and 1840s were a period of rapid industrial development, social distress and the emergence of open class conflict. A period when Britain came nearer to revolution than at any other time in recent history.

    It was also a period when people were thinking about how society is structured and how society changes. There was a great deal of political and theoretical discussion, not only about class, but also about how we should think about men, women and children and their position in society.

    what about the workers? 1840

    1840: "In all ages woman may lament the ungallant silence of the historian" . The art of needle-work from the earliest ages : including some notices of the ancient historical tapestries by Mrs Elizabeth Stone, edited by Mary Margaret Stanley Egerton, Countess of Wilton. London: Henry Colburn 1840. ix and 405 pages. 1841 edition available at Project Gutenberg

    12.6.1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention opened in London. Its decision not to recognise women delegates (from America) sparked the women's rights movement. America

    December 1840 An article by Lord Ashley in the Tory Quarterly Review, discussed the employment of children in factories, and argued that society and the family in Britain were being destroyed by the industrial revolution. The way to restore a healthy society was for the rich to concern themselves with the welfare of the poor.

    Brief note on Ashley
    Ashley's writings
    Ashley in the 1830s and 1840s
    Ashley as a Lunacy Commissioner

    what about the workers? 1841

    Hugh Miller The Old Red Sandstone

    1841 Ludwig Feuerbach, in The Essence of Christianity argued that Christianity is a necessary phase of human culture whose essence is to understand human potenial in a heavenly rather than an earthly form.

    Feuerbach's earth-centred (rather than heaven-centred) view of religion has been described as anthropological and as humanist

    1841 A Huntley and a Palmer (both Quakers) became partners in biscuit making in Reading. This advertisement is before 1846. (See Reading Museum). Huntley had sold biscuits to travellers on (horse drawn) coaches since 1822. Tins to preserve them were manufactured by one of his sons from 1832. The square shape of the tins had to be modified when they were sent by the new trains. More about biscuits

    1841 Statistical Society resolves to collect lunatic asylum statistics. 15.4.1841 William Farr's "Report on the Mortality of Lunatics". (See also Mental Health History timeline for 1841). William Far also produced an English life table predicting the life spans of 100,000 people born alive in 1841. The longest lived women was predicted to die in 1945 - when I was one year old.

    15.4.1841 Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain founded by leading London chemists and druggists "for the protection of their general interests and the advancement of the art and science of Pharmacy." Proposed by William Allen, who became its first President.

    Sunday 6.6.1841/Monday 7.6.1841: Fifth British Census
    This recorded names for the first time. People over 15 years old had their age recorded to the lowest term of five. The place a person was born in was partially recorded: Y for born in the same county, N for not. S for Scotland, I for Irelend. For the first time, householders could complete their own forms if they were able to. (Census layout - external)
    Population of England and Wales: 15,914,000; Scotland: 2,620,000

    Suicide statistics: Emile Durkheim's table of "Stability of suicide in the principal European countries (absolute figures)" has time series starting in 1841 for France, Prussia, Saxony and Denmark, in 1844 Bavaria, and in 1857 for England.

    Chesnais (2003) says that "some countries have time series stretching back to the 18th century and in some cases, point observations dating as far back as the 13th century". However, to "To ensure coverage of a sufficient range of countries" he uses data starting between 1845 and 1855.

    what about the workers? 1842 No gloomier year

    Poems by Alfred Tennyson published. One that was soon popular (Locksley Hall), celebrates science and the march of mind and industry as the spirit of the age in Europe and contrasts it with the savagery of dusky races. (The words are Tennyson's, not mine).
      "Here about the beach I wander'd, nourishing a youth sublime
      With the fairy tales of science, and the long result of Time;

      When I dipt into the future far as human eye could see;
      Saw the Vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be -

      In the steamship, in the railway, in the thoughts that shake mankind.

    Tennyson dreams of having children with a "savage woman" so that they are supple-sinewed, leaping brooks rather than poring over books, but recoils. "I the heir of all the ages, in the foremost files of time - Let the people spin for ever down the ringing grooves of change. Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay."

    Compare with Barry Cornwall

    The poet recognises mind in women as well as men: "Women is the lesser man, and all thy passions, match'd with mine are as moonlight unto sunlight, and as water unto wine". In 1847 Tennyson published a poem in which a royal princess founds a women's university. She falls from the chastity of thought when she falls in love, but the dominant image is that European men and women are both to be engaged in the adventures of science and thought.

    But the march of mind and the march of hunger are in competition. In the immediate present "all things here are out of joint, science moves, but slowly slowly, creeping on from point to point: Slowly comes a hungry people, as a lion, creeping nigher". (Quotations all from Locksley Hall)

    May 1842 Second presentation of the Charter to Parliament.

    Lord Ashley introduced a bill intended to ban women and children from working in coal mines.

    10.8.1842 Coal Mines Act became law.

    Summer 1842 Plug riots. English workers, striking for the Charter, roamed the Midlands and North of England setting light to rich men's houses and pulling out the plugs of factory boilers. Parliament thought that the revolution was upon them.

    what about the workers? 1843

    Blackwood's Magazine volume 53, p.397 "These are to constitute a new science, to be called Social Ethics, or Sociology" - First use recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary.

    1843 The Zoologist - A popular miscellany of natural history a monthly magazine edited by Edward Newman founded. Newman was editor in chief until his death in 1876.

    February 1843

    Ethnological Society of London founded by members of the Aborigines' Protection Society. To be "a centre and depository for the collection and systematisation of all observations made on human races". Divided over racialist issues from early days, it split into an Ethnological Society and an Anthropological Society in 1863. Merging in 1870, it became The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland in 1871. (Royal from 1907). Now The Royal Anthropological Institute (Link goes directly to its website)

    Spring 1843 A System of Logic, by John Stuart Mill, published. Mill defended deductive theory against induction, and induction against deduction, arguing that science needs both. He suggested how psychology (the study of mind) could become a science of experiment and observation, and discussed the foundations of a science of society (sociology). The argumant of the book is outlined under John Stuart Mill defends deductive theory in Social Science History, chapter one:
    John Stuart Mill and his problems with Francis Bacon

    Autumn 1843 Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert established the Broadbalk experiment on Lawes' Rothamsted Estate in Berkshire. This was the first of the long- term "classic experiments", and it still exists today. A winter-wheat crop was first sown in the autumn of 1843. A control strip has received no fertiliser or manure since 1843. Other strips have received farmyard manure or inorganic fertiliser. Lawes was the pioneer of artificial fertilisers having established the manufacture of superphosphate at his factory in Deptford, England in 1842. See 1919

    Rothamsted Experimental Station
    1986 Institute of Arable Crops Resarch: See Long Ashton Research Station
    1999 Rothamsted Research

    Christmas 1843 The Song of the Shirt

    Surrounded by comic characters, a poem about the misery of a dressmaker appeared in the Christmas number of Punch, or the London Charivari on 16.12.1843.

    21.12.1844 The Rochdale Equitable Pioneers Society opened a shop "selling pure food at fair prices and honest weights and measures". (Link to museum)

    what about the workers? 1844

    1845 Fossils thought to be caprolites (fossilised dung) discovered on the Suffolk coast leading to the development of extraction for phosphatic fertiliser. See 1861 - 1872.

    1845 The Claims of Labour. An Essay on the Duties of the Employers to the Employed, published anonymously, argues for a new order of society based on benevolence of employers towards the employed.

    Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (external link - archive)

    " Fifty years ago, science possessed no facts regarding the origin of organic creatures upon earth ... all was a blank antecedent to the first chapters of what we usually call ancient history". [Since then] "researches in the crust of the earth" [have shown that]... "strata of various thickness were deposited in seas... The remains and traces of plants and animals found in the succession of strata, show that, while these operations were going on, the earth gradually became the theatre of organic being, simple forms appearing first, and more complicated afterwards. A time when there was no life is first seen. We then see life begin, and go on ; but whole ages elapsed before man came to crown the work of nature. "

    what about the workers? 1845

    John Stuart Mill's review of The Claims of Labour in the Edinburgh Review argues that a new moral order based on benevolence would undermine the independence and self- determination of working class people

    Summer 1845 Engels: The Condition of the Working Class in England

    October 1845 Beginning of the Great Famine in Ireland. Potato blight destroyed three-quarters of the crop.

    what about the workers? 1846

    26.6.1846 Repeal of the Corn Law

    In Dickens' 1838 satire on the Poor Law, Oliver Twist caused a sensation by asking for more food. In 1846 it seemed the satire had come true. It was revealed that in Andover Workhouse the residents were so hungry that they fought over rotten bones. The scandal of Andover led to the replacement of the Poor Law Commissioners, in 1847, by a Poor Law Board responsible directly to Parliament and, under new management, the poor law became the centre of a remarkably extensive pauper welfare state. Poor law hospitals laid the foundations for the National Health Service - and many are still in use.

    12.8.1846 Term "folklore" suggested for the culture and traditions of ordinary people

    Winter 1846/1847: John Stuart Mill laid aside work on the Principles of Political Economy to campaign for land reform in Ireland.

    what about the workers? 1847

    27.1.1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers founded at a meeting at the Queen's Hotel, Birmingham. George Stephenson elected first President. The 70 founder members included representatives of nine different railways. The Vulcan Foundry was represented by Edward Tayleur and Henry Dubbs. (Vulcan Magazine Volume 2, Number 4, Winter 1951-1952, p.18)

    9.6.1847 Warrington Council met for the first time. [See rail]. Its first Mayor, William Beamont (1797-1889), became the first chairman of the Museum and Library Committee in 1848.

    July 1847 Poem Song of the Famine in Dublin University Magazine

    November 1847 origins of the Communist Manifesto - In November/December, Marx said that achieving the Charter would make the English working class the "saviour of the whole human race"

    1847 Tancred; or, The New Crusade, a novel by Benjamin Disraeli, in which Sidonia says that "All is race; there is no other truth". England

    "A Saxon race, protected by an insular position, has stamped its diligent and methodic character on the century. And when a superior race, with a superior idea to work and order, advances, its state will be progressive, and we shall, perhaps, follow the example of the desolate countries... The decay of a race is an inevitable necessity, unless it lives in deserts and never mixes its blood." (Chapter 20)

    1847-1852 (Three volumes): Studien über die innern Zustände, das Volksleben und insbesondere die ländlichen Einrichtungen Russlands by Baron August von Haxthausen (1792-1866) published in Hanover. Described by Frederick Starr (1968) as "the first attempt to bring the Russian commune into the sphere of European social thought". - See Engels footnote

    Mrs Alexander's Hymns for Little Children, first published in 1848, launched All Things Bright and Beautiful, in which the natural and social orders are praised as the creation of God: The rich man in his castle, The poor man at his gate, He made them, high or lowly, And ordered their estate. This was written in Ireland.
    See also the speech of Shaftesbury to the Social Science Congress in 1858.

    1848: John Stuart Mill's Principles of Political Economy published with a chapter drafted by Harriet Taylor on the self- determination of the labouring classes - and women

    1848: Elizabeth Gaskell's Mary Barton

    February 1848 The Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels published in German, in London

    Saint-Simon had argued that history is moved between different stages by the rise of new classes. Marx and Engels argued that all history is class conflict. The 1848 manifesto was a redraft by Marx of an 1847 draft by Engels called the Principles of Communism,

    See also   1806   1822   1828   1829   1835   1843   1845
    1859 On Liberty
    1861 Representative Government
    1869 Subjection of Women
    1880 Freud and J.S. Mill
    Mill and Taylor on the future of the labouring classes
    Mill and Taylor on Freedom as Self Development
    Mill and Taylor weblinks
    See also
    1845: Engels on England
    1846: German Ideology
    1859: Marx explains how his political economic theories developed.
    1884 Engels' Origin

    The Communist Manifesto
    Principles of Communism
    Marx and Engels: scientific socialism
    Marx and Engels weblinks

    what about the workers? 1848 REVOLUTIONS
    1848 was a year of revolutions in Europe. In
    France the monarchy collapsed and the Second Republic was established. In the German Confederation there were many revolts for constitutional government and a national parliament.
    The Communist Manifesto said that "of all the classes that stand face to face with the bourgeoisie today, the proletariat alone is a really revolutionary class". [See revolution]

    In England, Wales and France the workers were a significant fraction of radical activity, but no more.

    In Germany, the Manifesto anticipated a radical bourgeoise revolution followed by a proletarian revolution. The proletarian revolution did not happen.

    24.2.1848 Louis Philippe driven out of Paris and the French Republic proclaimed.

    25.2.1848 Armed workers occupied the French Assembly demanding the right to work.

    4.3.1848 Marx arrested by the police (in Brussels) and escorted to the French frontier. Continued to Paris

    13.3.1848 People of Vienna broke the power of Prince Metternich. He fled the country.

    18.3.1848 People of Berlin took arms. King surrendered to them after 18 hours.

    10.4.1848 Chartists gathered on Kennington Common to prepare for a march to Parliament. The marchers were fewer than expected and the presentation of the third, and final, petition ended peacefully.

    April 1848 to May/June 1849: Marx and Engels worked for the Neue Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne

    May or June 1848. First copies of The Communist Manifesto circulating in Germany.

    3.6.1848 Warrington Museum and Library opened, making Warrington one of the first towns in England to support a public library from the rates. A library established in 1760 united with the museum of the local Natural History Society, which had been founded in 1838. This was achieved under the 1845 Museums Act. The museum and library were first housed in rented premises in Friars Green House. See 1855.

    what about the workers? 1849

    August 1849 Marx settled in London as a political refugee.

    November 1849 Engels arrived in London. From 1849 Engels worked in his father's business in Manchester and supported Marx financially. Between December 1849 and November 1850, a series of articles, by Marx, in the Neue Rheinische Zeitung analysed political events in France from 1848 to 1850 in terms of class struggles.

    A Ladies College opened in Bedford Square,
    close to the British Museum and London University


    Germany 1850 Geschichte der sozialen Bewegung in Frankreich von 1789 bis auf unsre Tage (History of the social movement in France from 1789 to the present) by Lorenz von Stein published in Leipzig in three volumes.

    5.3.1850 Opening of the Britannia Bridge, providing a rail crossing that linked Chester to Holyhead, and thus England to the boats for Dublin, Ireland.

    December 1850 Napoleon 3rd (President) dissolved the French Assembly and restored universal male suffrage. His total power was then approved by plebiscite. See Neumann's dictatorship types


    Lord Ashley became the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury

    Natural Sciences and Moral Sciences Triposes established at Cambridge University. The question paper for Natural Sciences (8.3.1851) included comparative anatomy, physiology, chemistry, botany, mineralogy, and geology, but not physics [See Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal 19.3.1851 and 2.4.1851.
    Physics see Cavendish Laboratory 1874

    The moral sciences included politics, philosophy and economics.
    See Mary Paley 1874

    Sunday 30.3.1851/Monday 31.3.1851: Sixth British Census
    From 1851 the exact ages and birthplaces were given, together with marital status and relationship to the householder. The number of blind, deaf and dumb was noted. (Census layout - external) In 1851 there was also a special census of church congregations and accommodation.
    Population of England and Wales: 17,928,000; Scotland: 2,889,000

    1.5.1851 to 15.10.1851 The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations held in Hyde Park, London.

    After the exhibition, the Crystal Palace in which it was held was moved to south London.

    30.5.1851: Meeting to establish the Central Co-operative Agency, 76 Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square. Founder Edward Vansittart Neale and Thomas Hughes one of the contributors

    21.4.1851 Marriage of John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor
    July 1851 Harriet Taylor's article The Enfranchisement of Women in The Westminster Review America

    May 1852 Museum of Manufactures opened at Marlborough House, transferring to Somerset House in September. Funded from the profits of the Great Exhibition, it covered both applied art and science. Exhibits from the Exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection. The museum became the Victoria and Albert Museum, which was opened on its present site in South Kensington on 22.6.1857.

    Also funded from the profits of the Great Exhibition was The Science and Art Department, a government body (1853 to 1899) promoting education in art, science, technology and design in Britain and Ireland.

    1853 Karl Knies's Political Economy from the Historical Point of View published in German and Harriet Martineau's English translation of Auguste Comte , published.

    Geoff Bunn's A Chronology of Psychology in Britain 1853-1987 begins with J.D. Morrell's (1816-1891) Elements of Psychology as "the first book published in England to be called psychology. (Hearnshaw, 1964: 21)". The first part of the chronology builds up to the founding of The Psychological Society in 1901. - offline rtf - offline pdf

    1853 First International Statistical Congress held in Brussels. Organisers included L. A. J. Quételet and E. Engel. [2nd 1855 - 3rd 1857 - 4th 1860 - 5th 1862 - 6th 1867 - 7th 1869 - 8th 1872 - 9th and last 1875

    1854 to 1856 Crimean War (Concluded by the Treaty of Paris signed on 30.3.1856, which made the Black Sea neutral territory,)

    27.3.1854 and 28.3.1854 France and Britain declare war on Russia

    A pie chart to make statistics palatable

    Florence Nightingale's polar area graph showing graphically that contagious diseases, such as cholera and typhus (the blue wedges), were the major cause of death in the war. The deaths from wounds are represented by the red inner wedges and the black wedges are deaths from other causes.

    The illustration is misleading in that the wedge shapes give a larger area to the outer part than the inner - over-emphasising deaths from contagious diseases.

    1854 "Report on the Organisation of the Permanent Civil Service, Together with a Letter from the Rev. B. Jowett." by Stafford Northcote and Charles Trevelyan. See Civil Service History

    1854 Einleitung zur Geschichte der Mark-, Hof-, Dorf-, und Stadtverfassung und der offentlichen Gewalt was the first of a series of books on the early institutions of the Germans by Georg Ludwig von Maurer (1790 - 1872) - Source Wikipedia - See Engels footnote

    June 1854 The Sydenham Crystal Palace opened by Queen Victoria. (history)

    July? 1854 John Lawson began work at the Vulcan Foundry. He retired 8.12.1927 after 73 years and 5 months service. (Vulcan Magazine Volume 2, Number 4, Winter 1951-1952, p.32)


    Herbert Spencer's Social Statics and the first edition of his Principles of Psychology published

    1855 Second International Statistical Congress held in Paris

    February 1855 Charles Kingsley's dedication to his historical novel Westward Hoe! in which a character anguishes that a woman may be "living in sin".

    Thursday 20.9.1855 More than 2,000 peole gathered, in top hats and bonnets, to see the foundation stone of the new Warrington Museum and Art Gallery laid in Bold Street by William Beamont

    22.12.1855 First meeting of the Metropolitan Board of Works (London, England) which took over the responisbilities of the Metropolitan Buildings Office and Metropolitan Commission of Sewers,


    March 1856 William Henry Perkin (1838-1907) discovered the first aniline dyestuff while working in his home laboratory in Stepney. The Stepney Historical Trust says he "went on to found science-based industry"

    6.5.1856 Sigmund Freud (author of Interpretation of Dreams) born

    You need to be very still for a long time to have your photograph taken. Allen Hastings Fry was about nine years old when he took this photograph of his mother and her school class in Brighton about 1856. Photography was a new and exciting way for those who could afford it to look at themselves and society.


    1857 Third International Statistical Congress held in Vienna

    1857 National Association for the Promotion of Social Science founded. This held annual Congresses to discuss issues of social reform and published its proceedings. Isa Craig, a working Scottish poet from Scotland was the secretary until her marriage in 1866. Henry (Lord) Brougham and Ashley Cooper, the Earl of Shaftesbury, were frequent leaders of the Congresses. Robert Owen contributed five papers to the first Congress and spoke at the second. In 1866, with Shaftesbury presiding, its topics included the best means of preventing infanticide, education of various groups of working class children and control of their work, public health and housing. The last congress was held in Birmingham in 1884. The Association dissolved itself in 1886

    1857 First edition of History of Civilisation in England by Henry Thomas Buckle (1821-1862), in which he argued that the regularity of social statistics demonstrates that human behaviour is as predictable as natural phenomena and determined rather than free.

    1857 Mary Seacole's Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands (1857)

    5.9.1857 Auguste Comte died


    1.7.1858 Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: Three Papers on the Tendency to form Varieties.: 1. Extract from an unpublished work on Species by C. Darwin; 2. Abstract of a Letter from Darwin to Asa Gray; 3. On the Tendency of Varieties to depart indefinitely from the Original Type. by Alfred Russel Wallace. First printed in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London Zoology 3 on 20.8.1858 pages 45-50 and then reprinted (pages 6293-6308) in The Zoologist

    9.4.1858 Charter that enabled London University to offer external degrees.

    15.4.1858 Emile Durkheim born in Épinal in Lorraine, north-east France. His older sister (born 1848) had a son, Marcel Mauss, born 1872, who became Durkheim's colleague.

    July 1858 "The Great Stink" in London, England. The Metropolis Management Amendment Act was passed to permit work on a London sewerage scheme by the Metropolitan Board of Works. (source: Cholera and the Thames by Westminster Archives)

    3.11.1858 Death of Harriet Taylor - buried in Avignon
    17.11.1858 Death of Robert Owen


    1859 John Stuart Mill's On Liberty published   (extracts)

    what about the lunatics?

    1859 Karl Marx's A contribution to the critique of political economy written. It was intended as the first volume of his work on Economics. (extracts)

    1859 Self-Help; with Illustrations of Character and Conduct (first edition) by Samuel Smiles.

    See 1611 - 1809 - 1831 - 1844 - 1838

    November 1859 Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life published. The theory that species develop from another through a long process of evolution became credible when Darwin showed how it could happen. He argued that there was a natural selection of naturally occurring variations through the survival of those best adapted to their circumstances. Social theorists drew different conclusions for society from Darwin's biological ideas. Marx and Engels welcomed the theory because it had a material base and provided a developmental theory for the natural world to match theirs for society. Herbert Spencer, who had developed evolutionary theory independently of Darwin, saw competition as the mechanism through which the fittest members of society are selected. The theory that the fittest should be selected through struggle is known as "Social Darwinism". It has been used by Spencer and his followers to support an unregulated market. Benjamin Kidd, however, argued that the struggle is between societies, and that the strength of a society depends largely on the collective support its members give one another. Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf argued human history is a struggle for survival between biological races of human beings. By the early 20th century, social darwinist theories had become a common "scientific" analysis of society. The joint shocks of the second world war and the revelation of attempted race extermination were followed by a reconstruction of European culture that marginalised such theories. See 1871 - 1872 - 1894 - 1903 - 1913 - 1925 - 1930 - 1933 - 1939 -


    Herbert Spencer's First Principles published in six parts, between 1860 and 1862. It was about "those highest generalisations now being disclosed by science which are severally true not of one class of phenomena but of all classes of phenomena; and which are thus the keys to all classes of phenomena". Published as one volume in 1862, there were revised editions in 1867, 1875, 1880, 1884, 1900.

    The Anglo-French [Cobden-Chevalier] commercial treaty of 1860 stimulated a series of commercial treaties "binding Europe into the nearest it got to a common market before the late twentieth century" (external link). Durkheim speaks of a "commercial revolution" caused by these treaties.

    16.7.1860 First day of the 4th International Statistical Congress: held in London over six days. (Report from Economist preserved in a New Zealand library) - Proceedings edited by William Farr - Letter from Florence Nightingale read by the Earl of Shaftesbury


    John Stuart Mill's Considerations on Representative Government published

    Das Mutterrecht: eine Untersuchung über die Gynaikokratie der alten Welt nach ihrer religiösen und rechtlichen Natur by Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815 - 1887) of Switzerland. Later translaated into English as "Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World"

    March 1861 Third edition of Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species. This and three other books were reviewed in a 38 page article in The Zoologist written by its editor, Edward Newman. The other three were: Species not Transmutable, nor the Result of Secondary Causes; being a Critical Examination of Mr Darwin's book... by Charles Robert Bree (September 1860). Henry Freke On the Origin of Species by means of Organic Affinity (1861) and Asa Gray's Natural Selection not inconsistent with Natural Theology. Quoting Darwin on the pre- silurian origin of all life, Newman said "these passages pain us". "Darwin leads us by inference to conclude that he considers the human species is genealogically allied to brute life". His theory "makes a kind of sentimental theology do duty for Revelation, which his theory so unequivocally opposes". Does he "consider his theory of the origin of species consistent with the Scriptures?". (Annual edition pages 7609-7610)

    Sunday 7.4.1861/Monday 8.4.1861: Seventh British Census (Census layout - external)
    Population of England and Wales: 20,066,000; Scotland: 3,062,000

    April-June 1861 Max Müller gave nine lectures on "the science of language" at Royal Institution. - In these he referred to Aryans as a "race" - A fuller text than that delivered was published in 1862. (Available on Google Books). - See 1870 - 1888


    Robert FitzRoy's first public weather forecast appeared on page 10 of The Times. (source). Daily forecasts were discontinued in May 1866. Storm warnings resumed in 1867, public forecasts in 1879. (source)


    1862 Fifth International Statistical Congress held in Berlin

    1862 Les Misérables by Victor Hugo published in Paris.


    1863 The British Treasury agreed to pay for work filling in the detail of a five feet to the mile skeleton [ordnance] survey of London. This led to the large scale maps of 1870-1873 and 1893-1896.

    9.1.1863 First journey on the Paddington to Farringdon underground railway. (Significance article)

    24.2.1863 James Hunt "Introductory Address on the Study of Anthropology", delivered before the newly formed Anthropological Society of London. One of the first actions of the Society (at the end of 1863) was to publish a translation (from German into English) of Theodore Waitz's Anthropologie der Naturvölker [Anthropolgy of natural or primitive people] of 1858 as Introduction to Anthropology - Available from Google Books

    James Hunt: On the Negro's Place in Nature Anthropological Society Available from Google Books

    1864 Herbert Spencer's Principles of Biology published. The sections on plant morphology and physiology in the 1899 revised edition were overseen by Arthur Tansley.

    1864 First International Workingmen's Association established by French and English Labour leaders in London (dissolved 1876). Marx drew up its Inaugural Address - a much more moderate document than the Communist Manifesto

    7.4.1864 Louis Pasteur lectures on germs as the origin of disease

    21.4.1864 Max Weber born

    28.8.1864 The founder of the General German Workers' Association (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein), Ferdinand Lassalle fought, a duel in Switzerland over his love for Helene von Donniges. He had no hope of reclaiming her, but fought it to defend his honour as a jew, a socialist and a lover. He was wounded, and died on 31.8.1864. He is buried in Poland.

    1865 Trevelyan begins the second half of the Victorian Era. See also La Belle Epoque

    The London street scene of 1865 is actually Quakers gathered in front of their headquarters in Bishopsgate. Head to foot clothing and women's billowing dresses are typical of all classes and even the men's top hats do not have the class implications they acquired.

    1865 August Kekulé published his succesful speculation about the ring structure of benzene (C6H6). Picture from a 1979 East German stamp.

    8.2.1865 and 8.3.1865 Gregor Mendel's Experiments in Plant Hybridisation read at meetings of the Brünn Natural History Society. They were published, in German, in the proceedings of the society in 1866, but received little attention until 1900. They were translated into English in 1902. See Genetics.

    March 1865 The London sewerage system designed by Joseph Bazalgette was considered complete (although not fully so for another ten years). It was formally opened by Edward, Prince of Wales sometime in 1865. See Grace's Guide

    17.5.1865 International Telegraph Union founded in Paris. It became the International Telecommunication Union in 1934, and in 1947 became a specialised agency of the United Nations. (history)

    August 1865 Joseph Lister, a surgeon at Glasgow Royal Informary, used lint dipped in carbolic acid (phenol) solution to cover a wound. After four days he discovered that no infection had developed. He published his results in The Lancet between March and July 1867.

    The picture shows a modern bottle of phenol from Poland.

    1865 John Stuart Mill's Auguste Comte and Positivism published

    from 1865 to 1868 John Stuart Mill was Liberal Member of Parliament for Westminster.

    1866 Prussia's "Seven Weeks War" with Austria and other German states cut old German ties. In 1867, the North German Federation was formed.

    In 1867, John Stuart Mill made a speech in Parliament on: "The Admission of Women to the Electoral Franchise".

    1867:  1.2.1867 J.S.Mill gave his Inaugural Address as Rector of St. Andrews University, Scotland, in which he reviewed the whole scope of education, discussing the value of what we now call the Humanities, Mathematics, Natural Science and Social Science. He spoke in favour of psychology as a discipline and drew attention to the role of Scottish thinkers in this area.

    March 1867 George Cruikshank published his "The British Beehive" cartoon.

    Marx completed the manuscript of Das Kapital on 27.3.1867. At 2am in the morning of 16.8.1867 he wrote to Engels the he had "just finished correcting the last sheet (49th) of the book" and thanked Engels for enabling him to complete the "immense labour" of the book. In the third week of September 1867: Volume I of Das Kapital was published in a print run of 1,000 in Hamburg. It was not translated into English until 1887

    29.9.1867 to 5.10.1867 Sixth International Statistical Congress held in Florence


    The first edition of Alexander von Oettingen's work on moral statistics and social ethics

    1869 The twelfth thousand of The Reason Why; domestic science, affording intelligible reasons for the various duties which a housewife has to perform. By the author of "Enquire Within upon Everything" [Robert Kemp Philp] published in London. The first may have been in 1867. One of the first uses of the concept Domestic Science.

    1869: John Stuart Mill's The Subjection of Women published. (Written in 1861)

    6.9.1869 to 11.9.1869 Seventh International Statistical Congress held in The Hague.

    2000: Nature Reviews. 2001: Human Genome
    4.11.1869 Journal Nature founded


    "To the solid ground Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye." -- WORDSWORTH

    2003: Open access challenge - website

    In 1869 the "Eisenach Party" (SAP) [South German Party] was founded by Marx's German followers.

    1870-1871 Franco-Prussian war. The leaders of the Eisenach Party were imprisoned for opposing the war.

    German Unification On 18.1.1871 a German Empire was proclaimed at Versailles with the Prussian king, Wilhelm 1st as Emperor, and Bismarck as Imperial Chancellor. Most German speaking countries of Europe were united in one modern state.

    From 1871 to after 1878 was the period of Kulturkampf - "Conflict of Beliefs" - between Bismarck and the Catholic Church. Prussian Falk Laws of May 1873 completely subordinated the church to state regimentation. From 1878 to 1887, negotiations between Germany and a new pope restored most Catholic rights.

    what about the workers? 18.3.1871 to 28.5.1871 Paris Commune (Short lived proletarian republic). Marx described this as "the first revolution in which the working class was openly acknowledged as the only class capable of social initiative". [See revolution]

    Late Victorian and La Belle Époque partly correspond to the extended period of peace between 1870 and 1914. In the United States, The Gilded Age was the period roughly from the 1870s to the turn of the twentieth century.

    19.2.1870 Max Müller's Lectures on the Science of Religion began at the Royal Institution.

    1870- In England, a series of Acts between 1870 and 1918 made education free and compulsory for children from five years old to ten, then to eleven, then to fourteen

    1871 Charles Darwin's The Descent of Man: and selection in relation to sex published

    Edward Burnet Tylor's Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Art, and Custom

    8.6.1871 Edward Burnet Tylor, author of "various memoirs on savages and their customs" was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on the proposal of (amongst others) Charles Darwin - Francis Galton - Charles Lyell

    Sunday 2.4.1871/Monday 3.4.1871: Eighth British Census
    From 1871 the census for England and Wales was taken separately from that for Scotland, but on the same date.
    Population of England and Wales: 22,712,000; Scotland: 3,360,000

    The 1871 to 1911 censuses asked if the person was blind, deaf or dumb, "imbecile or idiot" or "lunatic". (See 1870 Act). (Census layout - external)


    1872: Caprolite extraction for fertiliser in north Cambridgeshire. AS a by-product of the industry, fossils and human archaeological remains were recovered by the "fossil-digger" Frederick Pond and supplied to museums.

    1872: Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals published. Darwin's study of body language provided a starting point for symbolic interaction sociology. Whist Darwin focused on the expression of emotions, George Herbert Mead interpreted body language as a system of communication (the conversation of gestures) that preceded and allowed the development of symbols and conscious reflection.   (weblink to illustrated copy)

    1872 Eighth International Statistical Congress held in St. Petersburg

    10.5.1872 Marcel Mauss born. See 1925

    November 1872 Giuseppe Villella died in an Italian prison, Cesare Lombroso performed an autopsy on his body and discovered an abonormality in his skull. He wrote later:

    crime and
timeline biological
    "The sight of that fossette suddenly appeared to me like a broad plain beneath an infinite horizon, the nature of the criminal was illuminated, he must have reproduced in our day the traits of primitive man going back as far as the carnivores." source

    1873 John Stuart Mill died in Avignon and buried with Harriet. His Autobiography was published after his death.

    5.9.1873 Times page 6. "At the Congress of Bologna a cotery of Marxists had tried to impede all progress, but in vain." First example of "marxists" in Oxford English Dictionary. The earlist example of "marxism" is in 1883.

    Herbert Spencer's The Study of Sociology America


    Mary Paley passed the Cambridge University "Moral Science Tripos" with distinction. She took over, from Alfred Marshall, the lectures to women students on economics, and was then asked to write a textbook on economics. In 1876 she became engaged to marry Alfred Marshall and they worked on the book together. It was published as The Economics of Industry by Alfred and Mary Paley Marshall in 1879. It was from this book that Alfred Marshall eventually developed his Principles of Economics (External source: Valerie Muir 1995)

    1874 The Cavendish Laboratory opened at Cambridge University under James Clerk Maxwell, the first Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics. Physics at Cambridge had meant theoretical physics and been regarded as the province of the mathematicians. The foundation of the Natural Sciences Tripos in 1851 set the scene for the need to build dedicated experimental physics laboratories. (history)

    1874 John Stuart Mill's Autobiography published

    The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland published the first edition of its Notes and Queries on Anthropology for the Use of Travellers and Residents of Uncivilised Lands in 1874. Edward Burnet Tylor contributed the largest number of sections (18).

    1875 German social democrats (ADAV and SAP) merged on the basis of The Gotha Programme. This was more Lassallean than Marxist. Marx sent a private criticism and said that he would have to dissociate himself, but he did not - because the press perceived the Gotha Programme as "communist". The party became the SDP in 1890. From 1878 to 1890 the Anti-socialist law prohibited socialist societies, assemblies and pamphlets. But the party was still able to take part in Reichstag elections - where it increased its representation in the (powerless) German national parliament.

    1875 Ninth (last) International Statistical Congress held in Budapest

    The ninth edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica was published between 1875 and 1889 (finished writing 1888?) in 24 volumes. "It embodied as no other publication of the day the transformation of scholarship wrought by scientific discovery and new critical methods" (Encyclopedia Britannica website). The article on "Evolution in Biology" was written by Thomas Huxley and the article on Anthropology by Edward Burnet Tylor. The editor was Thomas Spencer Baynes (born 24.3.1823, died 31.5.1887), assisted from late 1881 by William Robertson Smith, who had lost his professorship as a result of his articles on the Bible. Robertson Smith had the major responsibility for the concluding twelve volumes of the Encyclopedia (Beginning with "L"?).


    First edition of Volume One of Herbert Spencer's
    The Principles of Sociology
    "While permanent monogamy was being evolved, the union by law (originally the act of purchase) was regarded as the essential part of marriage and the union by affection as nonessential; and whereas at present the union by law is thought the more important and the union by affection the less important; there will come a time when the union by affection will be held of primary moment." (Quoted Burgess and Locke (1945) p.29

    "Founding [Paris], by Jules Guesde, of the first sociology journal - L'Egalite" (external link) - See Wikipedia Jules Guesde

    1876 Cesare Lombroso's L'uomo delinquente studiato in rapporto alla antropologia, alla medecina legale, ed alle discipline carcerarie published in Milan. crime and
timeline biological

    By the Royal Titles Act 1876 c. 10, Queen Victoria became Empress of India. She was proclaimed so at a "Delhi Durbar" in 1877. The first (and last) monarch to actually attend his Durbar was George 5th


    Morgan's Ancient Society published


    1877: Georg Cantor (1845-1918) became Professor of Mathematics at Halle. He laid the foundations of modern set theory, leading to the heady possibility that all rational human thought can be rationally understood by human thought - A possibility that Bertrand Russell, to his own annoyance, proved unproven. (external link).   In his autobiography, Russell reproduces a letter to him from Cantor saying "dear Colleague... I am a Baconian...and am quite an adversary of Old Kant..."   See discussion of relevance to positivism

    5th, 12th and 19th April 1877 Francis Galton 's three part article "Typical Laws of Hereditary" in Nature (External link to pdf) In this (12.4.1877 page 513, column 2) he says the produce of peas of the same class "deviated normally on either side of their own mean weight". This is an early example of the use of normal as in "normal curve" (See Quetelet above and Math Word at York).

    22.3.1877 Inaugural meeting of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings in Queen Square, Bloomsbury. Called by William Morris and other "Pre-Raphaelites". Opposes destruction of the historic fabric of old buildings by architects engaged in 'restorations'. (History website)

    1878 Jardin Zoologique d'Aclimatation, (opened 1860 in the northern part of the Bois de Boulogne) converted to "l'Acclimatation Anthropologique", a zoo that exhibited humans. Albert Geoffroy Saint- Hilaire (1835-19019), the zoo's director from 1865 to 1893, first organised two ethnological spectacles, one of Nubians and the other of Inuit(Esquimaux). By 1878, a million (non-exhibited) people had visited. Between 1877 and 1912 (when this human zoo closed), approximately thirty ethnological exhibitions were presented at the Jardin zoologique d'acclimatation


    It was about 1878 that William Stanley Jevons statistically related economic cycles to sunspot activity.

    1.5.1878 - 10.11.1878 Exposition Universelle held in Paris to celebrate the recovery of France after the 1870 Franco-Prussian War. The temporary (glass) building on the left was the main exhibition in the Champs de Mars, where the Eifel Tower now stands. On the other (north) side of the river Seine is Palais du Trocadéro, where meetings of international organizations could be held during the fair). One popular feature was a human zoo, called a "negro village", composed of 400 "indigenous people".

    The Muséum ethnographique des missions scientifiques (Ethnographic Museum of Scientific Expeditions) (The Musée d'Ethnographie du Trocadéro) was established in a wing of Palais du Trocadéro in 1878. It became the Musée de l'Homme in 1937.

    1879 In Leipzig, Wilhelm Wundt set up the world's first laboratory of experimental psychology.

    Enrico Morselli's work on suicide was published in Italy in 1879. It was translated into English in 1881 as Suicide. An Essay On Comparative Moral Statistics

    14.3.1879 Albert Einstein born

    During the 1880s hundreds of young men the British Civil Service as "Temporary Boy Copyists", replacing the men copyists who had previously copied letters by hand. Typewriters and carbon paper (operated mainly by women) eventually replaced the boy copyists.


    The young Freud translated works by John Stuart Mill into German. In later comments, Freud argued that there are fundamental differences between men and women that Mill had not recognised. This contrast between Mill and Freud is reflected in late 20th century feminist thought in the contrast between those feminists who (like Wollstonecraft and Mill) perceive mind as genderless, and those who believe the male and female minds are different.

    1880: Emile Zola in his essay Le Roman Experimental explains how he applies the experimental method of science to his naturalistic novels. [External links to 1890 text and the Zola pages - See Park (1925) and urban life

    1880 First edition of Henri François Marion's De la Solidarite Morale. See Durkheim 1893

    March 1880-April 1880 UK General Election

    Electric light and energy
    Anglo-American Brush Electric Light Corporation was formed in Lambeth, London to exploit the dynamo invented by Charles Francis Brush in the USA. The dynamos supplied power to arch lamps in the streets. Finance was organised by Joseph Bevan Braithwaite

    29.10.1880 Joseph Swan's development of the incandescent lamp reported in Engineering, which quoted him saying "Electric lighting by incandescence is just as simple as arc lighting is difficult, all that is required is a material which is not a very good conductor of electricity, highly infusible and which can be formed into a wire or lamina, and is neither combustible in air, or if combustible, does not undergo changes in a vacuum". 1886 Ediswan factory at Ponders End


    Sunday 3.4.1881/Monday 4.4.1881: Ninth British Census
    This is available online - (Census layout - external)
    Population of England and Wales: 25,974,000; Scotland: 3,736,000

    10.5.1881 to 15.5.1881 International Exhibition of Flour Mill Machinery at the Royal Agricultural Hall, London. "Flour mill machinery, bread making and biscuit making machinery and all kinds of Machinery connected with cereals and farinaceous products" - "From this exhibition can be dated the beginning of mechanical baking in the United Kingdom".

    10.10.1881 The Formation of Vegetable Mould, Through the action of worms by Charles Darwin. Worms = soil = plants = herbivores = life as we know it.
    See Ulrich Beck on grass and earthworms.


    Society for Psychical Research founded in London for the scientific investigation of psychic phenomena. These included much more than what we might regard as spritual and ghostly phenomena, and the work included theoretical development as well as attempted empirical tests. Frederic Myers, for example, developed the concept of the subliminal self.

    1882 Walther Flemming's book Zellsubstanz, Kern und Zelltheilung. A coloured dye made the threads in this cell show up, so he called them chromatin (coloured). He watched them duplicate themselves when the cell divided so that each new cell had the same set of threads. So he called such cell-division mitosis from thread. In 1888, Wilhelm von Waldeyer-Hartz called each thread a chromosom. This was translated into English in 1889 as chromosome.


    1883 August Bernthsen synthesised phenothiazine in a reaction of sulphur with diphenylamine in the course of his studies of the structure of dyes like Lauth's violet and methylene blue. Bernthsen's major achievements are listed as uncovering the constitution of methylene blue as phenothiazine derivative and developing a variety of exciting colours with a phenazine and acridine base. (source - see also)   methylene blue

    methylene blue

    The word entered English with
    M'Gowan's Bernthsen of 1894.

    1883 Einleitung in die Geisteswissenschaften (Introduction to the Social Sciences) by Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911)

    "The practice of regarding" [the "human sciences"] "as a unity distinct from the natural sciences is rooted in the depth and totality of human selfconsciousness... man finds within his self-consciousness a sovereignty of the will, a responsibility for actions, a capacity for subjecting everything to thought and for resisting, from within the stronghold of his personal freedom, any and every encroachment"
    See dictionary Verstehen, to understand.

    1883 How the Poor Live by George R. Sims - with 60 illustrations by Frederick Barnard (who illustrated Dickens) Chatto & Windus, Piccadilly - External link to text

    14.3.1883 Karl Marx died. At his death, a virtually unknown author in the English speaking world.

    16.10.1883 Pamphlet The Bitter Cry of Outcast London: an inquiry into the condition of the abject poor (Congregational Union) given much publicity by The Pall Mall Gazette External link to editorial and condensed version

    1883-1891 Nietzsche's Also sprach Zarathustra

    "And what doeth the saint in the forest?" asked Zarathustra. The saint answered:

    "I make hymns and sing them; and in making hymns I laugh and weep and mumble: thus do I praise God. With singing, weeping, laughing, and mumbling do I praise the God who is my God."
    When Zarathustra was alone, however, he said to his heart:

    "Could it be possible! This old saint in the forest hath not yet heard of it, that God is dead!"


    Engels: The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State developed by Engels from notes by Marx. The Origin provides an overview of their historical materialism as they left it. Working on the theories of Morgan, they incorporate "Reproduction" into the material base, alongside "Production"

    See also
    1848 Communist Manifesto

    Extracts from Engel's Origin
    Summary of Historical Materialism
    Chart of Engels' overview of history
    Marx and Engels: scientific socialism
    Marx and Engels web links

    At the final meeting of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, Edward Vansittart Neale, a cooperator, read a paper "What is the social condition of the working classes in 1884 as compared with 1857, when the first meeting of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science was held in Birmingham; and in what way can the working classes best utilise their savings?"

    8.5.1884 Opening of the International Health Exhibition, London. It was planned to continue for about six months. (Catalogue). Exhibitors included the Rational Dress Society, formed in 1881, which was against any forms of dress that hampered freedom of movement and argued that dress reform was a key element in the emancipation of women (source). In relation to this exhibition, Francis Galton organised a laboratory to measure human statistics.

    1884 Mrs Ewing founded the Parkinson Society to search out and cultivate old garden flowers, to plant waste places with hardy flowers, and to prevent extermination. She was president until her death, when she was succeeded by Professor Daniel Oliver. The society had been disolved by 1900. ( DNB - Mary's Meadow by Juliana Horatia Ewing

    The cartoon is from Die Gartenlaube - Illustrirtes Familienblatt (The Garden Arbor - Illustrated Family Journal). (See Wikipedia. Reproduced here).

    15,11.1884 to 26.2.1885 Berlin Conference of European powers - Kongokonferenz (Congo Conference) - Afrikakonferenz (Africa Conference)

    "The conference sparked a veritable race for colonial possessions". About 10% of Africa was in European hands in 1876. "In 1902 the colonial powers had carved up 90% of the territory of Africa". ( source).


    "Gottlieb Daimler's invention in 1885 of the internal- combustion motor using petroleum spirit was the first step towards the production of the modern self-propelled road vehicle, the next step being the recognition in 1887 of the advantages of Daimler's system by M. Levassor and his application of that system to the propulsion of a carriage. In the nine years that immediately followed French manufacturers spent large sums of money in experimenting with and developing the motor-car" (1911 Encyclopedia)

    Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury died.

    Raffaele Garofalo (1851-1934) Criminologia: studio sul delitto, sulle sue cause e sui mezzi di repressione, Torino, Fratelli Bocca. A French translation was published in Paris by F. Alcan in 1888.

    April? 1885 Postponed jubillee of the Statistical Society of London (founded Spring 1834) established the International Statistical Institute. The first Congress was held in Rome in 1887. The Presidents of the ISI were: From 1885 to 1899 Sir Rawson W. Rawson (U.K.) - From 1899 to 1908 Karl von Inama-Sternegg (Austria) - From 1909 to 1920 Luigi Bodio (Italy) - From 1923 to 1931 Albert Delatour (France) - From 1931 to 1936 Friedrich Zahn (Germany) - From 1936 to 1947 Armand Julin (Belgium) - The next two Presidents were from the USA. (History)

    14.8.1885 Royal Assent to Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 (48 and 49 Victoria c.69): "An Act to make further provision for the Protection of Women and Girls, the suppression of brothels, and other purposes". This raised the age of consent from 13 to 16 and criminalised "gross indecency" between males. See Oscar Wilde 1895. This was the first time that homosexuality as such was made an offence. Anal intercourse of any kind had long been a very serious offence.

    24.11.1885-18.12.1885 UK General Election

    1885-1886 Durkheim in Germany studying German social research and ethical speculation


    October 1885 to February 1886 Freud in France studying nervous diseases under Charcot, who had developed hypnosis as a treatment for hysteria. His experiences were an important stage in moving from mapping the human brain and nervous system to mapping the human mind. France

    Charcot and Blanche Wittmann
    Asylum despair


    1886 Rendells contraceptive pessaries made from quinine in cacao-nut butter produced commercially. They may have been distributed free by John Walter Rendell (1844 - 1889?) in Clerkenwell from 1880. See 1934 and 1957

    11.5.1886 Queen Victoria opened the International Exhibition of Navigation, Commerce and Industry in Liverpool (source). In a special feature on 15.5.1886, the Illustrated London News wrote:

    "Liverpool, thanks to modern science and commercial enterprise, to the spirit and intelligence of the townsmen, and to the administration of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, has become a wonder of the world. It is the New York of Europe, a world-city rather than merely British provincial." (See Reviews in History)

    1.7.1886-27.7.1886 UK General Election

    1887: In Germany, Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) proved James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)'s theory that electricity can travel through space in waves by generating and detecting electro-magnetic wave across the length of his laboratory. See 1894 - Atlantic 1915 - BBC 1923 - BBC 1926 - BBC 1927 - Reich Broadcasting Corporation - Hitler's radio - mobiles Southbury - mobiles and poverty

    1887: Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft by Ferdinand Tönnies -
    See dictionary

    In 1887 a lectureship of social science was created for Durkheim at the University of Bordeaux.

    1887 First ISI World Statistics Congress held in Rome.

    Karl Marx's Capital (1867). Translated by Samuel Moore & E. Aveling, published by F. Engels, London 1887. Engels edited the translation and wrote a preface. The same year: F. Engels. The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844, translated by F. K. Wischnewetzky, was published in New York and reprinted in London. Engels added an appendix on "The Working Class Movement in America". Samuel Moore's translation of The Communist Manifesto was published early in 1888.


    1888: Max Müller's Biographies of words and the home of the Aryas

    15.6.1888 Wilhelm 2nd German Emperor. See Die wilhelminische Zeit (the Wilhelmine period). Wilhelminism refers to the style of the Emperor who delighted in pompous military parades.


    1889 Charles Booth's Life and Labour of the People of London was published in 17 volumes between 1889 and 1902. in three series, 'Poverty' (1889), 'Industry' and 'Religious Influences' (1902). Charles Booth (1840-1916), a statistician, spent eighteen years preparing this survey. Amongst those who helped him was his cousin, Beatrice Potter Webb. - External link to Charles Booth Online Archive -

    1889 William Robertson Smith's Lectures on the Religion of the Semites applied anthropological theory to the analysis of the Old Testament. His analysis of sacrifice was an important component of the anthropologies of both Dukrhheim and Freud. James Frazer, in 1900, made an anthropological analysis of the crucifixion of Christ.

    1889 [Ein kurzes Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie] A Text-book of Organic Chemistry by August Bernthsen translated by George M'Gowan [MacGowan] London: Blackie and Son 1889. xvii and 544 pages. A second English edition, revised and extended by author and translator, was published in 1894.

    La Galerie des Machines at l' Exposition Universelle in Paris, which ran from 5.5.1889 to 31.10.1889. The Eiffel Tower was the entrance to the whole exhibition.
    Other major attractions included a negro village displaying 40 people which was associated with a colonial pavilion celebrating the French empire, and a palace of war, a topic which Engineering described as "the most absorbing subject now-a-days, unfortunately, to governments if not to individuals".

    Amongst the machines exhibited were Baker's biscuit maker.

    See French Wikipedia - English Wikipedia

    The Library Late 1889 First edition of The Library which was the organ of the Library Association of the United Kingdom. In 1920 it became The Library: Transactions of The Bibliographical Society


    Ivan Pavolv (1849-1936) appointed professor at St Petersburg Military- Medical Academy, Russia, where he established a laboratory observing the digestion of live animals through a hole in the stomach. He won the Nobel Prize for physiology in 1904.

    1890 Les lois de l'imitation by Jean-Gabriel De Tarde (1843- 1904). Translated into English in 1903 The Laws of Imitation.

    Alfred Marshall's Principles of Economics. An introductory volume published. His Economics of Industry (a different book than that published with Mary Paley Marshall in 1879) was published in 1892. Marshall was "Professor of Political Economy" at Cambridge University until 1908. Marshall was one of the four major theorists on whom Talcott Parsons based his The Structure of Social Action

    The Edinburgh College of Cookery and Domestic Science (then in Atholl Crescent) in 1890. Founded in 1875 to improve women's access to higher education and improving the diets of working class families. It Edinburgh College of Domestic Science in 1930. In 1972 it became Queen Margaret College, 1999 Queen Margaret University College, and in January 2007, Queen Margaret University.

    In 1893 National Society's Training School of Cookery was founded in London. It became part of the college of All Saints in 1964, which joined Middlesex Polytechnic in 1978. (Middlesex University from 1992)

    1890 Henry Morton Stanley's In Darkest Africa: or the quest, rescue and retreat of Emin, Governor of Equatoria, in six volumes, published.

    William Booth's Darkest England and the Way Out was published in 1890. William Booth (1829-1912) was the founder of the Salvation Army, an evangelistic Christian organisation with ideas about the redemption of society. He should not be confused with Charles Booth.

    "For years past the Press has been filled with echoes of the 'Bitter Cry of Outcast London', with pictures of 'Horrible Glasgow', and the like. We have had several volumes describing 'How the Poor Live', and I may therefore assume that all my readers are more or less cognizant of the main outlines of 'Darkest England' (Chapter 5 On the Verge of the Abyss) "

    It was William (not Charles) Booth who wrote of the "submerged tenth". This was his heading for chapter two. However, he used Charles Booth's statistics to support his calculation.

    It is unusual for followers of Karl Marx to speculate about what life will be like after a communist revolution. This, however, is what William Morris did in his 1890 dream novel News from Nowhere summary and discussion

    James George Frazer's The Golden Bough. A Study of Magic and Religion appeared in twelve volumes between 1890 and 1915. The second edition in 1900 analysed the crucifixion of Christ. He published an abridgement in 1922 - Without the most controversial material.

    Edwin Chadwick died

    1891 Our Baby - first edition

    The right of a husband to use force against his wife was first denied by the English courts in 1891.

    January 1891 Karl Pearson appointed Gresham Chair of Geometry. He gave 38 "Gresham" lectures, free and open to the public, between February 1891 and November 1893. The substance of his The Grammar of Science, first published in February 1892, was based on the first two lectures. On 20.11.1891 he introduced the term histogram [not used in the Grammar] to designate a "time-diagram" to be used for historical purposes. On 31.1.1893, he introduced the term standard deviation. See 1911

    April 1891 Charles Creighton's article "The Population of Old London" Blackwood's Magazine). See 1199 - 1532 - 1578

    Sunday 5.6.1891/Monday 6.6.1891: Tenth British Census (Census layout - external)
    Asked about the number of rooms and their occupants in all tenements with fewer than five rooms. Distinguished between employers, employees and the self-employed.
    Population of England and Wales: 29,003,000; Scotland: 4,026,000. In England and Wales, 35% were under 15 and 4% per cent 65 or over.

    1891 Weber's doctoral thesis: A Contribution to the History of Medieval Business Organizations
    See also
    1894/1895 Economics Professor at Freiburg
    1896 Professor at Heidelberg
    1897 Father's death
    1904/1905 The Protestant Ethic...
    1910-1914 Economy and Society
    Lecture notes on Weber
    Brief note on Weber
    Extracts from Weber
    Weber web links
    Social Science History

    1891 Edvard Alexander Westermarck's The Origins of Human Marriage published. See 1903 - 1907

    1892 Durkheim's latin thesis on Montesquieu.

    July 1892 British General Election. Gladstone minority Liberal government with Irish Nationalist support. 4 July to 26 July 1892. Dadabhai Naoroji, the Liberal member for Finsbury Central was the first Asian member of the United Kingdom Parliament. He took his oath of office on his own copy of the Khordeh Avesta.


    July 1893 First meeting of The Institut International de Sociologie (International Sociological Institute), created by René Worms, held in the building of the Society of Anthropology in Paris. "From more than fifty members and more than twenty associates, approximately twenty were present and nine sent papers. The participating group comprised between 50 and 150 people". (Schuerkens, F.U. 1996). External link to its website (archive) - new website
    Annales de l'Institut International de Sociologie/ Annals of the International Institute of Sociology first published in 1895 after the first world congress,

    In Division of Labour in Society (1893), Durkheim tried to show that societies are real and that the reality of societies lies in something that he calls solidarity. (Click here for Extracts). He also said punishing crime is a way a society defines the way it thinks, reinforcing its solidarity
    See also
    1885 Durkheim in Germany
    1895 Sociological Method
    1897 Suicide
    1901 Lectures on Rousseau
    1912 ... Religious Life
    Lecture notes on Durkheim
    Brief note on Durkheim
    Extracts from Durkheim
    Durkheim web links
    Social Science History
    Parsons and Giddens

    1893 Thomas Huxley's lecture on evolution and ethics (an external link)

    1893 La donna delinquente la prostituta e la donna normale by Cesare Lombroso and Guglielmo Ferrero published Torino. Published in English as The Female Offender in 1895. crime and
timeline biological


    The discovery of the first of the inert gases, argon, by Rayleigh and Ramsay and the first public demonstration of wireless transmission over a few hundred yards by Sir Oliver Lodge announced at a meeting of the British Association.

    1894 The second edition of M'Gowan's Bernthsen, page 539 said "Nile Blue springs from naphtho- phenoxazine; and the thionine dyes from phen-thiazine." The index to the USA Chemical Abstracts in 1917 includes Phenothiazine.

    In Germany, Weber became Professor of Economics at Freiburg University in place of Karl Knies.

    In America George Herbert Mead became a lecturer at Chicago University where, before his death in 1931, he developed theories that showed how social interaction by means of symbols could have developed from the conversation of gestures of animals. From 1894 to 1904, John Dewey also lectured at Chicago, where he developed his version of pragmatism.

    Benjamin Kidd's Social Evolution (See Darwin) This book contained the idea that "irrational" religion is needed by societies to hold them together. Societies require the subordination of individual self interest to the collective welfare, and the motivation for this is provided by religion.

    November 1894 In France: The conviction for treason of Captain Alfred Dreyfus,

    November 1894 The Library said there was no "novelty about the principle of open access". However, in 1934 the Architectural Review said that most "large libraries in this country" did not allow open access to their shelves. On 30.12.1977 The Times Literary Supplement declared the "long-standing fight about open access" won. It spoke of a "deep-seated some librarians" of users "having the run of the shelves". (Oxford English Dictionary)

    Recorded sound Painting of Nipper (1884-1895) looking into a wind-up Edison-Bell cylinder phonograph. Picture painted, after Nipper's death, by by Francis Barraud (1856-1924) in 1898.

    A modified version of the painting, with gramophone discs, was used as the logo of the Gramophone Company on its records from shortly after 1900 and this gave rise to the popular name of the company as His Master's Voice. In 1921 the Gramophone Company opened the first HMV shop in London. See 1924. News on 15.1.2013 said HMV music and film chain to appoint administrator

    Engels died.

    Weber's inaugural address at Freiburg, The National State and Economic Policy, - a confession of belief in imperialist realpolitik and the House of Hohenzollern.

    In Rules of Sociological Method, Durkheim argued that if we want to be sociologists we should "treat social facts as things". (Extracts) He also argued that crime is necessary and normal for society.

    Fabians found The London School of Economics and Political Science, which held its first classes in October 1895. In 1900 the School was recognised as a faculty of economics in the newly-constituted University of London and in 1901 the Faculty degrees were announced as the BSc (Econ) and DSc (Econ) - "the first university degrees principally dedicated to the social sciences". It became a major centre for the social sciences in England. By employing staff of diverse political persuasions, it has been as often the centre for conservative as for radical thought. See 1896 - 1903 - 1904 - 1935 - 1951

    25.5.1895 Oscar Wilde and Alfred Taylor found guilty of "gross indecency with men" - an offence created in 1885. See Pearce and Roberts 1973 pp 61-63). They were sentenced to two years hard labour. At the trial a poem "Two Loves" by Lord Alfred Douglas , published in The Chameleon in December 1894 was quoted. It concludes "I am the Love that dare not speak its name."

    July/August 1895 British General Election. Salisbury led a Conservative and Liberal Unionist Government. Mancherjee Merwanjee Bhownagree was elected Conservative MP for Bethnal Green. The second Asian to be a UK MP (1895-1906). He supported British rule in India.

    In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen's discoveries initiated research into X-Rays

    In 1896 Henri Becquerel's discoveries initiated the exploration of radioactivity


    Weber became Professor at the University of Heidelberg
    Lev Semenovich Vygotsky born

    Durkheim's journal L'Année Sociologique first appeared in 1896 - but the first "volume" was published in 1898. At this time, Chicago and Bordeaux were two of the main centres generating "sociology". See Andrea Nagy. The new London School of Economics became another centre. America

    6.4.1896 First International Olympic Games at Athens.

    See Olympiad - Winter 1936 - 1936 - 1960 - 1968 - 1972 - 7.7.2005 - 2015 -


    Durkheim's Suicide seeks to show that society is so real that it controls acts as (apparently) individual as suicide. (Extracts)

    Weber's father's death was followed by Weber's mental breakdown.

    Ferdinand Tönnies' Der Nietzsche-Kultus. Eine Kritik. Leipzig. An extremely successful book on Nietzsche that influenced Weber.


    13.1.1898 Émile Zola alleged that "the conviction of Alfred Dreyfus was based on false accusations of espionage and was a misrepresentation of justice."

    First volume of L'Année Sociologique. It continued until 1913. Then the war stopped it. A short lived revival began in 1923-1924. It was published as Annales Sociologique between 1934 and 1942. The first of a third series of L'Année Sociologique appeared in 1949, and has continued since.


    October 1899 Wiesbaden meeting of European and American Academies planned an international association with sections for natural science and "literary science": meaning the scientific study of language, history, philosophy, antiquities, and other subjects not considered "natural sciences". The Royal Society represented Britain for the natural sciences. The British Academy was formed to represent the others. The International Association of Academies first met in Paris in 1900, without British representation of the non-natural sciences. The Association did not survive the first world war, but was replaced by the International Research Council and the International Association of Academies after the war (main source)

    July 1899 Herbert Payne left school, aged 13, and became a joiner at the Vulcan Foundry. He retired 2.11.1951, aged 65, after 52 years and one month of service. (Vulcan Magazine Volume 2, Number 4, Winter 1951-1952, p.32)

    October 1899 First publication of Helen Bannerman's The Story of Little Black Sambo, the best known of "The Dumpy Books for Children".

    Sometime in 1899 Aids to Scouting for N.-C.Os and men by Robert Baden-Powell in Gale and Polden's military series. A revised and enlarged edition was issued in 1906.

    "The British scout ... has to take on the crafty Afghan in his mountains, or the Zulu in the open South African downs, the Burmese in his forests, the Soudanese on the Egyptian deserts."
    13.10.1899 to 17.5.1900 Siege of Mafeking. "It became clear that the English expected the blacks to starve first" (Wikepedia Edward Cecil

    Edward Cecil (under Robert Baden-Powell) formed a "cadet corps". Baden-Powel called them "boy scouts". These (non-fighting) boy soldiers did tasks like delivering mail (under fire) on bicycles. One of them was shown on the local penny stamp.



    Some new words in the 1900 Dictionary: -   - x-rays - Victorian - valence and valency - ultra-red - ultra-violet - tuberculine - tuberculosis - telepathy - symbiosis - spirillum - sepsis - saccharin (sweetener made from coal-tar "no nutritive value, but apparently harmless" - rubella - referendum - psychometry - prognosis - poundal - pornography - phylum - photogravure - paludal (marsh) fever - oceanography - occultism - neuropathology - neuromuscular - neurasthenia - micro-organism - metazoa - metabolism - menopause - matriarchy - massage - margarine - magazine-rifle - machine- gun - Listerism (antiseptic surgery) - lanoline - laisser-faire - karma - impressionist - hypnosis - glossic (phonetic spelling) - germicide - felicific - eurhythmy - eugenic - eugenics - endoplasm - endoplast - ectoplasm - demography - coulomb - cordite - colonial - colonize - cephalic index (scull measurement "according to which...races.. are called brachycephalic or dolichocephalic) - cardiograph - burette - brontosaurus - boom (economic) - bacteriology - ampere - aluminium - alienism -

    Sigmund Freud's Interpretation of Dreams
    books - extracts
    1880 Freud and John Stuart Mill
    1885 Freud and Charcot
    1913 Totem and Taboo
    1938 Outlining Psychoanalysis
    Freud and society
    Mental Health History Timeline
    Extracts from Interpretation of Dreams
    beautiful baby
    Freud weblinks

    26.2.1900-27.2.1900 UK "Labour Representation Committee" formed at a conference in Farringdon aimed at getting MPs into Parliament who would support labour interests. Renamed the Labour Party 15.2.1906.

    15.4.1900 to 12.11.1900, Exposition Universelle held in Paris "to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next" (Wikipedia)

    26.9.1900 to 30.9.1900 Congrès international de l'éducation sociale. Paris. See Durkheim

    September/October 1900 UK General Election


    "The white population of the empire reached in 1901 a total of over 53,000,000, or something over one-eighth of its entire population, which, including native races, is estimated at about 400,000,000. [...] The population of the empire may therefore be calculated as amounting to something more than one-fourth of the population of the world." (1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

    1901 Publication of Seebohm Rowntree's Poverty, A Study of Town Life. 28% of the population of York (England) calculated as living in "absolute poverty". The main reason for this was low wages. The Legacy of Rowntree - Presentation by Jonathan Bradshaw 2013 - offline

    Tuesday 22.1.1901 Death of Queen Victoria at Osborne House. Monday 4.2.1901 Victoria buried beside Albert in the Frogmore Royal Mausoleum at Windsor Home Park. Her body had been bought, in state, across the Solent and on to Windsor.

    Charlotte Mew expresses a nation's grief - Children are named Victoria.

    Sunday 31.3.1901/Monday 1.4.1901: Eleventh British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 32,612,000; Scotland: 4,479,000

    1901 Enrico Ferri's The Positive School of Criminology

    24.10.1901: The Psychological Society founded at University College London. It was renamed the British Psychological Society in 1906. America
    The ten founder members were: Robert Armstrong-Jones (1859-1943) - William Ralph Boyce Gibson (1869-1935) - Sophie Bryant (1850-1922) - Frank Hales (1878-1952) -
    William McDougall - Frederick Mott - W.H.R. Rivers - Alexander Shand (1858-1936) - W.G. Smith - and James Sully.

    1901 to 1902 Durkheim's last Sociology lectures at Bordeaux were on the history of sociology. All that survives of them is his article on Rousseau's Social Contract. This argued that Rousseau bridges the gap between state of nature theory and sociology

    In 1901 Marcel Mauss and Paul Fauconnet provided the article on Sociology for the Grande Encyclopédie

    10.12.1901 The first Nobel Prizes: Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. (Nobel website) - Prizewinners include Röntgen (X-rays) - Becquerel and the Curies (Radioactivity) - Pavlov (Digestion) - Rutherford - Cockcroft and Walton - Hahn (Nuclear fission) - Wagner Jauregg (malaria innoculations) - Hess (interbrain coordination) - Moniz (leucotomy)


    Durkheim took over the Science of Education at the Sorbonne.

    La science et l'hypothèse (Science and Hypothesis) by Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) published in Paris.

    William Bateson (1861-1926) Mendel's Principles of Heredity. A defence ... With a translation of Mendel's original papers on hybridisation Cambridge University Press. (external link to English translation of Mendel)

    3.4.1902 Funeral of Cecil Rhodes in Cape Town.

    1902 Rhodes Scholarships, established under the will of Cecil John Rhodes, provided international scholarships at Oxford University for students from the British colonies, the United States, and Germany, because " ... a good understanding between England, Germany and the United States of America will secure the peace of the world ... " No German scholars were chosen from 1914 to 1929, nor from 1940 to 1969.

    "I contend that we are the first race in the world, and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race. I contend that every acre added to our territory means the birth of more of the English race who otherwise would not be brought into existence."

    8.8.1902 Royal Charter granted to incorporate the "British Academy for the Promotion of Historical, Philosophical, and Philological Studies" - now known as the "British Academy" with the present day objects of the "promotion of the humanities and social sciences". - website - See Royal Society - 1899 - Union Académique Internationale - Academy of Social Sciences - Society Counts

    9.8.1902 Coronation of King Edward 8th and Queen Alexandra - Postponed due to the king's illness. "Thine Empire shall be strong... Land of Hope and Glory, Mother of the Free... Wider still and wider shall thy bounds be set"

    October 1902 First commercial publication of Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Peter Rabbit

    Peter Rabbit may have influenced some of the imagery of Julienne Ford, before she graduated to Swallows and Amazons, Catcher in the Rye and then marxism and sociology


    1903 British Civil Service Typists' Association formed. All typists were (apparently) women. It merged with the Federation of Women Clerks in 1916 to form the Federation of Women Civil Servants.

    1903 An Association to Promote the Higher Education of Working Men founded by Albert Mansbridge and his wife. Renamed the Workers Educational Association in 1905.

    1903 to 1907, Edvard Alexander Westermarck, first Lecturer in Sociology at London School of Economics. From 1906 to 1918, he was also Professor of Practical Philosophy, University of Helsinki, and from 1907 to 1930, Professor of Sociology, London School of Economics (with Hobhouse).

    May 1903 George Griffith Sidelights on Convict Life

    May 1903 Durkheim and Fauconnet, Révue Philosophique,

    "Sociology exists; it has a history displaying its nature; there is, therefore, no place for efforts to imagine what it is. We can observe it. Though no good purpose is served in disputing in abstracto what the science ought to be, there is on the contrary a real interest in becoming acquainted with the course of its development, in giving an account of the various elements whence it resulted, and of the parts they occupy respectively in the whole structure."

    20.11.1903 Sociological Society formed at the London School of Economics. The original society had an international membership. America
    The society sought to bring together, for debate, all with a scientific approach to society and social issues. Major issues in its early years included selective breeeding, town planning and welfare. Based at the London School of Economics until 1920. See David Evans (1986) and Baudry Rocquin (2006)
    See Francis Galton at the Sociological Society.

    Sociological Papers by F. Galton, E. Westermarck, P. Geddes, E. Durkheim, H.H. Mann and V.V. Branford published by Macmillan (London) for the Sociological Society. (Volume one 1905). There were three volumes covering (I think) sessions October to June 1904-1905, 1905-1906 and 1906- 1907. It then became The Sociological Review It was the "Journal of the Sociological Society" from 1908 to 1930; of the "Institute of Sociology" from 1931 to 1952. From 1953 to 1961 issued by the University College of North Staffordshire; From 1962 to the present by University of Keele.

    10.12.1903 Nobel Prize in Physics awarded to Antoine Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska for Becquerel discovery of spontaneous radioactivity and the Curie's "joint researches on the radiation phenomena" discovered by Becquerel. (citation). In 1911, Marie Curie won the prize for Chemistry

    1903 Edward Step Wayside and Woodland Trees: A pocket guide to the British sylva

    London to become the city of Plane trees

    "The Plane (Platanus orientalis). In spite of the fact that the Plane is an exotic of comparatively recent introduction, it seems in a fair way of being associated in the future with London. It has taken with great kindness to London life, in spite of the drawbacks of smoke, fog, flagstones, and asphalt. Its leaves get thickly coated with soot, which also turns its light-grey bark to black; but as the upper surface of the leaves is smooth and firm, a shower of rain washes them clean, and the rigid outer layer of bark is thrown off by the expansion of the softer bark beneath. This is not thrown off all at once, but in large and small flakes, which leave a smooth yellow patch behind, temporarily free from soot contamination. A variety of trees has been tried for street-planting, but none has stood the trying conditions of London so well as the Plane, and therefore before many years the capital will be the city of Planes."


    1904 The thermionic valve (See Ambrose Fleming). The valve can only pass an electric signal one way. Consequently, alternating signals from radio waves can be converted into pulsating direct current that can be used to produce sound. Valves can also be used in binary calculations with current flowing counting as one state and not flowing counting as the other state.

    See Transistor

    1904 Gardening for the Million by Alfred Pink (of Dulwich), author of Recipes for the Million published by T. Fisher Unwin, 267 pages in an Art Nouveau Book Design.

    1904 In his Nobel Prize address, Pavlov introduced the idea of the conditioned reflex. (extracts). 20th Century Words records the term in English use from 1906. Pavlov's works appeared in English in 1926

    1904 Charles Spearman suggested a way of measuring a "general intelligence" underlying specific abilities.

    18.7.1904 Patrick Geddes read his first paper on Civics: as Applied Sociology to the Sociological Society. His second paper Civics: as Concrete and Applied Sociology was read on 25.1.1905. The meetings were chaired by Charles Booth and theoretical criticisms received in writing included one from W.I. Thomas of Chicago.

    1904/1905 Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, first published in German. This book by Weber became number 4 in the century's top 10. Economy and Society was number one.

    1904-1905 The first course in Sociology at the London School of Economics and Political Science was taught by Edvard Westermarck in the Session 1904-1905.

    Leonard Trelawney Hobhouse lectured at the London School of Economics from 1904? to 1929. With his colleague, Westermarck, Hobhouse became one of the first two Professors of Sociology in a British University in 1907. Ronald Fletcher says of him that, with the exception of Talcott Parsons:

    "Hobhouse was probably the last scholar to accomplish an entire 'system' of sociology with success"

    Many of his works, such as Mind in Evolution (1901), Morals in Evolution (1906), and Development and Purpose (1913) were about the evolution of societies.

    Morris Ginsberg became his research assistant in 1912. In 1915, Hobhouse, Gerald Clair Wheeler and Ginsberg produced a comprehansive analysis of anthopological reports that correlated the development of material culture and social institutions.


    Eugenics: its definition, scope and aims by Francis Galton.

    In a letter, William Bateson suggested a need for a word that combined the idea of studying biological heredity and biological variation. The word he suggested was genetics, and this was used in the title of a conference he chaired in 1906.

    1905 Identification chromosomal differences between male and female insects: males having XY and females XX sex chromosomes.

    1905 Binet-Simon Scale for measuring intelligence introduced.

    1905 Criminalité et conditions economiques by William Adrian Bonger, Professor of Law, Amsterdam University, published. It was translated into English and published as Criminality and Economic Conditions by the Political Economy Club in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1915.

    1905 "In 1905 the Department of Social Science was opened at the University of Liverpool. It evolved from a campaign led by a group of intellectual and civic leaders, two key leaders being Eleanor Rathbone and Elizabeth Macadam." (source)


    January/February 1906: UK General Election. Lloyd George Prime minister to 1922

    10.10.1906 Launch of HMS Dreadnought. "All battleships built after 1906 were dreadnoughts" (Oxford Reference Dictionary)

    15.1.1906 Publication by Joseph Dent (1849-1926) of the first fifty titles in Everyman's Library, edited by Ernest Rhys. Volumes 262 and 263 (1907) were William Harvey's The Circulation of the Blood and Francis Galton's Inquiries into Human Faculty. Published Burke in 1910 - Hume in 1911 - Rousseau in 1911 and 1913 - Owen in 1927 - See also Home University Library

    Early 1906 The Bio-Chemical Journal edited by Benjamin Moore and Edward Whitley established. Copyright the Bio-chemical Department, Johnston Laboratories, University of Liverpool. It was to be issued monthly as far as material was available. Online archive 1906-2005. The Biochemical Club (later Biochemical Society) was formed in January 1911. See 5.2.1913.

    1906 Combe lectureship in General and Experimental Psychology and the George Combe laboratory established at Edinburgh University with funding from the Combe Trust. W.G. Smith, the first lecturer, was a student of Wundt. His succesor, James Drever senior, became the first Professor of Psychology in Scotland in 1931. He was succeded by his son, James Drever, junior, who wrote the Penguin Dictionary of Psychology (1952). - external history

    1906 International Conference on Genetics, Royal Horticultural Society, London. The first with this title. Previous conferences had been on "Breeding and Hybridisation". (external link)

    1906 Préjugé des races by Jean Finot (1858- 1922)
    translated into English in the same year by Florence Wade-Evans as
    Race Prejudice [Available online - offline]

    "All condemnations of peoples and races in virtue of an innate superiority or inferiority have in reality failed... A savant who presumes to pronounce a verdict of eternal barbarism against any people deserves to be laughed at."

    Contents: Part 1: The inequality of human beings - Part 2: Towards the unity of the human type Part 3: Anthropo-psychology and anthropo-sociology Part 4: The mysterious or uncertain origins of peoples and race Part 5: Are there peoples condemned to remain eternally inferior to others?


    Babiker Badri 1907 Babikir Badri established education for women in Sudan

    new English terms recorded: racialism (1907), race relations (1911), racialist (1917), racist (1932), racism (1935). See Sorokin (1928) on the racialist branch of the biological school of sociology

    1907 Charles Edward Walker "It has been held that every hereditary character is represented by a chromosome" - The Essentials of Cytology: an introduction to the study of living matter, page 99.

    17.12.1907 Inauguration of the Martin White professorships of sociology University of London LSE. " Westermarck and L. T. Hobhouse became the first two professors of sociology at the LSE, Hobhouse spoke on "The roots of modern sociology", and Westermarck on "Sociology as a university study." See 1913.

    1908 The 1908 Old Age Pensions Act was brought in after a long campaign to remove older people from the punitive effects of the Victorian Poor Law. It provided people over 70 with a pension of 5/- a week.

    Sociological Review started 1908. Journal of the Sociological Society replacing Sociological Papers? An early article was by Wilfred Trotter on the herd instinct

    "At one time the infant British sociology movement seemed about to be taken over entirely by eugenists, who even after 1908 were regular contributors to the Sociological Review". (G. R. Searle, 1976 page 11)

    1908 First editions of William McDougall's An Introduction to Social Psychology (October 1908) and Edward Alsworth Ross's Social Psychology: An outline and sourcebook. The phrase had been coined in French: psychologie sociale (1875), German: soziale Psychologie (1879), Italian: psicologia sociale (1880) and English (1880). McDougall's explanation of the concept (page 18) is

    "Social psychology has to show how, given the native propensities and capacities of the human mind, all the complex mental life of societies is shaped by them and in turn reacts upon the course of their development and operation in the individual."

    1908 Cecil Spring Rice wrote a two verse poem which later developed into:

    I vow to thee, my country, all earthly things above, Entire and whole and perfect, the service of my love;
    The love that asks no question, the love that stands the test, That lays upon the altar the dearest and the best;
    The love that never falters, the love that pays the price, The love that makes undaunted the final sacrifice.

    And there's another country, I've heard of long ago, Most dear to them that love her, most great to them that know;
    We may not count her armies, we may not see her King; Her fortress is a faithful heart, her pride is suffering;
    And soul by soul and silently her shining bounds increase, And her ways are ways of gentleness, and all her paths are peace.

    January 1908 to May 1908 Freud analysed a four/five year old child ("Little Hans") through correspondence with his father and one meeting (on 30.3.1908). "Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" published in 1909.

    Germany was building Dreadnoughts
    24.1.1908 Scouting for Boys, part one, by Baden Powell published. External link: This day in history

    1645 scoutmaster general - 1899 Mafeking - 1915 game of war - September 1909 A rally at the Crystal Palace which 11,000 Scouts attended - 1910 Girl Guides Association formed - 10.8.1914 "The service of Boy Scouts has been placed at the disposal of the Government" - 1918 Imperial Headquarters - July 1929 Birkenhead Jamboree attended by 30,000 Scouts from 71 countries - 1933 Hitler Youth - 1937 tea party - 1939 Reading Mein Kampf - 1949 Bob a Job - 1954 lady at home

    1909: French banker Albert Kahn (1860-1940) decided to establish a record of the world in film and colour photographs: Recording, especially, ways of life thought to be disappearing. The "Archives of the Planet" were photographed in fifty countries, between 1909 and 1931.

    1909 Arnold van Gennep's Les rites de passage

    1909 Thomas Henry Craig Stevenson (1870-1932) appointed Superintendent of Statistics in the General Register Office in succession to John Tatham. See class 1913

    Careers and Vocational Training. A guide to the professions and occupations of educated women and girls.. Biennial from 1909 to 1977 Published London. A copy of the 10th edition (about 1940) is available in the Internet Archive - offline


    The Model B was the Wright brothers' most successful aircraft. It was produced from late 1910 to 1914, and during 1911 and 1912, the Wright Company was shipping four Model Bs a month out the factory door. See America

    1910 Trollhättan Electrical Power Station, Sweden - timeline. Construction of the Olidestationen (Olide plant) began in June 1906 and plant was in regular operation by March 1910. Kungliga Vattenfallsstyrelsen (The Royal Waterfalls Board) was formed in 1909. The photograph is from Hallendorff and Schück's History of Sweden (1929).
    Kungliga Vattenfallsstyrelsen, now Vattenfall, is said to have been the world's first state-owned power producer. See
    The Vattenfall story .

    January/February 1910: UK General Election

    6.5.1910 The death of King Edward 7th coincided with a visit from Halley's Comet, which provided George Dangerfield in 1936 with an introduction to his The Strange Death of Liberal England. Dangerfield associated the "death" of liberalism between 1910 and 1914 with the development of violent civil conflict over home rule for Ireland (Tory rebellion), votes for women and industrial relations (the women's and workers' rebellions)

    "For nearly a century men had discovered in cautious phrase, in the respectable gesture, in the considered display of reasonable emotions, a haven against those irrational storms that threaten to sweep through them" (page 135)

    September to October 1910 Lockouts, strikes and riots in South Wales mark the start of the "great labour unrest" of 1910 to 1914.

    28.10.1910 Ferdinand de Saussure's "Brief survey of the history of linguistics" begins his 1910-1911 lecture course which was published in 1916.

    December 1910: UK General Election

    1910-1914 Weber's Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft (Economy and Society) written. It included Structures of Power, Class, Status, Party and Bureaucracy. (See extracts and Weber's toolbox). It was not published (in German) until 1922. It was partly translated into English in 1947 and 1962, but not completely until 1968. This book by Weber became number 1 in the century's top 10

    123 maths Principia Mathematica by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell published in two volumes by Cambridge University Press in 1910 and 1913.
    This attempts to demonstrate that mathematics is a development of logic: A way of grouping the world into sets and showing what will be included in, and what excluded from particular sets and how the sets relate to one another. It was an element in what Russell called the "dethronement of mathemetics" from its special status as a source of knowlege in reason rather than empirical observation. Mathematics, Russell wrote

    "is not a-priori knowledge".

    "It is, in fact, merely verbal knowledge. 3 means 2 + 1 and 4 means 3 + 1. Hence it follows (though the proof is long) that 4 means the same as 2 + 2" (Russell, B. 1961 p.p 785-786)


    1911 An old Tram factory in Trafford Park, Manchester converted to an assembly plant to make the Ford Model T. It employed 60 people. 6,000 cars were produced in 1913, supplying 30% of Britain's market. The first moving assembly line, in 1914, produced 21 cars an hour. In 1919, 41% of British registered cars were Fords. 1931: Dagenham opened. 1962 Halewood opened

    "I have proposed" [1909] "the terms 'gene' and 'genotype'... to be used in the science of genetics. The 'gene' is nothing but a very applicable little word, easily combined with others, and hence it may be useful as an expression for the 'unit-factors', 'elements' or 'allelomorphs' in the gametes, demonstrated by modern Mendelian researches." (W. Johannsen)

    4.3.1911 A meeting of 38 committee members the new Biochemistry Society at University College London drew up rules. A "letter from a lady who wished to become an original member" prompted an amendement to the rules that , that "only men be eligible for membership" (carried 17 votes to nine). The decision was reversed on 13.7.1912 (24 votes to seven)

    Sunday 2.4.1911/Monday 3.4.1911: Twelfth British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 36,136,000; Scotland: 4,751,000

    The schedules used from 1911 to provided separate columns for birthplace and nationality; in addition, the particulars obtained enabled foreign residents to be distinguished from visitors. Questions about ethnicity were not asked until 1991, questions about religion were not asked until 2001

    April 1911 Ernest Rutherford wrote "The scattering of alpha and beta particles by matter and the structure of the atom" published in Philosophical Magazine, volume 21 (1911), pages 669-688, reporting the results of an experiment (in Manchester) in which radioactive particles were fired through minutely thin metal foils (notably gold) and detected using screens coated with zinc sulfide (a scintillator). The vast majority of particles passed straight through the foil, but approximately 1 in 8000 were deflected. Rutherford theorised that most of the atom was made up of 'empty space'. His atomic theory described the atom as having a central positive nucleus surrounded by negative orbiting electrons with most of the mass of the atom contained in the small nucleus. (source) - biography at Cambridge

      See "London 1911 : celebrating the imperial" by Susan Finding.

    12.5.1911 Festival of Empire opened at Crystal Palace - See studygroup - Bill Tonkin - Souvenir of the pageant (offline)

    12.5.1911 Victoria Memorial, London, unveiled by her grandsons George 5th of England and Willhelm 2nd of Germany. behind the memorial, the new ceremonial Mall sweeps away to Admiralty Arch.

    22.6.1911 Coronation of George 5th and Queen Mary in London. In December they went to India, where they were proclaimed Emperor and Empress at the Dehli Durbar in Coronation Park on 12.12.1911. The Imperial Crown of India was created for the occasion, and has not been used since.
    Later, the king shot 21 tigers, 8 rhinoceroses and a bear in Nepal. See war memorial and death.

    Wednesday 26.7.1911 to Saturday 29.7.2011 Universal Races Congress held at the University of London. (information) - Papers on inter-racial problems, communicated to the first Universal Races Congress edited by Gustav Spiller. offline

    5.8.1911 "Galton Chair of Eugenics. Professor Karl Pearson, F.R.S., has been appointed to be the first occupant of the Chair of Eugenics established in connexion with the legacy bequeathed for that purpose by the late Sir Francis Galton." (British Medical Journal. 5.8.1911 p.317)

    A nationwide merchant seamen's strike was called on 14.6.1911, leading to strikes in other sectors. A strike committee representing all workers in dispute was chaired by the syndicalist Tom Mann, who had recently returned from Australia.

    Sunday 13.8.1911 Police baton charged a crowd of 85,000 people, who had gathered to hear Tom Mann speak, on St. George's Plateau, in Liverpool.

    The Liverpool strike ended on Thursday 24.8.1911 and troops were officially withdrawn on 28.8.1911

    28.10.1911 Festival of Empire closed at Crystal Palace

    10.12.1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for 1911 to Marie Sklodowska Curie for the discovery of the chemical elements radium and polonium; the determination of the properties of radium, the isolation of radium in its pure metallic state; and her "research into the compounds of this remarkable element." (citation)

    Dawn of hope leaflet dated 28.6.1911(?). This mass-produced leaflet shows Lloyd George offering the worker "national insurance against sickness and disablement" through his bill and calls on people to "support the Liberal Government in their policy of social reform"

    16.12.1911 Royal Assent to the U.K's National Insurance Act which provided the elements of health services and unemployment insurance for insured people, but not for their dependants. Came into effect 15.7.1912

    1911 First ten volumes of "The Home University Library of Modern Knowledge" published under the editorship of Gilbert Murray. A further set of ten volumes were published in the year, and a further set of ten planned.

    1912 In The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, Durkheim argues that human beings have always had a knowledge of the fundamental reality of their societies. This knowledge, however, was not, previously, scientific, but religious. (See extracts and the dance of life)

    1912 Die Familie by Franz Carl Müller-Lyer (1857-1916) München, J. F. Lehmann. English: The Family New York 1931. Outlines three stages in its historic development 1) the tribal stage with the clan, 2) the familial stage with large and then small patriarchal families, 3) the individual era with the a small family of husband, wife and children. See Burgess and Locke (1945) p.25

    1912: Alfred Wegener's theory of Continental Drift
    External Link

    Unemployment insurance stamp 1912
    15.7.1912 UK National Insurance Act came into effect. Unemployment benefit at 7 shillings a week has been estimated at about 22% of average male earnings in manufacturing. By 1979 it was still about 21% of average earnings (manual and non-manual, male and female). By 2008, the renamed jobseeker's allowance had fallen to 10.5% of average earnings. (Jonathan Bradshaw, York University, Letter published in The Guardian, 15.5.2009.)

    28.9.1912 Ulster's Solemn League and Covenant to resist home rule for Ireland "using all means which may be found necessary".

    18.12.1912 Charles Dawson told a meeting of the Geological Society about the discovery of fragments of a skull with features of man and monkey in Piltdown in Sussex. A 1934 Encyclopedia says "in the Piltdown discovery we have a definite human head accompanied by an equally definite simian jaw. However the relic is considered human. It is named Homo Dawsonii. November 1953, The Times published the evidence that the skull was a forgery.

    1912 Morris Ginsberg graduated in Philosophy and Sociology at London Schoool of Economics. He became Hobhouse's research assistant,

    1912 William Stern, Die Psychologischen Methoden der Intelligenz- prüfung Leipzig, Translated into English (Baltimore, USA) as Psychological methods of testing intelligence by Guy Montrose Whipple in 1914. The German uses the term Intelligenz-quotient for a child's mental age divided by his or her chronological age (source). See Binet-Simon Scale and I.Q.

    1913 Mental Deficiency Act and The Board of Control

    University of London. Monographs on sociology. Edited by Professor L. T. Hobhouse and Professor E. A. Westermarck.
    1. Heinrich Oppenheimer The rationale of punishment. (1913)
    2. Bronislaw Malinowski The family among the Australian aborigines: A sociological study (1913)
    3. L. T. Hobhouse, G. C. Wheeler, and M. Ginsberg. The material culture and social institutions of the simpler peoples: an essay in correlation (1915)
    Gerald Clair William Camden Wheeler (1872-1943)
    4. Yükao Liang and Menghe Tao Village and Town Life in China (1915)

    14.6.1913 London funeral of Emily Wilding Davison (born 11.10.1872) organised by the Women's Social and Political Union. She had died following a collision with the King's horse in the Epsom races when demonstrating on 4.6.1913. Her gravestone in Northumberland say "Deeds not words", which was Women's Social and Political Union slogan

    1913-1914 Freud's Totem and Taboo: Some Points of Agreement Between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics applies his psychoanalytic theories to anthropology and the prehistory of human beings.
    Extracts from Totem and Taboo
    Civil and savage - 1906-1919 family images

    Science - art - society Bihalji-Merin in 1938 (p.44) argues that science in the early 20th century was finding a "deeper vision" and this seeing below the surface was matched by a movement in art: "matter in a state of evolution ... the atom ... being broken up ... relativity revolutionised ideas of space and time ... psycho-analysis ... probed into ... psychological spheres and mythical memories ... radium and x-rays [give us] a picture of decay and renewal ... penetrate matter and make it transparent"
    Die Windsbraut by Oskar Kokoschka painted 1913- 1914
    "Confining himself to the range of apparently traditional forms" Kokoschka "delves down by dream-routes to explore hidden strata of existence" (Bihalji-Merin 1938 p.56)

    "in the nineteenth-century ... everything seemed clear or capable of comparison ... This psychological attitude was the result of a long historical process which commenced with the commencement of the bourgeois personality and broke of when its existence was threatened" (Bihalji-Merin 1938 p.42)

    Social Grades: British measurement of the hierarchy of social class began when the Registrar General's Annual Report for 1911 (not published until 1913) included a summary of occupations designed (by Thomas Stevenson) to represent "social grades" (later referred to as "social classes") which were used for the analysis of mortality data and the 1911 Census tables on Fertility of Marriage. The "Registrar General's Social Classes" (RGSC) was re-named "Social Class based on Occupation" in 1990. The scheme of 1913 was substantially modified in 1921. Stevenson explained its reasoning in 1928. OPCS formed 1970. (Rose, SRU 9, 1995). See 2001 census

    The original grades were: 1) Professional - 2) Intermediate - 3) Skilled Manual - 4) Intermediate - 3) Unskilled Manual -

    17.3.1914 Srinivasa Ramanujan, Indian mathematician, sailed from Madras, arriving London (for Cambridge) 14.4.1914. He remained in England through the war, returning to India in 1919 and dying 26.4.1920, aged only 32. (English Wikipedia) - See also Tamil Wikipedia.

    India Postage stamp issued 22.12.1916 to mark Ramanujan's 75th birthday (born 22.12.1887).

    "Farmstead" by Adolf Hitler. Signed and dated 1914. Two watercolours by Hitler, this and "Farm Buildings on the River", were sold at auction in Nuremberg (Nürnberg) in April 2009.

    "this period before the War was ... by far the most contented of my life. ... I did not live to be able to paint, but painted ... to enable myself to go on studying" (Mein Kampf)

    FIRST WORLD WAR. 4 August, Britain declared war on Germany on 4.8.1914, on Austria-Hungary 12.8.1914.
    BBC History Summary - archive
    Current BBC

    August 1914: First world War started
    (The Great War for Civilisation)

    Blockades British blockades of Germany were established in August and November 1914. German blockade of Britain established in February 1915. One of the objects of both was to starve the civilian populations.

    October 1914: Maclean's Magazine (Canada) "Some wars name themselves... This is the Great War." [See end of the Great War in 1814]

    1915: The first major work by Durkheim published in English. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. A study in religious sociology translated by Joseph Ward Swain was published in New York and London. The next major work to be translated was Division of Labour in Society in 1933.

    1915 "Young soldiers can speed up their training by studying for themselves, in the intervals of parade instruction, how to make themselves all-round players in the game of War". Robert Baden Powell.

    Land Army established in Britain.

    11.4.1915 Charlie Chaplin's The Tramp released. "... the flour-white complexion of Charlie Chaplin, the dark vegetation of his eyes, his totem- like countenance". (Roland Barthes)

    31.5.1915 First bombs from Zeppelin airships dropped on London. See Charlotte Mew (below) and Essex

    Charlotte Mew: May and June 1915

    September 1915 First British Women's Institute formed at Llanfair PG on Anglesey, in Wales. British Women's Institute adopted the motto For Home and Country from the Canadian Women's Institute and adapted the Canadian badge.
    In 1916, the twenty four Womens Institutes then formed, linked up with the
    womens land army to help the food deficit by both growing and producing.

    20.10.1915 Human voices are first broadcast across the Atlantic ocean, between Arlington, Virginia and the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

    1916 1916 Vilfredo Pareto's Trattato di Sociologia generale published in two volumes, Florence. These were translated into French in 1917 and 1919. Parsons used the French edition. An English translation, The Mind and Society, was not published until 1935. Like Weber and Parsons, Pareto was an economist attempting to create a social model of human action that included more than the rational ("utilitarian", as Parsons called it) search for economic goods.

    1916 Ferdinand de Saussure's (1857-1913) Cours de linguistique générale (Course in General Linguistics) published after his death. - External link to extract - offline - Wikipedia

    4.3.1916 Death of Franz Marc, a German soldier and artist, during the Battle of Verdun. Marc had painted in 'unnatural' colours, as in his Der Turm der blauen Pferde (The Tower of blue horses) of 1913. In Die 100 Aphorismen - Das zweite Gesicht (The 100 Aphorisms/The Second Sight - or second face) of 1915 he wrote "the fabric of nature's laws conceals something that lies behind it"... "the law of gravity is no more than a foreground law". So in art, he sought the reality behind. The way he painted animals expressed what "they are", how "they themselves regard the world and feel their being". (Quotations from Bihalji-Merin 1938)

    August 1916 - Forgotten grief On a visit to the East End, Queen Mary viewed a street memorial. Memorials listing names of those away fighting and those killed, decorated with flowers and photographs, were created in streets and villages - It was from this life of the people that the stone war memorials that survive sprang. Charlotte Mew's poem The Cenotaph was written before the stone - It is a memory of the forgotten grief of flowers and photographs.

    December 1916: Department of Scientific and Industrial Research established in the United Kingdom. It was abolished by the Science and Technology Act in 1965.

    December 1916: Albert Einstein's Vorwort to Über die spezielle und die allgemeine Relativitästheorie (Relativity: The Special and the General Theory) signed. It was published in German in 1917 and translated into English in 1920. [ External link to German]


    Dance of death 1917; Dead Man's Hill.
    Etching by Otto Dix published in 1924.

    By the end of October 1914 the whole front in Belgium and France had solidified into lines of trenches. Trench warfare continued until the last weeks of the war. The dead bodies of soldiers rotted on the barbed wire.

    Dix's war paintings consist of "mangled bodies, rotting men spiked on barbed wire, a mould composed of blood and brains and forgotten skulls, from which a new forgetful Spring is already sending up flowers" (Bihalji-Merin 1938, p.90)

    Bakelite Bakelite

    The picture is taken from a 1917 advertisement for "Bakelite ... for Wireless apparatus". Leo Baekeland had made the first public announcement of his invention on 8.2.1909 and in 1910 most of the new material (plastic) was produced for electrical insulators. See American Chemical Society and Grace's Guide

    6.4.1917 The United States entered the war     America

    6.2.1917 Jacob Landau founded the Jewish Correspondence Bureau, (later renamed the Jewish Telegraphic Agency) in the Hague. It moved its headquarters from London in 1920 to New York in 1921. Paper from 1924: Jewish Daily Bulletin.   (history)

    16.10.1917 Meeting establishing the National Federation of Women's Institutes (England and Wales). Women's Institutes were first established in Canada in 1897 and in Britain in 1915. They had a rural base. - See Adding Country to Home - WI members entering public life - 1919-1925 by Anne Stamper
    The first report of the National Federation contained a full record of all the cooking and craft contributions of the Women's Institutes - Central to
    the war effort. The National Federation of Women's Institutes magazine Home and Country was first published in 1919 and the annual meeting sang "Jerusalem" from 1924. See history of the Women's Institute and 100 years of campaigning, which list issues including jury service (1921), women police patrols (1922), pollution of the seas (1927), equal pay (1943 and 1954), cancer education (1951), visiting children in hospital (1950), corneal grafting (1952), litter in the countryside (1954), smoking in public places (1964), breast examination (1975), AIDS (1986), fair trade (early 1990s), Earth Summit (2002), last Home and Country (2006), honey bees (2009), inspiring women (2010) , more midwives (2012)

    The National Union of Townswomen's Guilds was formed in 1930.

    7.11.1917 "October Revolution" (old style calendar) of the Russian "Bolsheviks" under Lenin. Baliktsioglou Christos writes: The Russian Revolution started. This has a wide scientific interest as it was guided by the theories of Karl Marx. Moreover, it is related to the development of the labour movements and revolutions around the world.
    It's the same the whole world over,
    Isn't it a blooming shame?
    It's the rich what gets the pleasure,
    It's the poor what gets the blame.

    Chorus of anonymous song that British soldiers sang in the trenches about the seduction and suicide of a girl who was poor, but honest.

    15.11.1917 Durkheim died


    1918 The Boy Scouts Associations "Imperial Headquarters" opened at 25 Buckingham Palace Road, London, SW1.

    At Brest-Litovsk, Leon Trotsky, commander of the Soviet Red Army, negotiated peace with Germany, withdrawing Russia from the war. In the course of negotiations, on 14.1.1918, German General Hoffmann complained that the soviet government was supported by force. Trotsky replied that "in a society based on classes every government rests on force. The only difference was that General Hoffmann applied repression to protect big property-owners, whereas we did it in defense of the workers". (From Trotsky's account - External Link). Later in 1918, Max Weber quoted Trotsky in a very long lecture given at Munich University. (Published 1919 as Politics as a Vocation). This contained Weber's definition of the modern state

    6.2.1918 (Royal assent) Britain: Votes for men over 21, women over 30

    28.4.1918 Publication of Lenin's "The Immediate Tasks of the Soviet Government"

    "The possibility of building socialism depends exactly upon our success in combining the Soviet power and the Soviet organisation of administration with the up-to-date achievements of capitalism. We must organise in Russia the study and teaching of the Taylor system and systematically try it out and adapt it to our own ends."

    Summer 1918 Oswald Spengler's Der Untergang des Abendlandes [The fall of the western countries] published. Revised 1922. Volume two published 1923. Later translated into English as The Decline of the West. Spengler argued that civilisations rise and fall in cycles.

    October 1918 First edition of A History of Everyday Things in England by Marjorie and Charles Quennell.

    23.10.1918 Germany accepted Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points" to end the war. Allies apart from USA not involved.

    "In the middle of all of this, Wilson proposed another idea to Britain and France, namely that a structure should be put in place to re-establish international cooperation in science. His proposal was for an International Research Council which would be organised round International Unions for each of the various scientific subjects. These International Unions would operate through National Committees in the countries of the eleven Allied Powers, with these National Committees each supported by its National Academy of Science and National Research Council. The International Unions would have the power to invite neutral countries to join, but not those countries against whom the Allied Powers had fought." source

    11.11.1918 Armistice signed. Firing stopped on all fronts.

    The Kaiser abdicated on 9.11.1918 (external documents) - a republic was proclaimed - In mid December the Berlin Conference of Workers' and Soldiers Councils decided in favour of parliamentary rather than soviet government. A National Assembly was elected on 19.1.1919 (The "Weimer Republic") with the SPD (Social democratic marxists) in control. There was an armed uprising of more radical marxists against the new state. Two leaders of the radical marxists were arrested by the army and killed. German marxists split into "socialists" and "communists" (the KPD - supported by Russia).

    "The flood of mud and debris that the year 1918 brought to the surface of our lives was not caused by the loss of the war, but was only released by it" (Adolf Hitler 18.7.1937)

    14.12.1918: UK General Election


    Punch 1919:
    "Jazz, the Fox-Trot and the Bunny-hug"
    (dances) - Jazz as popular music see Adorno 1936


    The UK Public Libraries Act 1919 removed restrictions on the establishment of public libraries.

    21.2.1919 Assasination of Kurt Eisner, socialist leader of Bavaria - Beacuse he was a jew. See Hitler's commentary

    Home and Country, the title of the Women's Institutes's monthly journal, was the slogan of the movement. It remained the magazine title for almost ninety years.
    The cover photograph of the first edition was a picture of Queen Mary visiting a Women's Institute Exhibition. Some had thought that when the war finished the Institutes would close, but its leaders had said the "WI movement is not a war emergency measure but will be of permanent value in the world of rural regeneration". Home and country had meant food for the nation. Now it meant home and countryside. In
    2002 it meant the world!

    28.6.1919 Treaty of Versailles ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.

    15.10.1919: Preface to The ABC of Communism by N. Buharin and E. Preobrazhensky describes it is "an elementary textbook of communist knowledge" to be "followed in the party schools" and "used for independent study by every worker or peasant who desires to acquaint himself with the party program."

    18.10.1919 Statute of the Union Académique Internationale, based in Brussels, defined its aims as "to encourage cooperation in the advancement of studies through collaborative research and publications in those branches of learning promoted by the Academies and institutions represented in the IUA - philology, archeology, history, the moral, political and social sciences." (website)

    October/November 1919 First session of the International Labour Conference held in Washington. This is the plenary body of the International Labour Organisation. Its first decision was to admit Germany and Austria as Member States. It went on to adopt conventions and recommendations on: hours of work in industry; unemployment; maternity protection; night work by women and young people; and the minimum age for work in industry. history

    1919 Constitutive Assembly of the International Research Council in Brussels, set up to to oversee cooperation within the scientific community of the Allied nations who had won the war. Preparations were made to set up the International Mathematical Union, also restricted to the victors. See above. In 1931 it was replaced by the International Council of Scientific Unions which had no restrictions on membership.

    William Beveridge was Director of the London School of Economics and Political Science from 1919 until 1937, when he was elected Master of University College, Oxford. See 1942

    In 1919 the Partito Nazionale Fascisto was formed in Italy. The fascisti, under Benito Mussolini, controlled Italy from 1922 to 1943. They opposed liberalism and communism, symbolising their social order by the ancient Roman fasces - the bundle of sticks that bound together cannot be snapped. The fascists donated to social theory the concepts of fascism and corporatism and totalitarian. Unlike National Socialism (also described as fascist), Italian fascism was not virulently anti-semitic or racist.

    A B
    B A
    1919 to 1933 Ronald Fisher working at Rothamsted
    The simple "latin square" (left) illustrates the principle of equalising the conditions in an experiment.
    The top, or the left hand side, of the field may be more fertile than the bottom or the right hand side. To avoid this distorting the results, if two seeds are being tested, the field is divided into squares and one seed is sown top-left and bottom-right and the other is sown top-right and bottom-left.
    Left: A 5 x 5 forestry experiment in Beddgelert in Wales, to compare varieties of tree; designed by Ronald Fisher. This was laid out in 1929 and photographed about 1945.

    Source Baily, Cameron and Connelly 2008

    21st century 6 x 6 experiment to compare methods of controlling aphids; conducted by Lesley Smart at Rothamsted Research. Photographed in 2004


    The rise of logical positivism Logical positivists sought to divide the world of ideas into the meaningful (science) and the meaningless (metaphysics). They held that "a statement has a meaning if and only if the fact that it is true makes a verifiable difference" (M. Schlick 1932). Only two types of knowledge were accepted: logic (which had to include mathematics) and empirical knowledge. (external link)   See distinction between logical positivism and Comte's positivism and note on Russell's logical analysis and Karl Popper on falsification


    Lenin to the eighth congress: "Communism equals the power of the Soviets plus electrification of the whole country" (Compare Morris on force)

    H.G. Wells' The Outline of History: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind published. George Bernard Shaw suggested (1932) that this and "the host of imitations and supplements that its huge success has called into existence" was the modern alternative to Genesis as an explanation of who we are and where we come from. See also 1929

    1920 Publication in Paris of La Responsabilité, Etude de Sociologie [Responsibility. A sociological study] by Paul Fauconnet, sets out a Durkheian criminology. Fauconnet published Durkheim's L'éducation morale [Moral Education] in 1925

    1920 Theodore Lothrop Stoddard's The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy New York. Map "Distribution of the primary races" divided the world into white, yellow, black, Amerindian, and brown peoples

    10.1.1920 League of Nations (English) Société des Nations (French) founded with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. The League in 1920 did not include the countries defeated in the war , the United States of America, or the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Germany joined
    8.9.1926, but withdrew 19.10.1933. The USSR joined 18.9.1934, but was expelled 14.12.1939.

    10.1.1920 Inter-Allied Rhineland High Commission came into being.

    Bronze medal cast by Karl Goetz "Die Wacht am Rhein" (The Watch on the Rhine). "Liberte, Égalité, Fraternité" (Liberty, Equality, Fraternity) under the image of a black French soldier.
    "Die Schwarze Schande" (The Black Shame). Lorelei, the spirit of the Rhine, is tied to a penis shaped tree capped by a French helmet. The broken lyre of the murmuring Rhine is watched over by the eye of God. Compare Paris Match 1955. See the colour of the French Revolution, Charles Darwin, Cesare Lombroso and Hitler's Mein Kampf, which says "the contamination caused by the influx of negroid blood on the Rhine, in the very heart of Europe, is in accord with the sadist and perverse lust for vengeance on the part of the hereditary enemy [France] of our people" - Rheinland bastards video

    April 1920 Le Play House, 65 Belgrave Road, Westminster, opened as a home for the Sociological Society, which had been based at the London School of Economics. (external link)

    14.6.1920 Weber died of pneumonia [aged 56]

    16.8.1920 Royal assent to the UK's 1920 Seed Act (Seeds?) (cap 54), that came into effect on 1.8.1921 as it was "impossible to get our testing stations into proper order in order to deal with this season". Seeds to be 98% pure. An early example of consumer legislation and also a major cause of the decline in cornfield weeds (wild flowers).

    11.11.1920 Unveiling of the Cenotaph in Whitehall. The architect was Edwin Lutyens, who also designed the All India War Memorial. See forgotten grief.

    Between world wars: Psychoanalytic glimmers

    12.1.1921 "The woman juror's new sphere" - "The summoning of the first women to serve on the juries at the Central Criminal Court is an event of considerable importance in England's judicial history", Manchester Guardian. The Women's Institute urged eligible women to "accept their full responsibilities as citizens in whatever way they may be called upon to serve their country". Very few women met the qualifying criteria.

    Sunday 19.6.1921/Monday 20.6.1921: Thirteenth British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 37,932,000; Scotland: 4,882,000

    The census omitted questions about fertility and about handicap and lunacy which had been in the 1911 census; it introduced a new classification of occupations and questions about widows, orphans and other dependants.

    December 1921 London County Council's Mental and Scholastic Tests by Cyril Burt:

    "If a child's mental age be divided by his chronological age, the quotient will state what fraction of ability the child actually possesses out of the sum total of ability which at his age he should theoretically possess both amounts being measured in terms of years. This fraction may be termed, with Stern, the child's "intelligence quotient," or, more euphoniously perhaps, his "mental ratio."" (page 151)

    "The abbreviated form I.Q. first recorded in 1922, has become much better known than the full version" (20th Century Words Oxford, 1999)


    1922 12th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica included an article by James Jeans on Relativity.

    Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) became General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

    1922 Max Weber's Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft (Economy and Society) published in German.

    1922 La Mentalite Primitive by Lucien Levy-Bruhl (1857-1939). Translated into English (London and New York) by Lilian A. Clare in 1923 [See Park, R.E. 1925/7 and 1925]

    1922 Bildnerei der Geisteskranken (Artistry of the Mentally Ill) by Hans Prinzhorn made comparisons with the art of children, "primitives" and contemporary art. He argued that the patients' art succeeded because of its ability to tap the unconscious. (See Degenerate Art). He provided life stories (lebensläufe) for ten schizophrenia image makers (schizophrenia Bildner), illustrated with samples of the images they made: Karl Brendel [Karl Genzel 1871-1925] - August Klotz [August Klett 1866-1928] - Peter Moog [1871-1930] - August Neter [August Natterer 1868-1933] - Johann Knüpfer [1866-1910] - Victor Orth [Clemens von Oertzen 1853-1919] - Hermann Beil [Behle] - Heinrich Welz [Hyacinth Freiherr von Wieser] - Joseph Sell [Joseph Schneller] - Franz Poll [1864-1920]

    1922 Bronislaw Malinowski published Argonauts of the Western Pacific in which he reported on his participant observation in the Trobriand Islands.

    Alexander Morris Carr-Saunders (1886-1966), an active member of the Eugenics Education Society, London, published The Population Problem. A Study in Human Evolution.

    "The population problem, as he saw it, was the evolution of primitive people with low mental and physical qualities and high reproduction rates... The book was an instant success" (Peder Anker, 2001, page 93)
    Carr-Saunders later paublished Report on Juvenile Employment in Liverpool (1924); Population (1924); Eugenics (1926); A survey of the social structure of England and Wales (1927); Professions: Their Organisation and Place in Society (1928); Standing-Room Only: A Study in Population (BBC Talk) (1930); A Century of Pauperism (1934). He contributed to We Europeans: a survey of 'racial' problems by Julian Huxley and A.C. Haddon (1935) Eugenics in the light of population trends (The Galton lecture to the Eugenics Society 16.2.1935) and similar works. On 20.5.1942 he gave the 12th L.T. Hobhouse memorial lecture, in the Mill Lane lecture rooms Cambridge, on The biological basis of human nature. [See mental health history words: deficient] (external link).

    February 1922 Publication of the reports of the Committee on National Expenditure chaired by Eric Geddes. Under the consequent cuts to public expenditure the Metropolitan Police women officers were cut from 112 to 20. The National Federation of Women's Institutes passed a resolution calling for their reinstatement. In 1923 fifty officers were re-sworn, with increased powers. "Over the next 26 years Women's Instute members joined a vigorous campaign to increase the number of women police". [See history 1 and 2]

    19.4.1922 Ronald A. Fisher "On the Mathematical Foundations of Theoretical Statistics"

    In the 1920s, Fisher introduced the the P value "as an informal way to judge whether evidence was significant in the sense of worthy of a second look. The idea was to run an experiment, then see if the results were consistent with what random chance might produce. Researchers would first set up a 'null hypothesis' that they wanted to disprove, such as there being no correlation or no difference between two groups. Next, they would play the devil's advocate and, assuming that this null hypothesis was in fact true, calculate the chances of getting results at least as extreme as what was actually observed. This probability was the P value. The smaller it was, suggested Fisher, the greater the likelihood that the straw-man null hypothesis was false." Regina Nuzzo 12.12.2014 See also p-hacking and 13.9.1998

    15.11.1922: UK General Election: Lloyd George's coalition defeated. Conservative Government to 1924. The Communist Party candidate, Shapurji Dorabji Saklatvala, was elected as MP for Battersea with Labour Party support. He was the third Asian to serve as a British MP, and the last until 1987.


    origins of the Frankfurt school and critical theory

    1923 Carl Grünberg founded the marxist -oriented Institute for Social Research (Institut für Sozialforschung) at the University of Frankfurt in Germany. Max Horkheimer led it from 1930. It was retrospectively referred to as the Frankfurt School after the Institute returned to Frankfurt in 1950. In the 21st century a far right belief that the "cultural marxism" of the Frankfurt School was undermining American civilisation transferred to Norway, where it precipitated mass-murder.


    In 1923 Karl Korsch published (in German) Marxism and Philosophy (archive) and Lucaks History and Class Consciousness (archive) [Links are to]

    1923 George Catlin (1896-1979), the English author of a short study of Thomas Hobbes, appointed to lecture at Cornell University, New York, where he helped to develop political science. He married the English novelist Vera Brittain (1893 - 1970) in 1925, and their children included Shirley Williams (born 27.7.1930) English politician and USA academic. Catlin was supervising a translation of Durkheim's Rules of Sociological Method in November 1933 when his student George Simpson published a translation of Division of Labour in Society. The English translation of the Rules, with an introduction by Catlin, was not published until 1938

    8.1.1923 First outside broadcast. On 18.1.1923 The Postmaster-General granted the British Broadcasting Company a licence to broadcast.

    11.1.1923 French occupation of the Ruhr in order to enforce reparations. French forces withdrew on 25.8.1925

    12.7.1923 Indecent assaults on children discussed in a House of Commons debate on the Home Office by Frank Briant (1863 - 1.9.1934), Liberal MP for Lambeth North and superintendent of the Alford House Institute for Workingmen and Lads; the Tory Nancy Astor and Liberal Margaret Wintringham; as well as the Home Secretary William Bridgeman. See paedophile

    6.12.1923: UK General Election


    Labour saving for the home owner (i.e. up-market) Left: An advertisement from How to Equip a House R.A. Bateman Ltd, Kingsway, London. [Published after 1923, but before October 1926]. Electric lighting preferable where available. Central heating preferable. The "old- fashioned kitchen range... stands condemned" (p.293). "Gas cooking without question is the most generally practised in moderate-sized houses today". (p.301). "The use of electricity for cooking is increasing rapidly". (p.304). The vacuum cleaner is first amongst the labour saving devices for cleaning." "Washing machines" (p.324) were "operated by hand". "Electric irons have become commonplace" (p.336). A "modern water-closet" is of "the simple pedestal type, of glazed impermeable ware" with an S or P shaped bend retaining water to keep sewer gasses out. (p.328)
    Recorded Music. In 1924 Lily Rose was eight and Gertie Hughes about six. In the crowded Kentish Town flat they would lie in bed pretending to be asleep. In the same room, Wilfred Finch (aged 27) was entertained by cousin Amy. Wilf would bring a gramophone to play records to Amy. In the only other room, Grandma Annie and Granddad Albert would sit by the fire. See Wireless 1937

    Alexander Ivanovich Oparin's hypothesis that life on earth developed through a gradual chemical evolution of carbon-based molecules in the earth's primordial soup published in The Origin of Life (in Russian) by Moscow Worker (publisher) 1924

    21.1.1924 Vladimir Lenin died.

    April May 1924 Stalin: "The combination of Russian revolutionary sweep with American efficiency is the essence of Leninism in Party and state work." (See

    May 1924 For the first time massed voices of women sang Jerusalem at the Annual General Meeting of National Federation of Women's Institutes in Queen's Hall, London.
    I will not cease from mental fight,

    Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand:

    Till we have built Jerusalem,

    In England's green and pleasant land

    The photograph shows the 1925 AGM in Queens Hall. Each level has "aye" and "no" exits for the delegates to vote by passing through.

    29.10.1924: UK General Election. Minority Labour Government under Ramsay MacDonald - Replaced later the same year by a Conservative Government under Stanley Baldwin (until 1929)

    1924 Harry Elmer Barnes Sociology and Political Theory, a consideration of the sociological basis of politics, New York: Knopf,
    Leonard T. Hobhouse "represents the sociological expression of the Neo-Liberalism of England that has produced..more constructive social legislation than the combined product of earlier English governments."

    Talcott Parsons studied as a post-graduate at London School of Economics from 1924 to 1925. Lecturers at the time included Harold Laski, R.H. Tawney, Morris Ginsberg, L.T. Hobhouse and Bronislaw Malinowski. This was followed by a year at the University of Heidelberg, in Germany, where he studied for a doctorate in The Concept of Capitalism in recent German Literature and read, amongst others, the works of Marx, Sombart and Weber. America

    First volume of
    Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf argued human history is a struggle for survival between biological races of human beings. Hitler's social theories drew on mainstream sociology, as can be seen by comparing them with the range of theories covered by Pitirim Sorokin. The forged Protocols apart, most elements of Hitler's theory can be found in the mainstream sociological theories reviewed by Sorokin.

    See Darwin - 21.2.1919 - Alfred Rosenberg - 1933 - 1936 - 1939 - 1942 - 24.7.1967 - External links to Wikipedia articles on: Adolf Hitler and Mein_Kampf   other weblinks

    Modern methods of urban transportation and communication- the electric railway, the automobile, the telephone, and the radio - have silently and rapidly changed in recent years the social and industrial organisation of the modern city. (Park, R.E. 1925/1 page 23) America

    Lucien Levy-Bruhl, Paul Rivet (1876-1958) and Marcel Mauss (1872-1950) created the Institut d'Ethnologie Institute of Ethnology at the Sorbonne, dedicated to the memory of Durkheim. Rivet and Mauss were the secretary-generals.

    1925 Dorothy and Leonard Elmhirst purchased Dartington Hall (14th century) and estate, near Totnes in Devon, England, and founded the Dartington Hall Trust.

    1925 WAGES: A Mr Brandon was engaged by London Co-op as driver of heavy vehicles at £4.10/- a week. Right through the depression, Co-op wages remained constant - Mates, 3 guineas; One ton drivers, £3.9/-. (See 1937 cost of a valve wireless)


    1926 13th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica included an article by Albert Einstein on "Space- Time". This was a new topic.

    Pavlov, Conditioned Reflexes: An investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex Translated from Russian into English and edited by G. V. Anrep, published by Oxford University Press

    8.6.1926 to 16.6.1926 Preliminary conference on oil pollution of navigable waters, held in Washington DC, USA. In 1927 Women's Institute "members lobbied for action on pollution in the seas".

    4.5.1926 The British general strike began. Newspapers (apart from one the Government ran) disappeared, but the BBC broadcast five news bulletins daily. "It is not easy to estimate what would have been the effect of the strike if there had been no such thing as wireless communication". (Radio Times)

    15.8.1926 Death of silent-movie star Rudolph Valentino

    "the face of Valentino was causing suicides" (Roland Barthes)

    15.10.1926 Birth of Michel Foucault. See 1934 - 1935 - 1940 - 1961 - 1968 - 1971 - 1975 - 25.6.1984

    25.12.1926 to 7.1.1989 The Shōwa period in Japanese history, corresponding to the reign of Emperor Hirohito

    Creation of the UK General Electricity Board, followed by the construction of the National Grid for Electricity, enabling industry to move off the coalfields. ( external link: Paul Lyons on cooperation in the electricity industry (archive)   See Morris on force)


    Ronald Laing born

    1.1.1927 British Broadcasting Corporation established
    1923, 1937, 1953, 1993.

    December 1927 Institute of Sociology formed by the amalgamation of the Sociological Trust, the Sociological Society and the LePlay House.

    1927 Charles Sutherland Elton (1900-1991) Animal Ecology. Elton was a student of Carr-Saunders and Julian Huxley and a friend of Arthur Tansley

    1927 Sir Alexander Morris Carr-Saunders and David Caradog Jones A survey of the social structure of England and Wales as illustrated by statistics. Does not define social structure. Begins with population units, then marital association, housing, urbanisation, distribution of industrial facilities, of occupations, of national income, of social services, "special attention was also given to ... matters such as the breadth of the educational ladder" (source)


    Contemporary Sociological Theories by Pitirim Sorokin published in USA. Sorokin, a Russian, taught in the sociology department of Minnesota, USA. He followed the German theorists, George Simmel (1858-1918) and Ferdinand Tönnies (1885-1936) in arguing that sociology should be about the forms of social interaction. He also claimed that it was only valuable as a science in as far as it produced empirical results. His book helped to set the tone for USA Sociology. He established the sociology department at Harvard University in 1931 and was succeeded by Talcott Parsons as head of the department in 1942. Robert King Merton (see crimtim) was one of his students. America

    1928 Ludwig Von Bertalanffy: Kritische Theorie der Formbildung, Borntraeger. Translated into English and adapted by translated and adapted by J. H. Woodger as Modern Theories of Development: An Introduction to Theoretical Biology, Oxford University Press, New York: Harper, 1933
    "We must view the germ as a whole, as a unitary system, which accomplishes the developmental processes on the basis of the conditions which are present in it and depend on the organisation of its material parts."
    Review by H.S. Burr in Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
    December 1933

    21.2.1928 "The vital statistics of wealth and poverty" By T.H.C. Stevenson, C.B.E., M.D. read before the Royal Statistical Society.

    25.2.1928 Joan Martin [later Hughes] born. Childhood 1928-1939. Brought up on Cow and Gate Milk. Medicated with camphor oil [rubbed in against colds] and syrup of figs swallowed weekly to prevent constipation]. The smell and taste of these make them early memories. Sometimes her grandmother bought her an orange. Her father smoked Players Weights. The 1929 edition of Our Baby contains adverts for several milks and foods, but not Cow and Date. "We owe his life to Nestle's Milk" "Humanised Trufood. Nearest to mother's milk". "Benger's Food for infants, invalids and the aged", "Neaves saves baby's life after 8 other food failed" [etc]

    [See Voice]
    24.3.1928 Charlotte Mew drank half a bottle of disinfectant (Lysol), from which she died.

    27.7.1928 Publication of The Well of Loneliness by Radclyffe Hall, with a commentary by Havelock Ellis. Jonathan Cape.

    19.8.1928 Sunday Express editorial by James Douglas, "A Book That Must Be Suppressed"

    James Douglas wrote that the book suggested "sexual inversion and perversion" was "unavoidable, because they cannot save themselves". He argued tht it was a "self-made debasement". James Douglas and Radclyffe Hall were both devout Christians.

    Family time for the newspaper seller - Saturday evening Music Hall - Sunny Sunday pub crawl

    Changing times: Outside broadcasting - All talking films

    1928-1930 "Dad used to take us the Bedford Music Hall on Saturday night". [Camden High Street - Gracie Fields and Charlie Chaplin appeared at the Bedford in 1912 and Marie Lloyd celebrated her 50th birthday in pantomime there in 1920].
    "On sunny Sundays we had a regular outing with mum and dad in their best clothes escorting us over Hampstead Heath - First we visited the Railway Tavern in Pond Street, then the Freemason's Arms, followed by the Old Bull and Bush" [of Marie Lloyd fame] - Stanley Morse

    "Outside Broadcast Problems" BBC Handbook 1928:

    "The B.B.C. has been the first in the world to exploit Simultaneous Broadcasting to its fullest advantage for a national system, and thanks to the co-operation of the Post Office engineers, it is possible to pick up a programme wherever it may take place within the British Isles and radiate it simultaneous from all distribution centres. Looking ahead still further and assuming that the wireless will supplement the wire line link, there is no reason why a simultaneous broadcast of something of fundamental importance to the whole civilised world should not take place some time in the future". "

    September 1928 The Jazz Singer presented, and Hollywood "all- talkie" The Terror shown at the Piccadilly Theatre, London.

    Followed shortly by The Singing Fool, Fox Movietone Follies, Rio Rita, Broadway, The Broadway Melody, Sunny Side Up, Blackmail (1929 "Britain's All-Talkie Challenge to the World", directed by Alfred Hitchcock)

    In July 1939 The BBC (wireless) presented the first of the summer's 56 seaside concert party broadcasts with the comment "nobody can say the talkies have killed them". The implication might be that talking cinema had replaced music hall.

    1929 Our Baby - 180,000 copies - on idiocy
    "Nature is on the side of obedience -
    It is proved that a definite stimulus produces a definite response"

    The Science of Life. A summary of contemporary knowledge about life and its possibilities by H. G. Wells, Julian Huxley and G. P. Wells published in three volumes by Amalgamated Press, 1929-1930.

    Jean Piaget (1896-1980): 1926/1929 The Child's Conception of the World - 1932 The Moral Judgement of the Child - 1936/1952 The Origins of Intelligence in Children - 1945/1951 Dream and Imitation in Childhood - 1968/1970 Structuralism

    30.5.1929: UK General Election. Minority Labour Government under Ramsay MacDonald. National Government under Ramsay MacDonald from 1931.

    21.6.1929 Death of Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse. Morris Ginsberg was appointed to succeed him in the Martin White chair of sociology.

    1929-1930 The "towering" Stone House rose amongst brick buildings in Bishopsgate. An early example of open plan office space? From 1930 it was the London office of Shanghai based E.D. Sassoon and Company, who set up E.D. Sassoon Banking Company.

    24.10.1929 - Wall Street Crash

    Publication in Vienna and London of Sigmund Freud's Das Unbehagen in der Kultur - Civilization and its Discontents. German edition actually published end of 1929 - although dated 1930. French translation, Malaise dans la civilisation published 1934.

    1930 Talcott Parsons' translation into English of Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

    Alfred Rosenberg's The Myth of the 20th Century provided a possible theoretical structure for the racialist doctrines of the Nazi (Nationalsozialist) party. To replace Christianity, Rosenberg suggested a story of a Nordic race that, through the German state, would subdue inferior races. According to this story, the aristocracy of France, at the time of the French revolution, was nordic. The revolution was an uprising of inferiors who spread the doctrines of liberalism (freedom, equality and universal community). Liberalism developed into marxism, that produced the Russian revolution. The destiny of Germany was to combat the ideas of the French revolution, and to undo their effect. See Nazi theory. See also Nazi-Christian dialogue

    July 1930 Max Horkheimer became Director of the Institut für Sozialforschung in Frankfurt. In his inaugural address (1931) he redefined Marx's "historical materialism" as a critique rather than a science and argued for the reintegration of philosophy with social science. (Swingewood, A. 2000, p. 131)

    1.12.1930 First publication of Swallows and Amazons by Arthur Ransome: A story of children on sailing adventures in the English Lake District.


    February 1931 "A National Plan for Britain" by Max Nicholson published in The Week-End Review. This stimulated the formation of the organisation Political and Economic Planning (PEP) later in the year, with Elmhirst money. Directors included Max Nicholson, Michael Young (1941-1945) and Raymond Goodman.

    "an independent non-party group, consisting of more than a hundred working members who are by vocation industrialists, officers of central and local government, doctors, university teachers, and so forth, and who give part of their spare time... in fact-finding and in suggesting principles and possible advances over a wide range of social and economic activities..." (1939)

    12.2.1931 The All-India War Memorial inaugurated by Viceroy Lord Irwin. The foundation stone had been laid on 10.2.1921. The architect was Edwin Lutyens, who also designed the cenotaph in Whitehall, London. It commemorates 60,000 Indians who died the First World War and 13,516 British officers lost on the North West Frontier.
    Behind the imperious gate stood this imperial statue of king George 5 by Charles Sargeant Jagger.

    The statue has now been moved to Coronation Park. (Photograph by Robert Freidus). Robert Freitas comments that another face of India, Gandhi might be a suitable replacement statue except that "the setting is preposterously grandiose for his unpretentious figure".

    Sunday 26.4.1931 Death of George Herbert Mead in Chicago. After his death students published lectures and articles by him as Mind, Self and Society, from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviourist (1934) America
    Mead's theories enabled people to analyse our minds and personalities (our "self") as something we we actively create in
    symbolic interaction with others. Mead's theories were made popular by Goffman, and others, in the 1960s.

    Sunday 26.4.1931/Monday 27.4.1931: Fourteenth British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 39,988,000; Scotland: 4,843,000

    There was no census in 1941. The next was in 1951

    "not far short of nine million men, women and children were living within twenty miles of St Paul's Cathedral. In no other area of equal size in the world are as many as 7325 people to the square mile to be found" (R.S.R. Fitter 1945, page 1)

    July 1931 Association for the Scientific Treatment of Criminals. It was renamed the Institute for the Scientific Treatment of Delinquency in July 1932, and the Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency in 1951. Became the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies in 1999. (website history) - See also Child Guidance

    11.7.1931 Fifth Assembly of the International Research Council and the First Assembly of the International Council of Scientific Unions held at Brussels.
    International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) formed.
    (website). "It represents the evolution and expansion of two earlier bodies known as the International Association of Academies (IAA; 1899-1914) and the International Research Council (IRC; 1919-1931)" (source). Became the International Council for Science (but still ICSU) in 1998.

    25.8.1931 Joachim Benemann arrived in the United Kingdom for his first (two months conditional) stay. "After leaving College, in order to gain some insight into the working population's life, he worked in an Italian shipyard, a Russian coalmine, a Scandinavian farm and an English coal mine".

    October 1931 Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi chose to stay in the East End of London at Kingsley Hall, rather than as a government guest, when he took part in British government sponsored talks. See 1947 - 1948

    This is probably how a working class girl in Camden Town (later my mother) learnt who he was and was inspired by him

    "Star, News, Standard!" - "Gandhi swims the Channel".

    Selling newspapers on his pitch in front of the Dominion in Tottenham Court Road, London, Herbert Morse (my mother's step-father) created bizarre news stories to attract attention.

    Cartoon by my uncle, Stanley Morse.

    27.10.1931: UK General Election


    1932 Der Sinnhafte Aufbau der sozialen Welt : eine Einleitung in die verstehende Soziologie (The "sense-clung" structure of the social world: an introduction to "understanding" sociology) by Alfred Schütz (1899-1959) published in Vienna. Tranlated into English as The Phenomenology of the Social World in 1967.

    Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung (Journal for Social Research) published Frankfurt from 1932 to 1941

    July 1932 Reich Broadcasting Corporation established

    Late 1932 In the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge an atom split. Dalton's atom was the smallest element. Rutherford's was a nucleus with electrons spinning round it. "The challenge was to crack open the nucleus." John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton built a particle accelerator which used protons as 'bullets' to shoot at lithium atoms, aiming to split it into two helium atoms. By learning the correct, slow speed to fire the protons, the experiment was successful. archive of source - 1951 Nobel citation. See nuclear fission

    December 1932 George Bernard Shaw's The Adventures of The Black Girl in Her Search for God, designed and engraved by John Farleigh, went through (at least) four reprints in the month of publication. (See Shaw on Pavlov) - John Farleigh archive

    1933 Clarence Crane Brinton's English Political Thought in the Nineteenth Century (London: Ernest Benn, 1933) begins its chapter on Herbert Spencer (pp. 226-227)
    "Who now reads Spencer? It is difficult for us to realize how great a stir he made in the world. . . . He was the intimate confidant of a strange and rather unsatisfactory God, whom he called the principle of Evolution. His God has betrayed him. We have evolved beyond Spencer."

    1933-1945 Hitler and the Nazi (Nationalsozialist - National Socialist) party in power in Germany (30.1.1933). The two German marxist parties were made illegal and liberal theories were opposed. Social theorists who had built ideas of human progress on the triumph of reason and democracy were thrown into intellectual crisis by the popular support for the Nazi's. This led to the creation of new social theories, sometimes by synthesising the ideas of Marx and Freud. The Nazi persecution of German (and other) Jews led to many German intellectuals emigrating, and founding new academic traditions of social science in Britain, the United States, or elsewhere. See Nazi theory

    First Volksempfänger (the people's receiver) produced. [External link: Hitler's Radio]

    "Radio went to war on five continents shortly after the Nazi Party came to power in Germany. In nine years it has been streamlined from a crude propaganda bludgeon into the most powerful single instrument of political warfare the world has ever known." (Charles, J. Rolo, 1943 Radio Goes to War Faber and Faber.

    17.6.1933 Baldur Benedikt von Schirach, head of the Hitler-Jugend (Hitler Youth), was appointed supreme youth leader in Germany. The Reichsschaft Deutscher Pfadfinder (Reich Association of German Scouts) was banned in June 1934.

    From 1934, Joachim Benemann was building links for the Hitler Youth in the United Kingdom.

    July 1933 "Shelf Appeal . A monthly publication devoted to the planning, designing, manufacturing and display of the package." Creative Journals Limited, Museum Station Buildings, 133 High Holborn, London, W.C.1. [May have been biomonthly at times]. In 1936 and 1938 Creative Journals published a 300 page Package Omnibus "The first encyclopaedia of packaging", - "Includes boxes, bags, bottles and tins" (Wellcome Library catalogue) - and in 1938 a larger Omnibus of marketing and packaging

    See the Museum of Domestic Design and Architecture's review of "Bringing You Better Living" (April 2015), which includes two covers. The one on the left is for October 1935 and that on the right for April 1938.

    The review mentions examining typography, illustration and graphics and new materials such as plastics, Bakelite and aluminium.

    1935 brands included Dettol, Lux soap powder, Carter's Little Liver Pills, Gibb's toothpaste, Brylcreem, Rose's lime Juice, Ty-Phoo Tea, Erasmic soap, Cuprinol, Bird's custard, Izal toilet paper, Yardley cosmetics, Player's cigarettes, Eno's Fruit Salt, Wright's Coal Tar Soap, Anchor butter, Nestle's cheese, Lyons' cakes, Tate and Lyle sugar, Lifebuoy soap, Scott's Porage Oats, Terry's chocolates, Steradent denture cleaner, Elastoplast and Band-Aid plasters and Ovaltine. The 1938 Omnibus had 540 illustrations.

    The war changed things. Shelf Appeal ran to April 1942. From then to October 1946 it was replaced by Scope "Magazine for industry", which was supplemented by the Scope year book of industry, trade and finance. However, in 1939, Creative Journals had launched a quarterly called Persuasion - Public relations, propaganda, advertising and publicity, edited by John M. Ryan. This was absorbed by Scope in 1951. Creative Journals Limited was threatened with being struck of the Companies Register in 1950 but in the 1950s it brought out a magazine called Sales Appeal and Packaging Technology and then just Sales Appeal appeared. The company was eventually removed from the register in 1977.

    26.12.1933 Queen Christina first shown in New York. Released 1934 in the rest of the world. Roland Barthes "The Face of Garbo" about 1954. "The face of Garbo is an Idea, that of Hepburn an Event". In the film the Queen dresses as a man to escape into common life. Snowbound in a hotel she shares the same bed as Spanish envoy Antonio.
    It is not the similar story line to
    Roman Holiday (Hepburn 1953) that attracts Barthes attention, but the different presentation of faces. "Garbo still belongs to that moment in cinema when capturing the human face still plunged audiences into the deepest ecstasy, when one literally lost oneself in a human image..."


    Karl Popper's Logik der Forschung (The Logic of Scientific Discovery) published. (See review and external link) Popper accepted much of the programme of logical positivism, but argued that verification of general scientific statements, in the sense of proving them true by testing against experience, was not possible. Good and meaningful science would seek to draw out consequences from its theories which could prove them false. A meaningful or scientific theory is one constructed to make predictions about the empirical world which could prove it wrong. See 1956, 1994 and weblinks

    Lev Semenovich Vygotsky died

    1934 Publication of Sociology by Morris Ginsberg London: Home University Library of Modern Knowledge, Thornton Butterworth. 1934. 260 pages Price 2s. 6d. Chapters: 1) Scope and method of sociology (31 pages) - 2) Society, culture and civilisation (16 pages) - 3) Race and environment (44 pages) - 4) The psychological basis of social life (31 pages) - 5) The growth of societies (30 pages) - 6) Social classes and economic organisation (37 pages) - 7) Aspects of mental development (38 pages) - 8) Conclusion (13 pages). Bibliography divided into: General, Race and environment, Social psychology, Social organisation, Mental development.

    January 1934 contraceptive advertisment
    Walter Rendell's sperm killer was available from 1886. Larger advertisements in the 1930s mentioned that it resolved "family problems" and that a booklet on "Hygiene for women" by nurse Drew could be obtained from chemists. The company encouraged chemists to display the booklet on their counters.

    22.2.1934 Committee which formed the nucleus of the National Council for Civil Liberties (UK) first met. 26.2.1934 Arrival of hunger marchers in London watched by observers from the Council. [history - history - history] Campaigned against Sedition (Incitement for Disaffection) Bill of 1934 and Public Order Act of 1936, See 1947 - 1950 and 1.11.1954 - 1975

    25.7.1934 Austrian Chancellor, Engelbert Dollfuss, assassinated by Austrian Nazis. Young Michel Foucault learnt a lesson.


    1935 Victor Gollancz started the Left Book Club and the first Penguin Books were published.

    In 1934 and 1935 Joachim Benemann worked in the United Kingdom under Otto Bene of the German Embassy. He arranged boys camps for members of the Hitler Youth and English boys. On Wednesday 8.5.1935 the Jewish Daily Bulletin, based on a News Chronicle report, said the first Anglo-German camp had been held at Bryanston School, Dorset, with thirty boys from each country.

    The British "are five young miners, five cigarette factory hands and a number of public school boys".

    One boy reported: "They say there are no class distinctions in Germany now - it doesn't matter whether you are a millionaire or a tramp. They say the worst that happened to the Jews was that some windows were broken".

    Main hall Bryanstone by Ben Brooksbank
    The New Chronicle said Benemann was "a pleasant young German journalist"... "on the Hitler youth movement staff" who had "addressed twenty-three public schools and fifteen factories" and founded what he calls 'slands' at Manchester, Birmingham and Nottingham of people wanting to establish better relations. In December 1935 he was in Germany, trying to link the Hitler Youth with the Scouts. In 1936 and 1937 he arranged camps in Germany and the United Kingdom. (MI5)

    June 1935 A meadow at Granchester: Alan Turing tried to envisage a machine that would decide the provability of any mathematical assertion presented to it. His paper "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem" (January 1937) laid the mathematical foundations for modern computers that can handle thought patterns much more complex than the arithmetic of Babbage's machines. A "computable number" is any number that can be defined by some rule. So pi () is a computable number even though it can never be calculated. Turing's imaginary machines linked the world of abstract symbols to the material world of metal and glass. Valves and then silicon chips would later sort out thought at speeds beyond the speed of thought. [See hardware and software, monster computers in the 1960s, cold war communications and world wide web]

    17.6.1935 Radio detection (later called RADAR) at Orfordness, Suffolk, of a flying boat 17 miles away. Research was pioneered under the umbrella of the Air Ministry. At the start of World War Two training was given in Technical Colleges before the Air Ministry established its own unts.

    September 1935 The Institute of Sociology and the International Student Service held a series of conferences at King's College, London on the relations between the social sciences (The Social Sciences: Their Relations in Theory and in Teaching), A further series was held in 1936. Rocquin, B. 2006 p. 28)

    3.10 1935 Italy invaded the independent African state of Ethiopia The conquest was complete by May 1936   Foucault remembers  

    "A vigorous press in the Gold Coast and Nigeria meant that the most marked response of Africans in Africa was in West Africa... The West African elite had, until Ethiopia, a considerable residue of faith in the "progressive" aspects of colonialism. But the way Britain appeased Italy over Ethiopia made them loose faith in British "fair play"...Up to now, West African nationalism had tried to work within the trusteeship concept. It was henceforth replaced by a more militant anti-white pan-Africanism" (Mazrui and Tidy 1984 pp 7-8)

    14.11.1935: UK General Election. National Government under Stanley Baldwin.

    "On the Concept of Function in Social Science" (external link to extract) by Radcliffe-Brown. published in American Anthropologist 37: pages 394- 402. It was reprinted in his 1952 collection of essays Structure and Function in Primitive Society See Functionalism. Also look at the entry for Malinowski on the LSE History site


    John Maynard Keynes: The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money

    1936 Theodor Adorno's article "Über Jazz" (On Jazz) published in Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung - In 1938 he wrote "To make oneself a jazz expert or hang over the radio all day, one must have much free time and little freedom".

    1936 Methodenlehre der Sozialwissenschaften by Felix Kaufmann (1895 - 1949) published in Vienna. (External link to review by Joseph Mayer) - Methodology of the Social Sciences published by Oxford University Press in London and New York in 1944.

    Sometime in 1936 an "Anglo-German Brotherhood" was formed by Baron von der Ropp at a meeting at Grünheide. (source). This was a (nationalist - völkische - racist) Christian organisation. It is not the same as the (secular political) Anglo-German Fellowship (1935 to 1939), but it may have affiliated to The Link in 1939

    1936 The "London Brick Company" works at Stewartby in Bedfordshire was the largest brickworks in the world. Its "Fletton" or "London" bricks were cheap to make because of properties of the clay used and mass- production methods, and this made it more economical to transport brick by rail than to make it locally. (Alan Cox 1979)

    6.1.1936 Heavy rain and flooding in England 20.1.1936 Death of George 5th announced by John Reith on the BBC outside normal radio news hours. February 1936 First British comic (Mickey Mouse Weekly) in full colour photogravure. 1.3.1936 Edward 8th broadcast his first message to the Empire. 8.3.1936 German troops reoccupied Rhineland.

    3.5.1936 Popular Front alliance of left wing parties won power in France. Léon Blum became President of the Council. [See Barthes]

    First week July The Radio Times "Television Number" was restricted to London: In range of the transmissions from Alexandra Palace which the 300 owners of private sets could receive. 18.7.1936 Start of Spanish Civil War.   Foucault remembers refugees

    1.8.1936: Berlin Olympic Games opened by Hitler. Television pictures were available to the Berlin public in television parlours.   Nazi's and Christians

    The "type of human .. we saw ... during the Olympic games" ... exuded "proud physical strength" (Hitler)

    4.10.1936 Battle of Cable Street when Oswald Mosley (British Fascist) was prevented from marching through the East End. 5.10.1936 Start of Jarrow March. Unemployed led by Ellen Wilkinson MP walked 280 miles from Jarrow to London. It was reported sympathetically on Cinema Newsreels. 16.11.1936 Edward 8th advised Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, that he wished to marry Mrs Simpson after her second divorce. 30.11.1936 Crystal Palace burnt down. Baird had all his television equipment stored here. Friday 11.12.1936 Edward 8th's abdication broadcast from Windsor Castle. Accession of George 6th (who stuttered). Christmas 1936 No King's Christmas broadcast.

    Seebohm Rowntree's second York study was made in 1936, although not published until 1941. He wrote that "The economic condition of the workers is better by 30 per cent than in 1899, though working hours are shorter. Housing is immeasurably better, health is better, education is better. Cheap means of transport, the provision of public libraries and cheap books, the wireless, the cinema and other places of entertainment, have placed within the reach of everyone forms of recreation unknown, and some of them unthought of, forty years ago."

    Mass Observation started by Charles Madge (1912 - 17.1.1996) and Tom Harrison (1911- 1976) and Humphrey Jennings (19.8.1907 - 24.9. 1950) early in 1937 in Bolton, Lanashire, England. source. Preceding events included Tom Harrison's response to the abdication crisis of 1936 See biography on Bolton museums' site

    "Mass Observation intends to make use, besides the work of scientists, of the untrained observer, the man in the street. Ideally, it is the observation of everyone by everyone, including themselves... electricity, aeroplanes, radio - are so new that the process of adaptation to them is still going on. It is within the scope of the science of Mass Observation to watch the process taking place" ("Fact" pamphlet. 1937)

    weblink - Wikipedia

    - See 12.5.1937

    Talcott Parsons The Structure of Social Action. A study in social theory with special reference to a group of recent European writers [extracts]. Primarily an integration of the work of Marshall, Pareto, Durkheim and Weber to create a general theory (the action frame of reference) in which socially directed actions of individuals are integrated by the common value system of the society. The Structure of Social Action became number 9 in the century's top 10 America

    1937 Max Horkheimer's essay "Critical and traditional theory" introduced the term critical theory as opposed to traditional positivist science whose goal, he argued, is pure knowledge. Critical theory was committed to emancipation. (Swingewood, A. 2000, p. 131)

    12.5.1937 Coronation of George 6th televised. Seen on the 300 sets then existing around London. See 1927, 1953, 1993. First Mass Observation Day. See weblink. Later in the year Faber published May the Twelfth: Mass Observation Day Surveys

    Another "mass observation" was under way, a "quickened interest in wild life" "perhaps partly" explained by "modern transport, giving quick and easy access to the country" (Forward to Observers Book of British Birds). The first two "Observer" books (birds and wild flowers) were published in 1937. Butterflies, trees and shrubs, and wild animals followed in 1938, freshwater fishes in 1941 and grasses sedges and rushes in 1942. Then came the first one not about nature, airplanes in 1942

    24.5.1937 Daily Herald report, "Nazis must be spyclists" said the Nazi Cyclists Association memers cycling abroad should memorise locations of landmarks, the construction of bridges and the width of streams and the depths of fords. (MI5)
    Joachim Benemann, 27 Mecklenburgh Square, London, WC1 was watched by MI5. He and returned to the United Kingdom 25.1.1937. In June 1937 opening his post was authorised. "Joachim Benemann is a member of the Reichsjugendführung organsation, a branch of the N.S.D.A.P., which directs the activities of the Hitler Jugend. He has been active intermittently in this country for the last three years. His work might prove a source of danger in the event of war..."

    Otto Hermann Eichele of 106 Norfolk Road, London. E8, teacher, In England from 1934 to 1937, Nazi Party number 3710198, joining in 1936 (from England) was leader of the Hitler Youth in the UK. He worked at the German Orphanage and may have left England because they were not happy to support his activities in the Hitler Youth. MI%

    25.5.1937 to 25.11.1937 The Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (International Exposition dedicated to Art and Technology in Modern Life) held in Paris. The Musée de l'Homme was founded on this occasion, in succession to the Musée d'Ethnographie du Trocadéro. (visit now). Its Director, Paul Rivet, was a prominent anti-fascist. (Victor Serge weblink)
    Two years before the second world war, the exhibition buildings of Nazi Germany (on the left) and the Soviet Union confront on another across the Pont d'Iéna (Jena Bridge). This picture was probably taken from the esplanade between the new Musée de l'Homme and Musée des Monuments Français. The war between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Republics was delayed by the non-aggression pact of 23.8.1939.

    June 1937 The "Georgian Group" of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings formed. "In the inter-war period, buildings dating from after 1700 were considered too modern to qualify for statutory protection" (website). It began to function independently in the early 1940s. The Victorian Society was founded in 1958 and the Twentieth Century Society started as the Thirties Society in 1979,

    June 1937 In a textbook on the social sciences, Herbert Blumer coined the term symbolic interactionist for theories developed from Mead. [See Interaction]. Blumer divided social psychology theories into those based on the "doctrine of instincts", those emphasising stimulus and response, and symbolic interactionists. America

    18.7.1937 Opening of Haus der Deutschen Kunst ("House of German Art") in Munich. The inaugural exhibition was the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung ("Great German art exhibition"). Hitler's speech at the opening was broadcast.

    Ivo Saliger (1894-1987): Urteil des Paris (Judgement of Paris) 1939.

    external link "Idealized female nudes... Well-formed, perfect body... the aesthetics of the Nordic people... should symbolize grace, beauty and purity. Aryan men... muscular man figures modelled on classical antiquity.."

    Paris is depicted as a Hitler Youth in shorts, choosing between three healthy examples of Aryan womanhood.

    Catalogues, prints, magazines and postcards spread the messages of the art gallery to all parts of the German population (Haus der Deutschen Kunst):
    Postcards of Richard Heymann's Glückliche Mütter (happy mothers) and F. Staeger - Germanische Urbarmachung in den Ostlanden (Germanic reclamation in the eastlands)

  • GDK Research - research platform for images of the Great German Art Exhibitions 1937-1944 in Munich (German and English)

    19.7.1937 Exhibition of Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art), organized by Adolf Ziegler and the Nazi Party, opens in Munich. It closed 30.11.1937 and then travelled to other cities in Germany and Austria. [Twelve stages: Berlin, Leipzig, Düsseldorf (November 1938?), Salzburg, Hamburg, Stettin, Weimar, Vienna, Frankfurt/Main, Chemnitz, Waldenburg, Halle (April 1941). Some of the artists

    The sculpture on the cover of the guide is Otto Freundlich's "Der neue Mensch" [The New Man] 1912. Made of plaster, about 139 cm high, it is now lost

    In 1938, Penguin Books published Modern German Art by "Peter Thoene", a psudonym for Oto Bihalji-Merin 1904-1993 - See 1938

    WIRELESS. A death at the end of 1937 enabled the Morse family of Kentish Town to replace their cats whiskers wireless with a valve wireless set, using money from a life insurance. This cost about £8 or £9 (See wages). It was cased in a large wooden box with a fretwork front where the loudspeaker was. It was still the family wireless in the 1950s. (External link: "crystal and valve")

    19.11.1937 Robert Baden Powell and (Mrs) Rose Kerr (representing Guides) had tea with Joachim von Ribbentrop, the German ambassador, Hartmann Lauterbacher, Chief of Staff Hitler Youth, and Joachim Benemann, organiser of the cycling tours.


    1938 Facing Mount Kenya: The tribal life of Gikuyu, by Jomo Kenyatta, with an introduction by Bronislaw Malinowski, published by Secker and Warburg (London)

    The first of the 10,000 children to escape to England from Nazi Europe arrived in 1938. Known as the kindertransport refugees. How many more could have been saved? See BBC News in pictures - See holocaust.

    In June 1938 Sigmund Freud and his family fled their home in Vienna to escape the Nazis. They settled in Hampstead, London, where Freud wrote a summary of his theory, An Outline of Psychoanalysis. He died in September 1939.

    Extracts from An Outline of Psychoanalysis
    Freud Museum (Hampstead) web link

    6.7.1938 The President of the The Royal Medico-Psychological Association spoke of a "vast increase of public interest in psychological matters" since 1914-1919 war, "accompanied by the decline in the observance of any form of religion". "The younger generation are no longer looking outwards for their salvation, but are driven deep into their inmost consciousness for a solution of their problems and, finding there what does not give them peace, fly to the psychologist." "Thirty years ago" a patient would promptly answer "Church, Chapel, or Roman Catholic, as the case might be" when asked about his religion. "Now, if we wish to know whether an individual is sociable" we ask about "his reactions to the cinema, or his recreational pursuits".

    "The warm glow of faith has faded and mankind gropes in the darkness, seeking new gods on whom to lean. In some countries reason and science have gone with the wind, and men find myopic comfort in 'thinking with the bloood' or in putting a blind trust in megalomanic leaders."

    8.7.1938 "Exhibition of 20th Century German Art" opened in the New Burlington Galleries, London at the same time as Modern German Art by Peter Thoene (Oto Bihalji-Merin) was published. The text (right) is from the cover of the book. The exhibition was organised by Herbert Read, Roland Penrose and Noel Evelyn Norton.
    In Modern German Art Oto Bihalji-Merin (Peter Thoene) wrote that
    "Never before have generations of artists been placed beyond the pale of the law, nor a whole epoch of art as such proscribed and its representatives threatened with sterilisation because their palettes did not function to the liking of the ruling powers" (p.42) [See Hitler on what should happen to degenerate artists]

    20.9.1938 First page of a British Communist Party leaflet calling for a united stand of Britain, France and Russia against Hitler's plans for Czechoslovakia.

    "Giving way to Hitler" will not "give us peace" - "It makes world war certain". "If we stand firm, we, the French and the Russians", Hitler will probably not fight "for the superiority of the three of us now is enormous. And if he were mad enough to challenge us, he would certainly be defeated".

    29.9.1928 When Edwin Roberts, a young clerk, turned up for work at the Foreign Office, there were police across the entrance to Downing Street. From the Foreign Office window he saw Neville Chamberlain leave for Munich.

    30.9.1928 British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain brings back a worthless "Peace in our Time" (at the cost of Czechoslovakia) from Adolph Hitler in Munich.

    1.10.1938: The German Wehrmacht invaded the Sudetenland

    1.10.1938 The first edition of Picture Post. The same picture was used on the cover of the last edition on 1.6.1957.

    With "photographs of the ordinary lives of ordinary working men and women it was as new, and extraordinary, as when the Dutch painters of the seventeenth century decided to paint ordinary folk, instead of the Holy Family..." (Edward Hulton in the last Picture Post)

    1957: "the success of commercial television has drawn away thousands of people who formerly rejoiced in a fourpenny picture paper" (Edward Hulton in the last Picture Post)

    9/10.11.1938 Kristallnacht (Night of Crystal) - Night of broken glass in Germany. "I thought of myself as a German girl until they broke our windows because we were Jews" (a friend who later lost all her family to the extermination camps).

    British Jews could not travel safely to Germany to assess the situation, but the Friends' Service Council (Quakers) sent a team of six volunteers to Berlin, including Ben Greene

    21.11.1938 A joint Quaker and Jewish delegation persuaded the Home Secretary, Samuel Hoare, to allow unaccompanied children to enter Britain.

    2.12.1938 The first Kindertransport arrived in Harwich, bringing about 200 children from a Jewish orphanage in Berlin which had been destroyed in the Kristallnacht pogrom.

    17.12.1938 Nuclear fission [splitting] of heavy elements by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann. Explained theoretically in January 1939 by Lise Meitner Otto Robert Frisch. Frisch named the process by analogy with biological fission of living cells. The reaction can release large amounts of energy.

    1939 Teach Yourself Household Electricity by Caroline Haslett CBE, Comp.I.E.E. Director of the Electrical Association for Women published.

    The association was the idea of Mrs M.L. Matthews, a member of the Women's Engineering Society and Caroline Haslett was its first Director.

    1939 Norbert Elias' two-volume Über den Prozess der Zivilisation first published. Its republication in 1969 was accompanied by an English translation: The Civilising Process (See Wikipedia). The Civilising Process became number 7 in the century's top 10 - A Sage "Master in Modern Social Thought"

    8.3.1939 Death in Islington of David Gestetner (born 1854) who developed office copying machines, often known as duplicators. These used stencils cut on a typewriter through which ink passed. See Gertie Beckett's memories of the 1950s. In the 1960s and 1970s the UK market was dominated by Gestetner and Roneo. See duplicator publishing

    "O mois des floraisons mois des métamorphoses
    Mai qui fut sans nuage et Juin poignardé
    Je n'oublierai jamais les lilas ni les roses
    Ni ceux que le printemps dans les plis a gardés"
    (Louis Aragon in 1941)
    [months of flowering and changing - May without a cloud, June stabbed - I will never forget the lilacs and the roses - or those who the spring for a while enfolded.]

    20.7.1939 Hythe (Kent) bye-election. A safe conservative seat with Liberals in second place. No Labour candidate. John Philby stood for the British People's Party (a splinter group from the British Union of Fascists) on a no war platform, arguing that "no cause whatever is worth the spilling of human blood" and for "protection of the small man against big business". He only received 576 votes. Ben Greene (a Quaker) was the Treasurer of the British People's Party. Philby and Greene were both interred at the start of the war, but then released. John Philby introduced his son, Kim Philby, to the British secret service.


    23.8.1939 non-aggression pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union left the way clear for Germany to invade Poland, and delayed the planned Nazi assault on the Soviet Union.

    1939-1945 Second World War

    Friday 1.9.1939 Germany invaded Poland   -   A panic exit from London   -   Saturday 2.9.1939 Conscription of UK men between 18 and 41   -   Sunday 3.9.1939 Britain declared war on Germany after Germany's "blitzkrieg" attack on Poland.

    September 1939 to April 1940 So called "phoney war", "twilight war" or "sitting war" when unexpectedly little happened..

    Soon after the outbreak of war, an unexpurgated and illustrated edition of Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf (in English) was published in London in 18 sixpenny weekly parts by Hutchinson and Hurst and Blackett. Publication continued into 1940. Royalties went to the British Red Cross. The cover said that it was "The blue-print of German imperialism" and "The most widely discussed book of the modern world". Sometime in 1939, Robert Baden Powell "Lay up all day. Read Mein Kampf. A wonderful book, with good ideas on education, health, propaganda, organisation etc. - and ideals which Hitler does not practise himself."

    December 1939 First edition of the Penguin Special compiled by Walter Theimer: An ABC of International Affairs - The Penguin Political Dictionary

    1940s The asylum inheritance


    By the begining of 1940 half of those children evacuated and most of the mothers with children under five went back home (to London?) (Golden 1995 p. 35)

    8.1.1940 UK Rationing introduced, putting bacon, butter and sugar under control. Extended during the following two years to meat, tea, margarine, lard, jam, marmalade, cheese, eggs, and milk.

    Stanley Morse about his sister Lily Rose.

    April 1940 UK Wartime Social Survey established by the National Institute for Economic and Social Research, to investigate questions of sociological importance. Absorbed into the Ministry of Information's Home Intelligence Division in Spring 1941. In 1946 it became the Social Survey Division of the Central Office of Information.

    10.5.1940 - 22.6.1940: Germany invaded France "Much more than the activities of family life, it was these events concerning the world which are the substance of our memory... Our private life was really threatened" (Michel Foucault)

    Friday 10.5.1940 Winston Churchill became UK Prime Minister in a coalition government. In his first speech to the House of Commons as prime Minister, he said

    "I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined this government: "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat."
    The aim was victory at all costs because
    "without victory, there is no survival. Let that be realised; no survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge and impulse of the ages, that mankind will move forward towards its goal."

    26.5.1940 to 4.6.1940 Evacuation from Dunkirk.

    Following the fall of France, the UK sought to reintroduce the evacuation of children. Over 100.000 schoolchildren left London in June 1940, but over half a million remained in September. (Golden 1995 p. 35) - End of June 1940 "closure of local schools" - "In some areas home education was used to fill the gap following the closure of schools in the threatened areas but often older children were roaming the streets" The government decided to reopen schools in the evacuation areas. (Golden 1995 p. 36)

    Wednesday 10.7.1940-31.10.1940 Battle of Britain. German air force attack first on shipping, then airfields, then towns. Meant as a prelude to invasion, but the Germans gave up their invasion plans after Sunday 15.9.1940, and switched to indiscriminate night bombing of the larger cities, especially London.

    Mid August 1940: "There have been no air raids. It's nice and quiet" - "the first civilian bombings on the city and the eastern suburbs of London...occurred on 24 August. The RAF retaliated and bombed civilian areas of Berlin". (Golden 1995 pp 40, 122, 145)

    Saturday 7.9.1940 to 10.5.1941. The Blitz, sustained bombing of London and other British cities - "Then came the terrible night of September 7th"

    Friday 4.10.1940 "The fight for air raid protection must no longer be regarded as a special London issue." Daily Worker.

    16.10.1940 Warsaw Ghetto established.


    7.4.1941 An Analysis of the Sources of War Finance and an Estimate of the National Income and Expenditure in 1938 and 1940 published after the UK Budget speech. See the autobiography of Richard Stone

    12.6.1941 Representatives of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa and of the exiled governments of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and of General de Gaulle of France, met at St. James's Palace, London and signed a declaration including the words:

    "The only true basis of enduring peace is the willing cooperation of free peoples in a world in which, relieved of the menace of aggression, all may enjoy economic and social security;

    "It is our intention to work together, and with other free peoples, both in war and peace, to this end."

    Sunday 22.6.1941 Germany attacked the USSR, bringing the USSR into the war on the allies side - and making the British Communist Party patriotic, just in time for one member I knew to join the eighth army.

    14.8.1941 Churchill and Roosevalt met in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean to sign the Atlantic Charter, including the words

    "After the final destruction of Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want."

    "They believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons, must come to the abandonment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential."

    24.9.1941 The USSR and the nine governments of occupied Europe added their signatures to the Atlantic Charter in London.

    17.11.1941 The Eighth Army crossed the Egyptian frontier into Libya to attack the German Panzer Army Africa.

    Sunday 7.12.1941 Pearl Harbour. Japan and the USA enter the war.

    29.12.1941 On Roosevalt's suggestion, the phrase United Nations was used instead of "Associated Powers" in the draft of a declaration approved by Churchill and Roosevalt at the White House.


    1.1.1942 The Declaration by United Nations, Washington DC: By signing the joint declaration, each of the 26 governments pledged "to employ its full resources, military or economic" in "the struggle for victory over Hitlerism". (source)

    2.12.1942 Publication of the Report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Social Insurance and Allied Services chaired by William Beveridge

    Behemoth. The Structure and Practice of National Socialism by Franz Neumann, attempted a rational analysis of Nazi (Nationalsozialist) ideas and its social system. Neumann wrote from a position sympathetic to both liberalism and marxism. His friend, Herbert Marcuse, in Reason and Revolution. Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory (1941) argued the case for a critical social theory founded on reason, concluding with a chapter on "National Socialism versus Hegel". In The Fear of Freedom, Erich Fromm attempted a critical integration of Marx, Freud and Durkheim to explain National Socialism. America

    A survey carried out in 1942 found that the three most popular activities for British children were (in this order) 1) playing outdoors - 2) going to the cinema - 3) Listening to the radio programme Children's Hour. At this time, it is said, most British families went to the cinema at least once a week.

    The first Observer book that was not about wild life, and the first that was not just British, was the Observers Book of Airplanes, published in 1942 in which "the reader will find most of the common airplanes which are seen day by day or read about in the daily press" When peace returned, the series continued with dogs in 1945, horses and ponies and geology in 1949 - ferns in 1950, and then architecture in 1951

    International library of sociology and social reconstruction editor: Karl Mannheim. Published London, 1942-1962, including Glass 1954 and Tonnies 1887/1955, and continued beyond. See Ford 1969


    Dames Don't Care by Peter Cheyney
    Published hard cover London, Collins, 1937
    Published White Circle 277, January 1943
    Published White Circle 340m, February 1954 (This cover?)
    Published Pan G352, April 1960, 188pp, 2/6. Cover by Sam Peffer (Pictorial cover)
    Internet archive - In 1946, 1,524,785 copies of Cheyney books were sold worldwide
    Federation of Women's Institutes passed a resolution calling for 'equal pay for equal work' in 1943 and was represented for many years on the Equal Pay Campaign Committee.

    23.3.1943 The Archbishop of Canterbury, speaking in the UK House of Lords said

    "Hitler near the beginning of the war declared that this war must lead to the extermination of either the Jewish or the German people, and it should not be the Germans. He is now putting that threat into effect... Not a single Jew is left in the great Ghetto of Warsaw where, before the mass murders began there were 430,000... There is still in this country, however, a rigid refusal to grant visas...If this rule could be relaxed, some hundreds, and possibly a few thousands, might be enabled to escape from this holocaust." (Hansard)

    See 1938 - 1939 - genocide - Auschwitz 1945 - Adorno 1966 - Celan meets Heidegger 1967 - Janina Bauman 1986 - Zygmunt Bauman 1989 - 27.1.1996 - remembrance day

    April 1943 An electronic counting machine used by British to decode German messages, It read paper tape electronically (registering light through holes) at an enormous rate, but the tape tended to catch alight. In December 1943 "Colossus" the first electro-mechanical computer was installed. It used 1,500 valves to compute.

    last week of July 1943 "Operation Gomorrah" by UK and USA bombers turned Hamburg into an enormous firestorm killing 42,600 civilians and wounding 37,000 and practically destroying the entire city. Bert Morse (one of my uncles) who "helped illuminate the firestormed Hamburg" would never speak of it.

    9.11.1943 Founding document (text) of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration signed in Washington.

    1943 Jean Paul Sartre's Being and Nothingness. An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology (English translation 1958) set out philosophical grounds for human responsibility, confronting claims the our actions are determined by our unconscious, by history or by our race. Sartre, and his colleague, Simone de Beauvoir, developed existentialist thought in a way that would provide new directions for both social theory and mental health theory in the 1960s. Prior to Sartre, existentialism (in Nietzsche and Heidegger) was a philosophy associated with National Socialism rather than against it.

    See Ginny Goudy's article existential criminal


    3.8.1944 Royal Assent to the UK Education Act that provided free education for all children to the age of 15 (from 1947) in grammar, technical or secondary modern schools. The division of children into three streams at 11 led to this being called the Tripartite System. Most of the Act came into operation on 1.4.1945. The Tripartite system was largely replaced by a system of comprehensive eduction from 1965.

    "We won the war - In 1944". See children of 1949

    6.6.1944 Beginning of the liberation of France

    13.6.1944 Retreating German forces launched the first V1 rocket bomb (flying bomb - buzz bomb) on London.

    25.8.1944 Free French recapture Paris.

    Sunday 17.9.1944 Christians from the "Allied Nations" sang and spoke of "victory" and "peace". By May 1945, they were the "United Nations Witness Team".

    10.11.1944 Public announcement that England had been under rocket attack "for the last few weeks" [it was longer]. The rockets were the V2 bombs that one only heard after they had exploded.

    Friedrich Hayek, in The Road to Serfdom, argued that the totalitarianism experienced in Nazi Germany was the end result of economic planning not the final stage of capitalism. The book provided a focus for a revival in free-market thinking that led (eventually) to Thatcherism.

    Roger Scruton born

    Adorno T.W. and Horkheimer, M. 1944 Dialektik der Aufklärung: Philosophische Fragmente (Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosphical Fragments) - Kant in 1784 argued that enlightenment liberates us from authority - but, in reality, the outcome of history was that reason had collapsed under National Socialism -

    "With the extension of the bourgeois commodity economy, the dark horizon of myth is illumined by the sun of calculating reason, beneath whose cold rays the seed of the new barbarism grows to fruition"
    "By 'genocide' we mean the destruction of a nation or ethnic group" - Polish-Jewish lawyer, Raphael Lemkin


    If the laws of mortality are as reliable as Halley's comet, somewhere the last person (a woman) born in 1841 died in 1945.

    Saturday 27.1.1945 freeing of Auschwitz - by Russian troops.
    One and a half million people died in this extermination camp. Not all died in the gas chambers. Many died of starvation. This 31 year old Polish woman had been in the camp since May 1943. She had weighed about 75 Kilograms but when photographed after liberation she weighed 25 Kilogram.

    10.2.1945 Ernst A. Cassirer " Structuralism in modern linguistics" lecture delivered in New York, a few days before his death (Oxford English Dictionary lists) - External link to Google Books

    12.2.1945 Dresden bombed. Between 25,000 and 50,000 people, mostly civilians, were killed. In remembrance, on Sunday 12.2.1995 children carried crosses with the names of bombed cities including Coventry, Hamburg, Rotterdam and Dresden. Thursday 19.4.1945 Richard Dimbleby's (5 minute) report on entering Belsen broadcast by the BBC. The British public began to believe what had happened in the holocaust. (See zero hour 1945). January 27th became remembrance day in Germany on 27.1.1996 and the world on 27.1.2006

    1.4.1945 Main provisions of the 1944 Education Act (England and Wales) came into operation.

    Tuesday 3.4.1945? William Morse (one of my uncles) was killed by a sniper's bullet. He was buried in Germany.

    8.5.1945 Allied victory in Europe.

    Deutschland 1945 bis 1949 - Alliierte Besatzung - Allied occupation - See Hungerwinter 1947 - children of 1949

    5.7.1945 United Kingdom election. Result announced 26.7.1945 Labour Party in power: - manifestos link (archive) - Wikipedia on Labour Party

    6.8.1945 Atomic bomb first used against Japan. Hiroshima laid waste.

    9.8.1945 Nagasaki destroyed by the second atomic bomb.

    These were the mighty atoms that gave their name to Osamu Tezuka's best known character: Tetsuwan Atomu

    15.8.1945 End of second world war.

  • *********

    1945 - post-war domestic order:
    United Kingdom: See
    National Archives - opportunities at Enfield
    West Germany: See Wikipedia Wirtschaftswunder
    See Ulrick Beck post-war order

    1945 - post-war international order:

    24.10.1945 The United Nations founded
    See 1946 - 10.12.1948 - 1990 - 1992 - 2000 - 14.10.2010 - 2011

    George Orwell's Animal Farm in 1945 was followed in 1949 by a book called Nineteen Eighty Four. Animal Farm pictured the defeat of communist ideals of equality and cooperation. "All animals are equal - But some are more equal than others". Nineteen Eighty Four pictured a future society of total surveillance where the official language is newspeak, devised to meet the propaganda needs of Ingsoc (English Socialism). "Do you know the newspeak word goodthinkful?"

    20.11.1945 to 1.10.1946 Main Nuremburg trials. 9.12.1946 to 13.4.1949 Supplementary trials

    Richard Sidney Richmond Fitter's first book: London's Natural History published in the New Naturalist series: "London is the largest aggregation of humans ever recorded in the history of the world..." (Introduction). The editors describe the book as the first known attempt to "to write the history of a great human community, in terms of the animals and plants it has displaced, changed, moved and removed, introduced, dispersed, conserved, lost or forgotten" - "the progressive sterilisation of London is a sad story"


    6.1.1946 First meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations in Methodist Central Hall Westminster, with 51 nations represented. "Bring in the golden years of peace"

    UNESCO: Its Purpose and its Philosophy by Julian Huxley published by the "Preparatory Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation" - external download - offline - "An evolutionary approach provides the link between natural science and human history" - "Our first task must be to clarify the notion of desirable and undesirable directions of evolution"

    First edition of Mary R. Beard's Woman as Force in History. A Study in Traditions and Realities published in USA. Completed in the Summer of 1945, it showed the recognition by communists, democrats and fascists that the support of women was needed for their cause and argued that women always had been a force in history, but one which social theorists had denied. (See Hidden from History)

    First edition of Bertrand Russell's History of Western Philosophy

    1946 UK Report of the Committee on the Provision for Social and Economic Research, etc. Chairman, Sir John Clapham

    3.3.1946 to 9.3.1946 All children born in Britain tracked as part of the National Survey of Health and Development: The first of the British cohort studies. See 1958 - 1970 - 2000

    Vespa 98, 1946
    Photo c. Archivio Museo Scienza
    In the spring (March/April) of 1946 Italians saw pictures of the new Vespa (Wasp) motor bike with everything encased and aerodynamic lines. It was launched in the autumn at the International Motor Bike Fair in Milan. 2,500 Vespas were sold in 1947, over 10,000 in 1948, 20,000 in 1949, and over 60,000 in 1950. 100,000 sales are said to have been promoted by the film Roman Holiday in 1953.

    1.5.1946 Alan Nunn May sentenced to ten years hard labour for supplying atomic secrets to the USSR. "After his release, he characterized his passing Uranium isotopes to the Soviet Union as a "contribution ... to the safety of mankind."" (Wikipedia)

    3.5.1946 Speech by Winston Churchill in Fulton, Missouri, USA: "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent". The war-time alliance between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the United States of America was breaking down. The battle of cultures and long-distance arms (wars in other people's countries) from the late 1940s to the mid 1980s was called the "Cold War"

    2.6.1946 In Pair dadeni or "The cauldron of rebirth", John Cowper Powys asked the transition from 2,000 years of Pisces to 2,000 years of Aquarius could mean the cauldron of rebirth after the cauldron of death. "Astrology has at least the unscientific advantage of being the oldest of the sciences, and its very age gives it ... a poetical advantage". (Wales Volume 6 no 2. offline).

    La Société Psychoanalytique de Paris resumed activity after the war. By the 1950s it was falling out with one of its leading members: Jean Jacques Lacan


    New word: D.R. Hartree wrote about the hardware of the USA computer ENIAC. In 1960, The Times spoke of "both punched card" (the means used to feed information into a computer) and "computer 'hardware'" continuing to develop rapidly. Software was used for the programs used by a computer from 1960, thus completing the distinction between hardware (the machine) and software (the program). In 2000, Zygmunt Bauman applied the terms to types of society.

    1947 Puzzled People. A study in popular attitudes to religion, ethics, progress and politics in a London borough (called Metrop). Prepared for the Ethical Union by Mass Observation. Published: London : Victor Gollancz. 159 pages.

    January 1947 Simone De Beauvoir begins flying from France to America

    World War two made long runways available, and after the war Pan Am, TWA, Trans Canada Airlines, BOAC, Air France and others acquired larger piston aircraft, which allowed flights over the North Atlantic with intermediate stops (usually in Gander, Newfoundland and/or Shannon, Ireland). To aid aircraft crossing the Atlantic, six nations grouped to divide the Atlantic into ten zones. Each zone had a letter and a vessels station in that zone, providing radio rely, radio navigation beacons, weather reports and coordinated rescues in case an aircraft went down. Wikipedia

    November 1947 Pour Une Morale de L'ambiguïté by Simone De Beauvoir published as a book It had already appeared as instalments in Les Temps Modernes. It was translated rapidly into English as The Ethics of Ambiguity

    February 1947 Britain like an icy tundra. Also sterling crisis, and all this with rationing! Early 1947 Persistent blizzards. Fuel crisis. See the January Wind Rose

    Hungerwinter 1947 On Monday 31.3.1947, in Krefeld (British Occupied Germany), thousands left work and gathered at a protest rally on the Karlsplatz. Wir Wollen Kohle Wir Wollen Brot (We want coal We want bread). Another poster just said Wir hungern (We are hungry).

    Notice the children sitting in the tree.

    The Indian Independence Act 1947 (10 + 11 Geo 6 c. 30) partitioned British India into independent dominions of India and Pakistan. with effect from 15.8.1947.

    Autumn 1947 "if we are to close this much talked-of gap between imports and exports ... we must export our technical skill." (Henry Broadbent)

    "We have a crisis in dollar and sterling unbalance which only more exports can cure." (Stafford Cripps, UK Chancellor of the Exchequer, quoted by Henry Judd in New International, Vol.13 No.8, October 1947,

    "... typically, Britain imports slightly more on current account than it exports... Figure 5 shows data for gold and dollar reserves since the Second World War... Each of the troughs indicates one of Britain's periodic balance of payments 'crises'" (Richard Lipsey 1963, p. 336)


    1.1.1948 British Transport Commission came into operation. 1.4.1948 Electricity Boards came into operation.

    30.1.1948 Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1947), the non-violent protest leader of the independence movement.

    7.4.1948 World Health Organization (WHO) established with its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
    1948 diseases - 1951 - 1953 - 1968 - 1982 drugs - 1988 - 1990 diseases - 1993 - 2001 ICF - 2001 - 2008 - 2010 statistics -

    22.6.1948 Empire Windrush arrived at Tilbury with 492 passengers from Jamaica. Symbolically treated as the start of post-war immigration to Britain from the West Indies.

    July 1948 UK National Health Service

    July 1948 A solid state alternative to the electronic valve

    Two p-n junctions placed back to back with metal connections to the two p regions and one to the n region. The emitter analogous to the cathode in a thermionic valve, the base to the grid and the collector to the anode.

    10.12.1948 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations. - Link to United Nations website - Also see 2006 Convention


    1949 Method of radioactive carbon dating for archaeological remains developed by Willard Frank Libby and his team at Chicago University. [See Wikipedia

    1949 Simone De Beauvoir's The Second Sex published in French. Translated into English in 1953. An existentialist, De Beauvoir believed that human beings are essentially self-determining and free. Her book explores why women are treated (and treat themselves) as "the other", as objects of male attention rather than self-determining beings.

    Robert King Merton's Social Theory and Social Structure. Towards the codification of theory and research published in United States. A revised and enlarged edition with the shorter title Social Theory and Social Structure was published in 1957, and appears to be the best known. Merton argued for middle range theories. Social Theory and Social Structure became number 3 in the century's top 10 crime and

    1949 Les Structures élémentaires de la parenté by Claude Lévi Strauss. [English 1969 The Elementary Structures of Kinship.

    The inspiration for the book is L'Essai sur le Don.. by .. Marcel Mauss... - ..."the ground for .. later work" [on mythology and totemism], "and the respect he gained from fellow professionals comes largely from his ... work on kinship... this book is his masterpiece." (Anthony D Buckley's review)

    January February 1949 Talcott Parsons gave the University Lectures in Sociology at the University of London. They formed a rough outline for his book The Social System America

    1949 British Journal of Sociology established by staff at London School of Economics after a failed effort to take over the Sociological Review.

    18.4.1949 to 23.4.1949 Scouts "bob-a-job week". Every Scout urged to earn at least one shilling to raise money for the Scout headquarters.
    From 1950 to 1970 it became an annual event. [See 1954]. Renamed Scout Job Week in 1970 due to impending decimalisation, but by this time there were concerns about he safety of boys going from home to home and the scheme was changing. In 1972 sponsored shoe polishing was introduced, in 1980 sponsored litter clearing. In 1999 it was abolished in favour of other fundraising activities.

    The kingdom of evil

    17.7.1949 Hansard "I feel that in education in this country as a whole we have tended to conceive practical matters as rather belonging to the kingdom of evil, and in our educational system this has taken the form of tending to be rather mean over technical education in the past." (David Hardman, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Education)

    14.8.1949 First elections to the Bundestag (parliament) of the Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Federal Republic of Germany - or West Germany) that had been created in zones occupied by the USA, Britain, and France.

    A poster from the archives of the centre-right German Christian Democratic Party (source), which won the largest number of seats in the Federal elections

    1947 Hunger - Not - Elend 1949 Vorwärts! Aufwärts! Der Erfolg der CDU Abbildung: Verelendete - fröhlich spielende Kinder

    1947 Hunger - Emergency - Misery - 1949 Forward! Upward! The success of the CDU - Figures: Sunk into poverty and joyful playing children

    September 1949 In the hard asphalt playground of Campsbourne infants school, north London, big girls (six years old) organised us into gangs to fight or to link arms and march up and down the playground chanting repeatedly that "We won the war - In 1944". Girls all wore cotton dresses and we boys short grey flannel trousers and shirts. Sweets were rationed, and a small square of chocolate was a treat, but we won the war - in 1944, over and over again. So we all knew who our national enemy was: Germany.

    September 1949 International Sociological Association organised at a meeting in Norway in which twenty two countries participated. This called the First World Congress of Sociology in Zurich for September 1950.

    "Sociology was abolished in China from 1952 to 1979. Marxist historical materialism, a branch of philosophy, was the nearest available discipline." (Xiangquan Chang 2013)

    See World Congress of Sociology 1950 - 1953 - 1956 - 1998 top ten - Platt, J. 1998

    From 1949 to 1972 Ralph Miliband was a lecture in Political Science at the London School of Economics. See 1969 - 1979 - 2013

    1949 First edition of Paris Match (match referring to the game of life rather than sport). Slogan (1949-2008) "Le poids des mots, le choc des photos". (The weight of words, the impact of photographs)


    1950/1951 to 1971/ 1973 Post-war boom. See Wikipedia

    Gertie Beckett 1981:
    There was no such thing as microprocessors in [the 1950s].
    The thought would have been as remote as putting a man on the moon.

    Thomas Humphrey Marshall Citizenship and Social Class and other essays, published as a collection by Cambridge University Press.

    1950 Institut für Sozialforschung returned to Frankfurt in Germany from its exile in the USA.

    March 1950 Meeting at the home of James Van Allen, in Washington DC, that led to the International Geophysical Year in 1957/1958. This period was selected to coincide with a time of maximum solar activity when the most benefit could be expected by international cooperation in geo-physical observations.

    23.2.1950 United Kingdom General Election. Labour returned with a slim majority.
    Norman Dodds, MP for Dartford, Kent, delivered the first question to Parliament, on behalf of the Deptford United Nations Association: "Mr. Dodds-to ask the Prime Minister if he is aware of the passionate desire of the people that he should take the initiative in endeavouring to call a conference with the object of finding ways and means of outlawing the hydrogen bomb and atomic weapons."
    Darenth Park Mental Deficiency Institution was in Norman Dodds constituency and this may have been the origin of his interest in mental health reform

    29.3.1950 Term Mccarthyism coined in a USA cartoon

    Korean War 25.6.1950 to 27.7.1953
    "The Cold War turned hot for the first time"
    (Michael Hickey BBC website)


    20.7.1950 UNESCO Statement by Experts on Race Problems - UNESCO archive - text at Honest Thinking

    4.9.1950 to 9.9.1950 First World Congress of Sociology held in Zurich, Switzerland. General theme: Sociological Research in its bearing on International Relations."


    1951 "Women's Institutes ... have a unique and unrivalled opportunity to help in cancer education... doing away with fear and ignorance, obtaining early diagnosis and saving thousands of lives". The consultant physician at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London quoted in 100 years of campaigning . See 1962 - 1964 - Screening (1968) - 1975 - Forrest Report (1986)

    UNESCO 1951 Statement on Race

    1951 The Observer's Book of [British] Architecture, written and illustrated by John Penoyre and Michael Ryan, "describing and indexing the development of building in Britain from Saxon times to the present day". Foreword by F. R. S. Yorke. Number 13 in the series and only the second that was not on natural history. A revised edition in 1958 included an illustrated glossary.

    The Door with Seven Locks By Edgar Wallace
    Published hard cover London, 1926
    This Hodder paperback 1951
    "It was unfortunate that Dick Martin should find a murdered crook in his bureau just when he was thinking of retiring from the Force. But he was a detective by nature and so naturally he couldn't help becoming involved in this curious case".

    Talcott Parsons' The Social System attempted to provided a model for sociology that views society as more than the sum of its individual members, whilst remaining consistent with American ideas of the importance of the individual crime and
timeline sick role
    See 1902   1920   1924   1928   1930   1931   1937   1942   1973   Brief note on Parsons
    Extracts from Parsons

    Stuart Hall came to England with his mother in 1951. He studied at Oxford University. "Marxist models were far too mechanical and reductive. (We did not yet have access to Lukacs, Benjamin, Gramsci or Adorno)." "There was no 'black politics' in Britain; post-war migration had only just begun." (Hall 2010)

    January 1951 First edition of The British Road to Socialism adopted by the Communist Party of Great Britain replaces the previous For Soviet Britain - "The path forward for the British people will be to establish a People's Government on the basis of a Parliament truly representative of the people".

    Sunday 8.4.1951/Monday 9.4.1951: Fifteenth British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 43,815,000; Scotland: 5,102,000
    The previous census was in 1931

    April 1951: Ambassador for inter-world peace

    "After a failed outing early in 1951, when graphic novelist and filmmaker Osamu Tezuka" [3.11.1928- 9.2.1989] "first introduced the robot as the peacemaking Ambassador Atom in a Japanese magazine for boys, "Astro Boy" as we know him was launched a year later". (source)

    See Manga and Astro boy 2003

    May 1951 Letter in The Times announcing the formation of the British Sociological Association (external link to website).
    "Social and legislative changes in recent years have made much sharper the need for study and research in sociological fields. In particular, the extension of planning since the war demands an understanding both of the sociological basis of planning and of its impact on society."

    The BSA was based at London School of Economics until 1992, when it moved to Durham.

    Morris Ginsberg was chair from 1951 to 1955 (then President). Raymond Goodman was Secretary from 1951 to 1953

    It soon replaced the Sociological Society, which decided to close in 1955. (external link).

    Thursday 3.5.1951 King George 5th opened the Festival of Britain, which closed on Sunday 30.9.1951. Amongst the 8.5 million visitors was Grahame Smedley (13) with a party from Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire, who who travelled over-night via Liverpool in a seven and a half hour train journey (Liverpool to Euston). The morning and evening of Saturday 8.9.1951 was spent exploring London and the afternoon in the exhibition. They arrived home on Sunday morning.
    The Dome of Discovery was too dark and stuffy for Grahame. The son of a Vulcan factory worker, he went alone to the Transport Pavilion. "and the first thing I saw was the Vulcan locomotive" [a Diesel Electric] "at the very front of the Pavilion. Inside the Pavilion there were some model tramcars, a jet motor car, a London tube train and thousands of other things...". The Home and Gardens Exhibition had "lovely planned rooms" and the Education Pavilion "the most modern ways of teaching"... it was the most enjoyable day of my life". (Vulcan Magazine Winter 1951-1952 pages 21-22)
    The Festival of Britain across the Thames from the Embankment on the evening of Saturday 8.9.1951 taken by H. Talbot from the Vulcan factory Lancashire.
    With all that electricity being consumed, it is not suprising that Enfield Technical College Entertainments Association celebrated with a Festival Review

    5.9.1951 The start of commercial computing. Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) took over Bakery Valuations calculations for J. Lyons and Co., (probably) the best known catering and food company in the UK. Later, it took over payroll calculations, the inventory, and so on. In 1956 Lyons started doing the payroll calculations for Ford UK and others.

    25.10.1951 United Kingdom General Election. Conservatives returned to power on a one nation platform that incorporated many Labour values. (manifestos link) (archive)

    Vulcan Foundry retirements: 28.8.1951 aged 65, William Traverse (Plater-Tender Shop) who started April 1900. 12.10.1951 Walter Cooke (Coppersmith) aged 61 who started February 1903. 2.11.1951 Herbert Payne. 2.11.1051 Alfred Andrews (Striker, Boiler Shop) aged 69 who stared September 1907.

    Made in Britain - exported to South America

    The front cover of the Vulcan magazine shows a P.S.11 Class (steam) Locomotive made for the Argentines and a 3,000 Horse Power Electric Locomotive made for Brazil.

    Vulcan also made trains for Britain. My grandfather would take my sister and me to the end of the platform and we would bend down to see the pipes he made in the copper shop.


    "far more sinister and far more evil than...Nazism and Fascism..."
    (Billy Graham, London, 20.3.1952)

    Structure and Function in Primitive Society, the collected essays of Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955) published. This title and Talcott Parson's argument (1951) that theory must be in structural-functional terms (for the present) are amongst the origins of the concept that there is a school of sociology called structural functionalism

    Carlos Paton Blacker resigned as general secretary of the Eugenics Society, acknowledging (in Eugenics. Galton and after 1952) that efforts to revive the scientific credibility of eugenics, after its association with the race hygiene policies of the Nazis, had failed. (Richard Soloway, Dictionary of National Biography)

    Wednesday 6.2.1952 Death of George 6th, "King of all Britain", The BBC (Wireless) played solemn music all day.

    Antoine Pinay and French gold. Time magazine December
    22.12.1952. Pinay in front of a gold coin.
    8.3.1952 Antoine Pinay became French Prime Minister (to 23.12.1952). Inflation in France was at about 12% a year (It had fallen from about 59% in 1948). Pinay represented himself as the defender of the Franc and the consumer. He introduced a national loan (called emprunt Pinay), backed by gold, as part of the policy against inflation. In the very favourable economic environment at the end of the Korean War, it succeeded and prices fell in France in 1953, for the first time since 1935. [See Roland Barthes]

    24.9.1952 The Corneal Grafting Act became law in Britain, permitting a registered medical practitioner to remove eyes soon after death for graft purposes and legalising the bequest of eyes for graft purposes. At the time it was envisaged that other parts of the body (skin, for example) might be subject to similar arrangements later. The Federation of Women's Institutes joined a campaign to educate the British public about corneal grafting.

    October 1952 Roland Barthes wrote about "Le monde où l'on catche" [The World of Wrestling] in Esprit. Wrestling was popular in France from about 1950 to 1970. In the early 1950s it could be seen at fairs or special occasions such as galas in honour of July 14. It was performed at the Cirque d'Hiver (Winter Circus) in Paris as well as in "the most squalid Parisian halls". Later in the 1950s it was watched on television. (French Wikipedia). This was the earliest article that composed Mythologies in 1957

    1953 Britain "How Much is That Doggy in the Window" in the top ten for weeks - Women's papers show women proud to make their own dresses on new sewing machines, dresses with plenty of cloth (after the shortages) and calf length skirts - However, there is the shocking behaviour of a French woman, Bridget Bardot, photographed in a bikini at Cannes - The Archers - "everyday story of country folk" just beginning its eternal run on the BBC - In 1952 all scheduled broadcasting was replaced for a day by solemn music because the family king had died. In 1953 we may visit friends with a television sets to watch the new Queen being crowned, or listen on the wireless and go to the cinema to see the film of the fairy- tale coronation.


    1953 The Institute of Community Studies established in Bethnal Green, London, by Michael Young, Peter Willmott, Peter Townsend and Peter Marris. (See dictionary community). "Our main research focus in the Institute's early years was the smallest institution of all, the family in its nuclear and extended versions." (Peter Willmott 1995). Reports 1957 - 1958 - 1960 - 1961 - 1962 - and later

    # 25.4.1953 "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids. A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid - We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid (D.N.A.)..." Letter in Nature from F. H. C. Crick and J. D. Watson

    Read as pdf - html

    April 1954 "The Complementary Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid" by F. H. C. Crick and J. D. Watson published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society - Wikipedia article on DNA - See genetics. - See 1968

    Friday 29.5.1953 Sherpa Tenzing Norkay and Edmund Hilary reached the top of Everest, the world's highest mountain, in an expedition led by John Hunt. The news reached Britain on he day of the coronation, and was headlines in the morning papers.

    2.6.1953 Coronation of Elizabeth 2nd televised. The number of television licences doubled from 1.5 to 3 million in the run- up to the Coronation.
    See 1927, 1937, 1993.

    July 1953 Pierre Poujade organised a tax protest in his town in France. This led to a national movement of small traders and others in a mouvement known as Poujadisme by January 1956.

    20.7.1953 "An employer who makes the stupid statement that 'what we want is a little unemployment', is just as bad, and causes just as much harm, as the Socialist politician or trade union leader who makes rabble-rousing speeches". Edwin Leather - Conservative MP and Trade Union supporter

    24.8.1953 to 31.8.1953 Second World Congress of Sociology held in the University of Liège, in Belgium.

    27.8.1953 Roman Holiday.

    "The face of Garbo is an Idea, that of Hepburn an Event".

    Trailer. The princess who escapes into common life rides a Vespa wildly around Rome.

    Audrey Hepburn Google Sunday 4.5.2014: Idea or event?

    Autumn 1953 Jacques Lacan began seminars in Paris. His interpretation of Freud attracted participants from outside psychoanalysis. See June 1964

    October 1953

    Albert RN "The War's Most Daring Prioner of War Escape"

    The British inmates of a Prisoner of War camp think they have an informer among them after several escape attempts fail. One of the prisoners makes a dummy which they christen "Albert" and use at roll call in order to foil the German guards.

    From 1955 to 1976 Jack Warner played Dixon of Dock Green in the BBC television series about a fictional Metropolitan Police station in the East End of London.


    9.3.1954 Petitions to the House of Commons from Womens Institutes and trade unionists calling for equal pay for equal work. [Photograph and catalogue record]

    Easter 1954 A scout at the door could expect to find a lady at home. In 1981: "door to door canvassing for jobs is no longer practical due to the growth of apartment and flat-dwelling and, with many wives out at work, often there is nobody to answer the door." Scouts News Release "Changing Style of Job Week" 9.4.1981, quoted Mills, S. 2014.

    13.4.1954 League of Empire Loyalists founded at Caxton Hall, London, to oppose moves to dissemble the British Empire.

    26.4.1954 to 21.7.1954 Geneva Conference divided Vietnam into North and South. 18.6.1954 to 23.2.1955 anti-colonial left wing government of Pierre Mendès France withdrew French from Indo- China. He began the processes that led to the independence of Tunisia and Morocco. 1.11.1954 called Toussaint Rouge (Red All-Saints Day) because of liberation attacks on police and army targets in Algeria. Later considered the start of the Algerian War of independence. On 12.11.1954 Pierre Mendès France said

    "One does not compromise when it comes to defending the internal peace of the nation, the unity and integrity of the Republic. The Algerian departments are part of the French Republic. They have been French for a long time, and they are irrevocably French. ... Between them and metropolitan France there can be no conceivable secession."

    See below Diouf salutes the flag.
    See Roland Barthes the signification.

    May? 1954 A resolution of the National Federation of Women's Institutes to "inaugurate a campaign to preserve the countryside against desecration by litter" led to the formation of "Keep Britain Tidy" in 1955.

    See 1933 Shelf Appeal - 1937 "quick and easy access to the country" - 1971 bottles

    September 1954 First World Congress On Surface Active Agents and Detergents held in Paris. Roland Barthes wrote "The first World Detergent Congress ... had the effect of authorising the world to yield to Omo euphoria". [See Housewife in 1976]

    8.12 pm 22.9.1955 First UK Commericial Television advertisement was "tingling fresh toothpaste that does your gums good too. It's tingling fresh. It's fresh as ice. It's Gibbs SR toothpaste"

    22.11.1954 This issue of Elle (number 467) was "anti- cold". As well as features on Winter fashion, Winter coats and Week day fashion, it contained, on pages 62 to 65 an article by Roger Kemp "70 Romancières, 300 romans: Les Femmes de lettres s'imposent." [70 Novelists, 300 novels: women of letters are necessary].

    Elle had started as a weekly magazine on 21.11.1945
    The 1960s slogan was "Si elle lit elle lit Elle"

    "If we are to believe the weekly Elle, which some time ago mustered seventy women novelists on one photograph, the woman of letters is a remarkable zoological species: she brings forth, pellmell, novels and children. We are introduced, for example, to Jacqueline Lenoir (two daughters, one novel); Marina Grey (one son, one novel); Nicole Dutreil (two sons, four novels), etc" (Roland Barthes 23.1.1955)

    1954 Social Mobility in Britain edited by David Victor Glass. David Glass had been a research assistant to William Beveridge and John Rex (1974, pp 1-2) describes him as the "principle representative" of the "Fabian interest in social reform"

    December 1954 Seymour Martin Lipset argued that the "new sociology" had "destroyed a number of hallowed myths". It had established (for example) that social mobility was more or less the same in European countries as it was in the United States.

    Speaking of Western Germany, Ulrich Beck says that, since the mid 1950s

    "the unstable unity of shared life experiences mediated by the market and shaped by status, which Max Weber brought together in the concept of social class, began to break apart. Its different elements (such as material conditions dependent upon specific market opportunities, the effectiveness of tradition and of precapitalist lifestyles, the consciousness of communal bonds and of barriers to mobility, as well as networks of contact) have slowly disintegrated' (Beck, U. 1986/1992 p.96)


    1955 Birth of Nicholas Weldon, son of Fay. Fay, her sister and her best friend lived in Saffron Walden with babies and no partners. "the normal fate of the unsupported mother, which we three avoided by the skin of our teeth, of being forced to hand the baby over for adoption... was... cruel in the extreme". But people thought of it as "natural and ordinary social justice" ("Things I wish I'd known at 25" Aura May 2000, p.140). See cold linoleum.

    March 1955 Term "New Left" recorded (Oxford English Dictionary) - Later associated with left wing critics of (or within) the Communist Party. (See Reasoner)

    12.4.1955 National Union of Teachers' Conference at Scarborough. David Eccles, the Minister of Education, said

    "But now all is mixed up. The professor mends his car and his wife has no maid. Every year that passes more mothers are as expert with their babies as the professional nannies who, when I was in my pram, ebbed and flowed twice a day in Kensington Gardens. ... In short, we are all coming closer together, in a sense we are all working-class now, and tomorrow we shall be able to enjoy a share of the culture and leisure which used to be the prerogative of the few." (Quoted Hansard 26.4.1955, col. 772)

    18.4.1955 Albert Einstein died

    "Mythologically, Einstein is matter, his power does not spontaneously draw one towards the spiritual, it needs the help of an independent morality, a reminder about the scientist's 'conscience' ... Einstein himself has to some extent been a party to the legend by bequeathing his brain, for the possession of which two hospitals are still fighting as if it were an unusual piece of machinery which it will at last be possible to dismantle." (Roland Barthes June 1955)

    27.5.1955 Election victory for Tories under Eden - "It is interesting to contrast the feverish activity of the Conservative Government in the last three months before the General Election with the cuts and economies which took place during the first three months of its period of office" (Alice Bacon, Hansard 26.4.1955)

    June 1955 J. Guerin (Jean Paulhan) wrote in his "Notes" in La Nouvelle revue francaise pages 1118-1119: "Mais peut-être Barthes nous dira-t-il un jour ce qui n'est pas mythe?" "Après tout, peut-être M. Roland Barthes est-il simplement marxiste. Que ne le dit-il?" [But maybe Barthes will one day tell us what is not myth? After all, maybe Mr Roland Barthes is simply marxist. Why not say so?]

    5.6.1955 to 9.6.1955 Billy Graham at the Vel' d'Hiv' in Paris.

    16.6.1955 to 22.6.1955 International symposium "Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth", organised by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research and held at the Princeton Inn on the edge of Princton University, New Jersey, USA. (Online history at Princeton University)
    In the mid-1950s, Paul Bigelow Sears and his colleagues were analysing cores of sediment from the Plains of San Agustin in New Mexico. The changing pollen contents indicated the changing vegetation in the late Pleistocene when the sediments formed in a lake. This provided an indication of climate change in the ice ages. It was in connection with these studies that Sears wrote (in a paper published in the symposium report) about "a widespread confidence that this impact of man upon environment can continue indefinitely" [A relevant paper]

    June 1955 Diouf, Issa and Santoura were "enfants de troupe" (children training to be soldiers) in the school at Ouagadougou in French West Africa. They were taken to Paris in June 1955 to take part in a military parade.

    In 2006 they were searched for


    2.7.1955 Paris Match N° 326: Diouf saluting features on the cover. See Roland Barthes who wrote about this cover in September 1956, "Le mythe, aujourd'hui" [The myth today] See French Wikipedia

    Compare Karl Goetz 1920 and the colour of the French Revolution

    Thursday 22.9.1955 Commercial television started in the United Kingdom. The BBC killed Grace Archer (a wireless character) to distract attention.

    October 1955 "La Nouvelle Citroen": The first press photos of the Citroën DS in Paris Match

    31.10.1955 Princess Margaret of the United Kingdom published a statement that she would not be marrying Group Captain Townsend, "mindful of the Church's teaching that Christian marriage is indissoluble".

    Karl Popper's article, Science: Conjectures and Refutations, argued that the origin of science is in imagination, and suggested falsification as the destructive empirical test of theories

    1956 USA: Robert Dahl's A Preface to Democratic Theory published.

    1956 USA: Lewis Coser's The Functions of Social Conflict published.

    1956 Social Class and Educational Opportunity edited by J.E. Floud, A.H. Halsey and F.M. Martin. published, London

    1956 C. A. Tonsor in Clearing House 30. v. 289, "I realize that in the face of the permissive tendencies of the age, there is not much respect for rules."

    1.1.1956 French legislative elections. "Some candidates for Parliament adorn their electoral prospectus with a portrait. This presupposes that photography has a power to convert which must be analysed." Photography spirits away politics in favour of a manner of being. "This antithesis is one of the major myths of Poujadism (Poujade on television saying: 'Look at me: I am like you' ". (Roland Barthes February 1956). [This is the only mention of television in Mythologies - See popular culture]

    18.1.1956 Anthony Eden (UK Prime Minister) spoke in Bradford of the world-wide scientific revolution
    "The prizes will not go to the countries with the largest population. Those with the best systems of education will win. Science and technical skill give a dozen men the power to do as much as thousands did fifty years ago. Our scientists are doing brilliant work. But if we are to make full use of what we are learning, we shall need more scientists, engineers and technicians. I am determined that the shortage shall be made good". (Quoted Technical Education 1956 p.4)

    Leslie Greene: "The British Empire is the greatest force for peace that the world has ever known and you are giving it away" "We have not given it away. What has happened is that the people of the Commonwealth are steadily developing towards freedom and self-government"

    January 1956 British Sociological Association conference on "The Present State and Development of Professional Sociology" held at the London School of Economics. The first edition of the Association's Bulletin, in October 1956, featured a report by Asher Tropp "The Present State and Development of Professional Sociology"

    21.2.1956 Harold Macmillan (UK Chancellor of the Exchequer): "The average weekly earnings of men aged 21 and over in manufacturing and certain other industries covered by the regular Ministry of Labour inquiries were £3 9s. in October, 1938. A married man with two children would require weekly earnings of £9 2s. at the present time to provide the same purchasing power, after tax. The actual average earnings in April, 1955, the latest date for which figures are available, were £10 17s. 5d." (Hansard) - "In two days he had earned nearly £3, a man's wage" (David Roxan p. 185 referring to Peter Whitehead's casual wages picking damsons in 1954) - See "never had it so good" 1957

    25.2.1956 Nikita Khrushchev's secret speech at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in which he criticised Joseph Stalin. In June 1956 Le Monde published a French translation of the speech.

    29.2.1956 Publication of Technical Education (Cmnd 9703 - 43 pages) a White Paper on the future of technical education, covering England, Wales and Scotland.

    29.3.1956 House of Commons debate on Higher Technical Education, Tees-side (available online)

    21.6.1956 House of Commons debate on Technical Education (available online)

    "I think there is just a danger that we may campaign for technical education as though it were an international race, like the arms race." (The Minister of Education (Sir David Eccles) in the debate) See International Geophysical Year below.

    End of July 1956 First issue of the Reasoner, an anti- Stalinist communist journal, produced by John Saville and Edward P. Thompson. Issue one of the New Reasoner was published in Summer 1957. (external link). The first issue of Universities and Left Review had been published in Spring 1957 by Raphael Samuel, Gabriel Pearson, Charles Taylor and Stuart Hall. The two journals worked together and merged in 1960 as New Left Review (edited by Stuart Hall). Charles Wright Mills wrote a "Letter to the New Left" in New Left Review issue 5.

    22.8.1956 to 29.8.1956 Third World Congress of Sociology held in Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen, in the Netherlands. General theme: Problems of social change in the 20th century."

    "The Soviet Union, and the other countries of the Soviet bloc, ... for the first time sent delegations... Their representatives were not sociologists in the strict sense of he word, but they showed themselves very willing to take part in the proceedings" ( Maus, H. 1956/1962 p.165)

    26.10.1956 Red Army troops invade Hungary.

    29.10.1956 Israel invades the Sinai Peninsula and push Egyptian forces back toward the Suez Canal.

    31.10.1956 The United Kingdom and France begin bombing Egypt to force the reopening of the Suez Canal.

    22.11.1956 New Scientist magazine launched. A popular magazine for science and technology. New Society followed in 1962. New Scientist still thrives, New Society has withered away.
    "We are falling rapidly behind USA and USSR in training scientists and technologists. The remedy is a revolution in the secondary school system" A.D.C. Peterson, Headmaster of Dover College "How to break the barrier between science and arts" pp 12-13 New Scientist 22.11.1956


    Biological death of the Thames In 1957 researchers from London's Natural History Museum said the river Thames was biologically dead because of high levels of industrial and sewage pollution. "By the 1950s the estuary was probably in the worst state it had ever been. Surveys in this decade recorded oxygen levels at below 5% for 52 km and a 20 km stretch of the Thames around the two main outfalls having no measurable oxygen in the water! No fish populations were present for a 69 km stretch from Kew to Gravesend. The Thames was basically lifeless for most of its upper length, save for some hardy worms in the mud banks" Martin Attrill 16.10.2006

    United Kingdom Consumer's Association (publisher's of "Which?") founded by Michael Young

    Family and Kinship in East London by Michael Young and Peter Willmott published (Institute of Community Studies Report 1). It became a Penguin paperback in 1962. Revisited in 2006 - The family life of old people : an inquiry in East London by Peter Townsend (Report 2). See 2006

    Antonio Gramsci's Selected Works in Three Volumes published in Russian in Moscow 1957-1959 The Modern Prince, and Other Writings by Antonio Gramsci, translated with a biographical introduction by Louis Marks, published in London by Lawrence & Wishart 1957. Carl Marzani's The Open Marxism of Antonio Gramsci published in New York 1957. Oeuvres choisies (selected writings) were published in Paris by Editions Sociales in 1959. Gramsci's writings were used to argue that class conflict which Marx and Engels placed at the core of history was as much a struggle for the creation of new ideas as anything else.

    February 1957 Roland Barthes' Mythologies published in Paris. The last part of this, "Le mythe, aujourd'hui", is dated September 1956.
    Roland Barthes appeared on French Television discussing Mythologies in "Lectures pour tous" on 29.5.1957 You Tube
    [Lectures pour tous was the premierre literary programme of French television, broadcast on the first channel of RTF and then the ORTF from 27.3.1953 to 8.5.1968.]

    6.3.1957 Independance of Ghana from colonial British rule

    May 1957 Percy Report favours community care

    1.6.1957 The last edition of Picture Post used the picture from the cover of the first edition in 1938.

    1957: "the success of commercial television has drawn away thousands of people who formerly rejoiced in a fourpenny picture paper" (Edward Hulton in the last Picture Post)

    On page 38, the paper ran its last advertisement for contraception - or married happiness:

    "Complete fulfilment of 'married happiness' combined with freedom from anxiety need not be a secret. Nor is it just luck that has brought enduring joy to thousands of couples for over sixty years. Theirs has been the uncomplicated plan, which has helped to bring the good things in life to them and their children - so very simply with Rendells"

    "Sold by Boots, Timothy Whites and chemists everywhere, and made by W.J. Rendell Ltd, Hitchin, Herts, who will be pleased to send full explanatory literature in a plain envelope on request."

    20.7.1957 A speech by the United Kingdom Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan included "... most of our people have never had it so good. Go around the country, go to the industrial towns, go to the farms and you will see a state of prosperity such as we have never had in my lifetime - nor indeed in the history of this country." (source). See industrial and agricultural wage 1956

    July 1957 to December 1958: The International Geophysical Year

    Friday 4.10.1957 First Sputnik (Russian satellite) sent into space. The second was sent on 3.11.1957 with a dog on board. The first disintegrated on 4.1.1958. I was thirteen years old and, although I had books that discussed how rockets might be sent into space, I had thought that going into space would prove impossible. See countdown - 1961 - Russian - America 1962 - men on moon 1969 and 2000.

    Friday 11.10.1957 Jodrell Bank radio telescope in operation.


    Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908 - 2009) - Anthropologie structurale ("Structural Anthropology") - See Structuralism

    Widows and their Families, etc. by Peter Marris. (Institute of Community Studies Report 3).

    Good Friday 4.4.1958
    17.2.1958 Inaugural public meeting of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament at Central Hall, Westminster, attended by five thousand people. The first Aldermaston March was at Easter 1958. Stuart Hall: "... a new kind of political mobilisation- beyond... the big party battalions - which reflected certain emergent social forces and aspirations characteristic of their time ... one of the first of this type of 'social movement' to appear in post-war politics... like the civil-rights movement at the time, and feminist and sexual questions, ecological and environmental issues, community politics, welfare rights and anti-racist struggles in the 1970s and 1980s- have proved difficult to construct within the organizational agendas of the traditional left." (Hall 2010)

    3.3.1958 to 9.3.1958 All children born in Britain tracked as part of the National Child Development Study: The second of the British cohort studies.

    June 1958 "the old form of indenture of apprentices has largely died out and been replaced by schemes for vocational education" [A Quaker minute] See 1726

    25.8.1958 Racial disturbance in Nottingham when West Indians defended themselves against what they thought were threats from white Teddy Boys. This was followed by attacks by white youths on black people in Notting Hill, London.

    Stuart Hall: "the New Left Club in London became deeply involved in 1958 with the race riots in Notting Hill and with the anti-racist struggles of the period around North Kensington... Rachel Powell, an active club member, unearthed the scandal of 'Rachmanism' and white landlord exploitation in Notting Hill." (Hall 2010)

    1959 Charles Wright Mills The Sociological Imagination. This became number 2 in the century's top 10   America

    1959 Ralf Dahrendorf's Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society published.

    Bernard Crick The American Science of Politics: Its origins and conditions

    1959 First edition of Outline of Human Genetics by Lionel Sharples Penrose, Galton Laboratory, University College, London. Heinemann, London. Second edition (with new chapter) 1963.

    "People want to know whether their children are going to be clever or stupid, handsome or ugly, tall or short, healthy or unhealthy, and so on. Traits like these" [as a general rule] "do not segregate in families" [unlike] "relatively simple traits like colour blindness" (page 5)

    1959 Start of Critical Quarterly (External link to history)

    21.1.1959 First duplicated edition of The Billericay Observer - Wynford Grant's newspaper produced by a schoolboy. Link. "It started as one copy passed around neighbours and friends and then became carbon copies, initially sewn together, then stapled. After about a year I got a duplicator and then it really started to develop." This is my earliest memory of the use of office duplicators for community publishing. The next was its use by a group of mental patients in 1963. See the Gestetner Revolution of 1968 and Centerprise in 1970.

    8.12.1959 United Kingdom General Election. Increased Conservative majority - manifestos link (archive) - Wikipedia

    1.12.1959 Antarctic Treaty opened for signature. It came into force on 23.6.1961. The treaty preserves the continent for scientific research and prohibits any kind of military use.

    "The case for the existence" of postmodernism "depends on the hypothesis of some radical break or coupure, generally traced back to the end of the 1950s or the early 1960s" ... "this break is most often related to notions of the waning or extinction of the hundred-year-old modern movement (or to its ideological or aesthetic repudiation)"... "every position on postmodernism in culture ... is also ... [a] stance on the nature of multinational capitalism today". (Fredric Jameson 1991). See USA postwar order

    Cold linoleum and no sex

    "how different life was in the late fifties, early sixties, pre-pill, pre- coil, when the man not the woman was in charge of contraception. When the very word was still almost too rude and explicit to be mentioned, and body parts were a deep mystery to everyone except medical students. There were a few Marie Stopes "birth-control clinics" for women in major cities, but you had to show a wedding ring to get access to them. Men had condoms, but often preferred not to use them. Abortion was frequent, dangerous and illegal...

    How we lived then! The sheer physical discomfort of it... A woman's work was never done and very boring it was, too. Few ate out (a wicked waste) or had the money to do so. Meals were plain and tasteless: garlic and even mushrooms were rare. Spices were meant to be bad for you. Foods were not eaten out of season... Wicked wastes... included taking a taxi, running a deep bath, owning more than two pairs of shoes... Winter meant cold: people wore vests. No central heating, hot-water bottles in every home, cold feet on icy linoleum in the morning, ice inside the windows, not just the outside. A dusty, dirty coal fire (shut the door, please: don't let the heat out!) and smelly paraffin fire to supplement it if you were lucky."

    Fay Weldon in Radio Times 25.11.2000

    1960s Marshal McLuhan popularised the idea that developments in modern media are creating a global village. 1960 "Television gives this quality of simultaneity to events in the global village". See 1915 - 1962 - 1993

    Monster computers (electronic counting machines) were developed during the 1960s. By the end of the 1960s and early 1970s, machines the size of a London bus (*) were processing statistics for social scientists. These large room-filling computers became known as "mainframes", a term originally used for the large cabinets they occupied. By the late 1970s the capacity of these monsters was being reduced into microchips. See Desktop - (*) The exaggerated comparison to a London Bus reflects my awe-infected memory of the Enfield computer.

    Books by Erving Goffman, published in the 1960s, showed how the symbolic interaction theories of George Herbert Mead can be used to analyse everyday life. They included The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life 1959, which became number 10 in the century's top 10 - Asylums 1961 - Encounters 1961 - Behaviour in Public Places 1963 - Stigma 1963 and Interaction Ritual 1967. America

    In France, Michel Foucault's Histoire de la Folie (1961) began an excavation of history that was awake to the traditions of philosophy, literature, social science and the creative imagination. Nobody was quite sure what to do with it. - External link: Warren Montag on "Althusser's Reading of Folie et dé raison"

    1960 Ronald Laing The Divided Self: An existential study in sanity and madness

    1960 Family and Class in a London suburb by Peter Willmott and Michael Young. (Institute of Community Studies Report 4).

    Norman Dennis and George Erdos (1992) argue that "the 1960s saw the beginning of a period of rapid and far-reaching change" in social arrangements "controlling who could bring children into the world" - "responsibilities for rearing the children" - "the sources and saliency of sexual pleasure" - and "ensuring so far as possible that each adult had a life-long source of mutual assistance". Under the "pre-1960s system" (they argue) " marriage, realistically, was child-centred, not spouse centred". "To place companionship with one other person at the centre of adulthood... was still regarded (perhaps especially among working-class women) as a sign of an inappropriate translation into real life of romantic notions".

    25.8.1960 to 11.9.1960 17th Olympic Games held in Rome.

    18.9.1960 to 25.9.1960 9th Annual International Stoke Mandeville Games, now known as the 1960 Summer Paralympics, held in Rome

    Wednesday 2.11.1960 The Evening News: "Jury Says Yes To The Novel Banned For 32 Years". Lady Chatterley's Lover launched the permissive society.

    Ronald St. Blaize-Molony (2004) argues that "the Swinging Sixties" "properly dates from 1966" (to 1976). "The intellectual chassis carrying that motor of dissent and revolution was the product of then Home Secretary Roy Jenkins, aided and abetted by the then Director General of the BBC - Sir Hugh Carleton Green."

    Hugh Carleton Greene was Director-General of the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) from 1960 to 1969,

    1961: Contraceptive Pill available to (some?) married women on the National Health Service. My recollection is that it only became freely available (to married women) slowly during the 1960s. Wikepedia has a history of its availability to single women in the UK.      See contraception

    about 1961 The British Society of Criminology founded. website

    Wednesday 12.4.1961 Major Yuri Gagarin made first flight into space and back. My Russian pen-friend sent me a postcard of him. Yuri Gagarin's reception by Kruschev at Moscow airport was the first event to be filmed by British television. (Panorama). [Not sure what that means, but it was "memorable live" "outside broadcast" by Richard Dimblby, followed by one of "the May Day Parade some days later". See Panorama in the Sixties by David McQueen]

    Sunday 23.4.1961/Monday 24.4.1961: Sixteenth British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 46,196,000; Scotland: 5,184,000

    Family and social change in an African city. A study of rehousing in Lagos by Peter Marris. (Institute of Community Studies Report 5).

    The UK Commonwealth Immigrants Act of 1962 removed the right of automatic entry for Commonwealth Citizens.


    1962 Jürgen Habermas: The structural transformation of the public sphere - External links: quotations - Douglas Kellner on - Marshall Soules on (archive) - Wikipedia - The Gothic Novel

    Education and the Working Class. Some general themes raised by a study of 88 working-class children in a northern industrial city by Brian Jackson. (Institute of Community Studies Report 6) - Living with Mental Illness. A study in East London by Enid Mills (Report 7).

    7.3.1962 UK Royal College of Physicians press conference launching its report "Smoking and Health", linking smoking to lung cancer. They recommended restriction of tobacco advertising; increased taxation on cigarettes; more restrictions on the sales of cigarettes to children and on smoking in public places and more information on the tar/nicotine content of cigarettes. The National Federation of Women's Institutes passed a resolution to ban smoking in public places in 1964.

    Summer 1962 Kenneth H. Smith and Roger Orman opened a beach bookstall for holidaymakers on Sandbanks in Dorset that sold nothing but books (paperbacks), postcards, cheap classical records and pulp magazines and comics (No beach-goods). It had all books face forward and a stand of material they nick-named the "sin-bin". This included Lady Chatterley's Lover (Penguin) and the (at first unexpurgated) Fanny Hill (Mayflower), Love and Marriage by Dr Eustace Chester and Psychology of Sex by Havelock Ellis (Pan), Sex and the Single Girl. The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana (Unexpurgated) and The Perfumed Garden (Panther). Panther brought out Love in Action - The Sociology of Sex by Fernando Henriques in June 1964 (followed by the rest of the series) and Corgi published Sexual Life in England by Ivan Bloch in 1965.

    11.7.1962 First live television between the United States and Europe via the Telstar satellite.

    4.10.1962 New Society, a popular UK magazine about social science, launched, on the model of New Scientist. . It thrived in the 1960s and 1970s, and withered away in the 1980s. See Wikipedia and "Revisiting New Society" by Mike Savage in Discover Society 1.10.2013.

    5.10.1962 Release of "Love Me Do", the first Beatles record and London premiere of "Dr No", the first Bond film.

    Between 1962 and 1970, George Brosan and Eric Robinson engineered the rapid expansion of the social sciences at Enfield College of Technology, a small north London college founded in 1901 by the English inventor of the electric light bulb. The idea of "People's Universities" was publicised by Eric Robinson in The New Polytechnics, a Penguin paperback in 1968. At about the same time, the whole side of the main building at Enfield was converted to a room in which technicians maintained a large computer at exactly the right temperature. This computer was shared with local industry. By the 1970s, social scientists outnumbered engineers and Middlesex Polytechnic (now Middlesex University) had an international reputation as a centre for the social sciences and, in particular, criminology.


    1963 Pierre Bourdieu began his education research in France. See books and below

    The Questionnaire: Question 7: Which are your three favourites among the following singers? Charles Aznavour, Edith Piaf, Luis Mariano, Léo Ferré, Jacques Brel, Petula Clark, Johnny Hallyday, Georges Guétary, Jacques Douai, George Brassens, Françoise Hardy, Gilbert Béaud. [Used in La Distinction 1979]

    1963 Towards a Quaker View of Sex

    1963 Earliest records of complaints to the police about the sexual behaviour of Jimmy Savile. See Top of the Pops 1964 - Broadmoor - autobiography 1974 - Bethlem 1980 photo - exposure 2012 - 26.2.2015 Hospitals - Manchester Trust 2015 - 27.5.2015

    22.1.1963 Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of West Germany, and General de Gaulle, President of France signed the Elysée Treaty "convinced that the reconciliation of the German people and the French people, ending a centuries-old rivalry, constitutes a historic event which profoundly transforms the relations between the two peoples". See Jena 1806

    1.10.1963 Harold Wilson to the Labour Party Conference: "We are redefining and we are restating our socialism in terms of the scientific revolution.... The Britain that is going to be forged in the white heat of this revolution will be no place for restrictive practices or outdated methods on either side of industry." [This perspective is reflected in the development of "new polytechnics" from "colleges of technology". See Enfield]

    October 1963 An Introduction to Positive Economics by Richard G. Lipsey, Professor of Economics at the University of Essex. "The student of economic theory needs to ask at every stage what are te relevant magnitudes and quantities in the real world" (p.xii)


    Who was to inherit the elite Paris university in the 1960s? - and why?

    1964 Pierre Bourdieu and Jean-Claude Passeron Les héritiers. Les étudiants et la culture . Translated into English as The Inheritors: French Students and their Relations to Culturein 1979,

    Publication of the research of which La Reproduction (1970) was the theoretical synthesis.

    1964 Joyce Butler (Co-op MP) "founded the Women's Cervical Cancer Control Campaign (later the Women's National Cancer Control Campaign), which united over forty interested organisations". (Dictionary of National Biography)

    1.1.1964 DJs Jimmy Savile and Alan Freeman presented the first "Top of the Pops", which featured (in order) The Rolling Stones with "I Wanna Be Your Man", Dusty Springfield with "I Only Want to Be with You", the Dave Clark Five with "Glad All Over", The Hollies with "Stay", The Swinging Blue Jeans with "Hippy Hippy Shake" and The Beatles with "I Want to Hold Your Hand", that week's number one

    29.11.2011 "Telly legend Sir Jimmy Savile, who brightened the lives of millions, was found dead"

    26.5.1964 Alain Peyrefitte, French Minister of Information: "public opinion... makes the Government responsible for everything which is said or done on R.T.F. [Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française.
    Under the current system, the R.T.F. is the Government in each French dining room. There is a tendency to interpret any information or comments disseminated by R.T.F. as taking a Government position, which reduces the credit and even credibility of programming.
    Regardless of the sincerity of our liberalism, we do not collect the fruits of our efforts at objectivity, which is tainted by suspicion. In reality, I have rarely tasted the benefits of the authority available to me on R.T.F., I have felt all the drawbacks."

    ["Dans le système actuel, la R.T.F. c'est le gouvernement dans la salle à manger de chaque Français." Debate - French National Archives]

    27.7.1964 Royal Charter establishing the UK "Council for National Academic Awards" (CNAA)

    27.7.1964 Brook Advisory Centres Ltd, a non-profit making company, registered to "protect, promote and preserve the sexual and reproductive health of young people by educating them in matters relating to sexual behavior, contraception, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy." See 1983.

    12.8.1964 to 18.8.1964 UNESCO Expert meeting on the biological aspects of race held in Moscow.18.8.1964 "Proposals on the biological aspects of race" signed in Moscow (external link)

    June 1964 École freudienne de Paris founded by Jacques Lacan.

    Times They Are A-Changing: 15.10.1964 Peter, Paul and Mary's version in the charts for two weeks. 11.3.1965 Ian Campbell Folk Group version in the charts for five weeks. 25.3.1965 Bob Dylan's version in the charts for eleven weeks.

    15.10.1964 United Kingdom General Election. Labour Victory. Harold Wilson Prime Minister. Transforming Britain in "the white hot heat of technology" - manifestos link (archive) - Wikipedia on Labour Party

    A Modern Economy "The aims are simple enough: we want full employment; a faster rate of industrial expansion: a sensible distribution of industry throughout the country; an end to the present chaos in traffic and transport; a brake on rising prices and a solution to our balance of payments problems.

    As the past 13 years have shown, none of these aims will be achieved by leaving the economy to look after itself. They will only be secured by a deliberate and massive effort to modernise the economy; to change its structure and to develop with all possible speed the advanced technology and the new science-based industries with which our future lies. In short, they will only be achieved by socialist planning." (Labour Manifesto)

    1964 Richard Hoggart founded the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at Birmingham University. [See Norma Schulman's intellectual history]. Stuart Hall became Director in 1968.

    1965 Complete Russian Course for Scientists by M. Beresford, University of Manchester, published. "Recent advances made by Soviet science and technology have placed Russian second only to English as a medium of disseminating scientific information" (page xv)

    1965 In France, theoreticians of the Communist Party, including Louis Althusser, thought hard about how to read Marx. Lire Le Capital was translated into English as Reading Capital by Ben Brewster in 1970 and was intensely studied in the mid-1970s.

    1965 Mary Morse's The Unattached (Penguin) popularised the concept of "detached youth" unconnected to youth clubs and similar social institutions.

    Under the direction of Pierre Bourdieu, a group of French sociologists published the results of their surveys into the social uses of photography. Un art moyen. Essais sur les usages sociaux de la photographie was translated into English in 1990 as Photography: A Middle-brow Art.

    January 1965: Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences founded. (Journal website)

    July 1965 Issue of UK Government Circular 10/65 "requesting" the introduction of a "comprehensive" system of education. Comprehensive is not specifically defined but it will be a system that will "end selection at eleven plus and to eliminate separatism in secondary education"

    1965 Department of Education and Science report of the Committee on Social Studies 1964-1965 Cmnd. 2660 107 pages.

    Statutory Instruments 1965 No. 2015: SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: The Social Science Research Council Order 29.11.1965 - Coming into Operation 1.12.1965.

    The Social Science Research Council is established as a Research Council for purposes of the Science and Technology Act 1965. Objects:

    (a) To encourage and support by any means research in the social sciences by any other person or body.

    (b) Without prejudice to the foregoing paragraph, to provide and operate services for common use in carrying on such research.

    (c) To carry out research in the social sciences.

    (d) To make grants to students for post graduate instruction in the social sciences.

    (e) To provide advice and to disseminate knowledge concerning the social sciences.

    Social Science Research Council esatblished under Michael Young

    23.12.1965 to 30.11.1967 Roy Jenkins UK Home Secretary.

    1966 Two books by Peter Berger (the first written with Thomas Luckmann) used symbolic interactionist theory to make a sociology that felt human because it was centred on the construction of meanings by ordinary human beings, as distinct from social scientists. The first was called The Social Construction of Reality, the other Invitation to Sociology. A Humanistic Perspective. Berger and Luckmann's approach is called phenomenological sociology. The Social Construction of Reality became number 5 in the century's top 10

    Purity and Danger - An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo by Mary Douglas

    1966 Teach Yourself Sociology by Joseph Hayim Abraham "Head of Department of Social Sciences West Ham College of Technology. Abraham dismisses Talcott Parsons in one sentence as having "simply taken over the laws of force in physics, substituted motive for force, and claimed to have discovered the laws of human behaviour!" (p.52)

    7.4.1966 BBC "Frost report" comedy sketch on the British class system.
    I look down on them because I am upper class.

    I look up to him because he is upper class but I look down on him because he is lower class. I am middle class.

    I know my place.

    I get a feeling of superiority over them.

    I get a feeling of inferiority to him but a feeling of superiority over him.

    I get a pain in the back of my neck

    August 1966: Howard Becker's presidential address to the Society for the Study of Social Problems: "Whose Side are We On?" argued that objective neutrality is not possible in sociology:

    "We must always look at the matter from someone's point of view. The scientist who proposes to understand society must, as Mead long ago pointed out, get into the situation enough to have a perspective on it"

    The paper was widely circulated in the 1970s. Becker spoke of a "hierarchy of credibility" favouring the perspectives of those with the highest social rank. Instead, new social scientists in the 1970s often chose to look at the world through the eyes of the deviant or lower ranks. (See Criminology for Criminals). It took less than thirty years for the criminals to become the police. Since the 1990s, or earlier, Becker's ideas have been taught as "research ethics".

    Summer 1966 Frankfurt: Prologue of Negative Dialectics signed by Theodor Adorno. In part three the book contains a section "After Auschwitz"

    15.10.1966 Roundhouse, Camden Town opened as an Arts venue with the launch event for International Times - (link)

    Juliet Mitchell's Women: the Longest Revolution (article) published in the November/December 1966 edition of New Left Review

    1966 Scholarship and the history of the behavioural sciences by Robert Young (History Today) reviewed the then histories of psychology.


    1967 A Sociology of English Religion by David Alfred Martin published by London by S.C.M,

    "The sociological study of religion in this country is still very much in its infancy. So much so, that Dr Martin's book would seem to be the only one of its kind currently available"

    For attitudes an beliefs drew on Puzzled People 1947

    January 1967 UK Social Science Research Council to make a grant of £33,000 to Essex Univesity to establish a SSRC Survey Data Bank.

    A two year feasability study led to an Inventory of Surveys being published in March 1967. Copies were available for purchase from the, Social and Economic Archive Cente, PEP, 12 Upper Belgrave Street, London, SW1. (Source: article by John Madge)

    40 years of the UK Data Archive

    January 1967 First issue of Sociology, the journal of the British Sociological Association.

    1967 In the spring, some Americans declared it would be a summer of love in San Francisco, spreading throughout the world. America

    In Britain paperback poetry books came out with psychedelic covers: "Love, Love, Love" (Corgi). In June 1967, television nearly went global (the communist countries pulled out) with a two hour programme simultaneously broadcast to 24 countries in which the Beatles unveiled a new song largely consisting of the words "All You Need is Love"

    1.7.1967 Article by François Châtelet in which he argued that structuralism did not have intellectual unity. He began the article by quoting Alain Badiou "Dans le monde instantané où les concepts se commercialisent, l'éclectisme est de règle", which, I think, means that in the world of instant soundbites, where concepts have to market themselves, eclecticism is the rule - So one would not expect intellectual unity. He identified Claude Levi-Strauss (reading, scientist, below), Jacques Lacan (crossed arms - psychoanalyst, below) , Roland Barthes (right, unconvinced, below). Michel Foucault (left, explaining, below), and Louis Althuser as different kinds of structuralist. Althuser is not shown on the cartoon by Maurice Henry that concluded the article.

    15.7.1967 to 30.7.1967 Roundhouse Congress (London) on the Dialectics of Liberation. Followed in 1968 by the Anti-University. Stokely Carmichael's talk on "Black Power" at the Congress included the distinction between "individual racism" and "institutional racism".

    24.7.1967 The poet Paul Celan met Martin Heidegger visiting him at Todtnauberg on 25.7.1967 External links The Boston Review - Another link gives the year as 1966. We do not know what the Holocaust survivor discussed with the philosopher who supported Hitler, but John Banville imagines it in a play (Todtnauberg) that also features Hannah Arendt, Gerhart Baumann, Karl Jaspers, Theodor Adorno, Edmund Husserl and Herbert Marcuse

    27.7.1967 Royal Assent for an Act that said (in England and Wales) "a homosexual act in private shall not be an offence provided that the parties consent thereto and have attained the age of twenty-one years".

    1967 Gregory Stone and Harvey Faberman published an article suggesting that Durkheim was moving towards the perspective of symbolic interaction

    1967 Desmond Morris The Naked Ape. A Zoologist's Study of the Human Animal

    1967 Harold Garfinkel: Studies in Ethnomethodology
    A Sage "Master in Modern Social Thought"

    1968 "la naissance du lecteur doit être au coût de la mort de l'auteur"
    (the birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the author)
    Roland Barthes: (1915- 1980)
    A Sage "Master in Modern Social Thought"

    new word 1968: "Desk-top computers for use in homes... may be made possible for by an invention described today" (Daily Telegraph). This may refer to the development of medium scale integrated circuits leading to microchips. Personal desktop computers, cheap enough to use at home, did not arrive until the second half of the 1970s and the 1980s, and were not widely used until the 1990s.