click for referencing advice

Society and Science: Home Page   Dictionary   People   Books   Web links the ABC
Study Guide index home page to
Andrew
Roberts'
web site

Social Science History: Time line for the history of society, science and social science

A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and to other resources, including extracts and works of authors and the timelines for crime - America - mental health - sunrise - earthcore and local London .

But why? The timeline began because social scientists need history. It was a resource for a foundation course in social sciences at Middlesex University.

home page for
society and
science

home page for
society and
science

Main Chronological Headings

Quick jump to: Begining - Africa - Sumeria - Egypt - China - Greece - Christ - Islam - 700   900   1000   1100   1200   1300   1400   1500   1600   1700   1800   1900   2000  

In the begining - worms - Haeckel's links - ichthyostega - coal - one land mass - dinosaur dung - Tethys - chalk - soft rock - beautiful world - fur and skin - eolithic - hominid - 4 million - southern apes - 3 million - glacials - Prehistory (through archeology and myth) - mammoth - who are you calling a savage? - bone - stone tools - 2 million - erectus - naked - Mortillet's classification - first migration - 1 million - team GB - Piltdown fraud - fire - sewing - cave bear - sapiens - world migration - prehistoric imagination in Africa - ochre paint - creeping cold - 100,000 - continuous clothing - religion   art in Indonesia and Europe (stone and pigment)   dog - fired clay - pots - reindeer - textiles - clothing remains - who are you calling a barbarian? - Tell es-Sultan - lead - auroch - wood - History - gold - copper - bronze - tin - silver - who are you calling civilised? - Pyramids and maths on tablets - 2500BC Chinese civilisation - 1700BC Scandinavian ships - iron - 1400BC monotheism - Ancient Greece - coins - 368BC Plato's Republic - Birth of Christ - materials of medicine - a map of the heavens - 200: a critical turning - 376: Völkerwanderung

4th Century
5th Century
6th Century
Indian mathematics
571: Birth of Muhammad
Medieval Europe

7th Century
spoken and written

8th Century
751. Empires meet. sugar. paper.
793: Viking ships

9th Century
820: al-jabr - 868: woodblock printing

10th Century
987: books of all nations in Arabic

11th Century
a critical turning
Ibn al-Haytham
1066 and 1086
Omar Khayyám
universities

12th Century
Euclid rediscovered
a Common Law for England - Jews in England
1157: Royal protection for foreign traders
1199 size of London

13th Century
1206: Mongolian Empire - Silk Road
1225: Thomas Aquinas
coal by sea

14th Century
1336: cargo boats
Renaissance
1358: Hanseatic League
Geoffrey Chaucer

15th Century
Slavery and social science
Printing
1492: Columbus hears about cannibals

16th Century
Paracelsus - alchemy and experiment
new knowledge contrasted with schools
1517: individual judgement: bible over church
1528: map of the universe
1538: weddings, christenings, buryings
1544: map of the world
1557: arithmetical signs and algebra
1577: state of nature theory
1593: God's gift of reason
1597: The music of the spheres and a great herbal
a triangular run

17th Century
1601 - 1603 - 1607 - 1607 - 1609 - 1610: by God called gods
1611 Authorised Bible - 1613 - 1614 - 1618 - 1620 - 1621 - 1623 - 1625 - 1628 - 1629 - 1632 - 1635 - 1637 - 1640 -
1642: English Civil War
1646: King contained - 1649: King beheaded
1651: Hobbes' Leviathan
Louis 14: "l'etat c'est moi"
1660: Restoration and Royal Society
1662: Bills of mortatlity
1686: Newton's mathematical physics
Vauban on geometry and war
1688 Bloodless English revolution
Locke's politics and theory of science.
1697: balance of trade figures

18th Century
Coffee houses and newspapers
1713: Probability
1729: English translation of Newton's Mathematical Principles
1734: The Koran for Christians
1740: David Hume's Treatise of Human Nature
1748: Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws
1750: Time changes
1759: British Museum
1761 Transit of Venus
1762: Rousseau's The Social Contract and Emile
Steam and Machine
1764: Beccaria's Essay on Crimes and Punishment
1768: Priestley's principles of government and 1774 dephlogisticated air
1769 Another transit of Venus
Life giving air
1776: Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations and Bentham's A Fragment on Government
1787: Federalist Papers
1789: French Revolution
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
French Constitution of 1789
1790-1799 Scotland's happiness, statistics and improvement
French Constitution of 1791
Rights of woman
France at War
French King Guillotined
French Constitution of 1793
1795 Speenhamland
metric system adopted in France
Institut National des Sciences et Arts
1798: Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population

19th Century
1801: First British census
1805: Children's Books
1806: the decomposition of matter into its elements by electricity
1812: Owen's Essays on the Formation of Human Character
1815: End of war - A new start for geology
1816: A new start for museums and archaeology
1819: Idyllic country villages and a Manchester massacre
1820: James Mill's Essay on Government
1822: Utilitarian Society
1827: London University
1831: The spirit of the age
1833: Statistical Societies formed
1834: New Poor Law
1835: An ordinary guy
1839: Speed annihilates distance as sociology is born
Hungry Forties
Womens' Rights Movement
1841: Feuerbach - anthropology and humanism
1841 British census with names
the steamship and the railway and the thoughts that shake mankind
1842: Women and children in coal mines
1843: The birth of anthropology
1843: Superphosphates and classic field experiments
1844: The Claims of Labour and Vestiges of Creation
1848: All Things Bright and Beautiful - Principles of Political Economy - and The Communist Manifesto
1848 Revolutions
1850: History of "the social movement"
1851: The Enfranchisement of Women and the first of the great exhibitions
1853: Crimean War
1857: Association for the Promotion of Social Science
1859: The Origin of Species
1861: History of the family
1862: Les Misérables
1863: Emancipation of United States slaves
1865: London sewerage system
1869: The Subjection of Women
1869: Nature launched wreathed in poetry
1870: European war and German worker's parties
1871: The Descent of Man
1872: Durkheim's nephew born
1872: The secret of Giuseppe Villella's skull
1874: Mary Paley and economics
1876: L'uomo delinquente
1879: Psychology laboratory
1880: electric light and the experimental method applied to the novel
1883: He has not heard that God is dead
Emile Durkheim and Max Weber
1886: New York and Liverpool: World Cities.
1887: without wires
1887: Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft
1889: Life and Labour of the People of London
1890: Alfred Marshall's Principles of Economics
1891: Our Baby
1893: Evolution and ethics
La donna delinquente
1895: Recorded sound - London School of Economics and Political Science - Radioactivity
1896: Olympics
1899: International association

20th Century   germs   magic blood and science words  
1900: Freud's Interpretation of Dreams
1901: Measuring poverty and Nobel prizes
Psychological and sociological societies
Sociological Review
1904: Conditioned reflexes
1908: Social Psychology
1910: Linguistics proper
1911: Genes, genotypes and genetics
1911: Galton Chair of Eugenics
1913: Behaviourism and Ecology
1913: Measuring class
1914: First World War
1917: Russian revolution
1919: The ABC of Communism
1920: The New Psychology and its Relation to Life and The Outline of History
1922: Stalin
1923: Political Science and Critical Theory
1925: Nazi theory
1925: The City
1928: USA Sociology
1929: Our Baby's discipline and The Science of Life
Wall Street Crash
1931: death of George Herbert Mead
A National Plan for Britain
The scientific treatment of criminals
1932: an atom split
1933: betrayed by evolution - Nazi Germany - Shelf Appeal - Garbo
1935: Turing's meadow computation
1936: Heavy rain
Mass Observation
1937: Symbolic confrontation
Musée de l'Homme founded in Paris.
1938: The Hitler Menace
Second World War
1941: National Income and Expenditure
1942: Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism, by Franz Neumann
1943: this holocaust
1944: Friedrich Hayek's The Road to Serfdom
1945: United Nations
Cold War
1949: Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex
new international sociology
1951: Talcott Parsons'The Social System
A new British Sociological Association
1953: The Institute of Community Studies
1954 "The Complementary Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid" (DNA)
1955: Unsupported mothers - child soldiers
1956: Karl Popper's Science, Conjectures and Refutations article
1956: New Scientist magazine launched
1957: International Geophysical Year
1958: a new sort of political mobilisation
1959: Outline of Human Genetics
1960s: a global village    Goffman    Foucault
computers and statistics
1960: wheels of inclusion
1962: New Society magazine launched - the people's university
1963: sex and sexual abuse
1964: times changing
1965: speaking Russian
1966: criminology for criminals - psychology so far
1967: summer of love     Ethnomethodology
1968: anti-everything
A Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
1970: sexual politics and a crisis looms in USA Sociology.
1971: Ronald Fletcher's The Making of Sociology and the Open University
1972: anti-Oedipus in France as crisis in sociology hits Britain. Evidence based medicine?
1973: women's studies and peace studies
1974: Juliet Mitchell's Psychoanalysis and Feminism
1974-1979: The coming (and going) Corporatism
1975: prison and society
1978: chips with everything
the Adam Smith revival
1979: Postmodern?? Condition: Report on Knowledge??
re-structuring society
1980 Enterprise Culture
1981 Communicative action
1984 Education and race
1985: Glasnost
1986 Big bangs and risk
1988 Diana H. Coole's Women in Political Theory
Dependency Culture
Black film, British cinema
1989 Revolutions
1990 The avalanche of post-modernism and a Soviet summer school
1992: Do your own word processing! - EarthSummit
1993: the world wide web
1994: city lights
1995: Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics
1996: Manuel Castells' The Information Age and ... Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity
1997: human domination
1998: Sociology top ten
1999: Globalised: Anthony Giddens' Reith Lectures

2000: A millennium bug in liquid modernity
2000: Human genome - the most wonderous map
2000/ 2001: Free and democratic encyclopedia
11.9.2001: New international relations
2003: full time mother
2004: A prize for humanities and social science
The will to make poverty history?
2005: False findings
2006: Life after Durkheim?
2007 A social science and humanities pin- up list
2008: trending before the crisis - Pope against gender theory
2009: Global age financial crisis
2010 Royal Society claims 350 years
An arab spring
2011 Laurie Taylor interviews Stuart Hall - Recession mapped
Saving Norway from cultural marxism
2012: Happiness counted
2013: International Year of Statistics
2014: Brain rain(e) on Hendon
27.2.2014 Climate Change - Evidence and Causes
2015 Social science predicts its significance.
2016 Europe, the UK, and the world
2017

Predicting a future
2023 The Closing Speech - 2031 my death - 2032 Britain's last Quaker - after 2060: Newton predicts Christ's return - 2073 Mary Shelley's Social Science utopia

Alphabetical index
of names

Theodor Adorno
Cecil Alexander
Al'Khwarizmi
Louis Althusser
Jane Adams
Stephen Pearl Andrews
Anon
Thomas Aquinas
Hannah Arendt
Aristotle
Ashley
Mary Astell
Joe Bataan
Babikir Badri
Francis Bacon
Johann Jakob Bachofen
Leo Baekeland
Roland Barthes
Janina Bauman
Zygmunt Bauman
Mary Beard
Cesare Beccaria
Ulrich Beck
Howard Becker
Bede
Clifford Beers
Daniel Bell
Ruth Benedict
Jeremy Bentham
Jacques Bernoulli
Peter Berger
Oto Bihalji-Merin
William Blackstone
Jean Bodin
William Adrian Bonger
Bono
Blondie Boopadoop
Charles Booth
William Booth
Pierre Bourdieu
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Ernest Burgess
Edmund Burke
Cyril Burt
Judith Butler
Sebastian Cabot
Georg Cantor
Thomas Carlyle
Alexander Morris Carr-Saunders
Manuel Castells
George Catlin
Judi Chamberlin
Geoffrey Chaucer
Harriette Chick
Frederic Clements
John Cockcroft
Chistopher Columbus
George Combe
Auguste Comte
William Cooke
Diana Coole
Charles Horton Cooley
Carlton Coon
Copernicus
Henry Cowles
Marie Curie
Louis-Jaques-Mandé Daguerre
Robert Dahl
John Dalton
Charles Darwin
Humphry Davy
Simone De Beauvoir
Daniel Defoe
Gilles Deleuze
Geoff Dench
René Descartes
John Dewey
Bartolomeu Dias
Jan van Dijk
Wilhelm Dilthey
Pedanius Dioscorides
Benjamin Disraeli
Mary Douglas
Francis Drake
Emile Durkheim
École normale supérieure
Enfield College of Technology
Albert Einstein
Friedrich Engels
Norbert Elias
Euclid
Leonhard Euler
Michael Faraday
William Farr
Paul Fauconnet
Enrico Ferri
Robert Filmer
Jean Finot
Shulamith Firestone
Ronald Fisher
Walther Flemming
Ronald Fletcher
Henry Ford
Julienne Ford
Michel Foucault
Charles Fourier
Frankfurt School
Paulo Freire
Sigmund Freud
Betty Friedan
Erich Fromm
Galileo
Francis Galton
Raffaele Garofalo
Harold Garfinkel
William Gibson
Anthony Giddens
Morris Ginsberg
David Glass
William Godwin
Erving Goffman
Benjamin Gompertz
Olympe de Gouges
Antonio Gramsci
John Graunt
Robert Greene
Jürgen Habermas
Stuart Hall
Edmund Halley
Michael Haralambos
David Hartley
David Harvey
Friedrich Hayek
Friedrich Hegel
Heinrich Hertz
Adolf Hitler
Thomas Hobbes
Leonard T. Hobhouse
Richard Hooker
Max Horkheimer
Luke Howard
Joan Hughes
David Hume
ICSU International Council for Science
William James
Inigo Jones
Kathleen Jones
Flavius Josephus
Immanuel Kant
Jomo Kenyatta
John Maynard Keynes
Imam Khomeini
Oskar Kokoschka
Julia Kristeva
Jean Jacques Lacan
Ronald Laing
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Mary Lamb
Claude Levi-Strauss
Lucien Levy-Bruhl
Carolus Linnaeus
Joseph Lister
London (size)
London Schoool of Economics
London University

Martin Luther
John Locke
Cesare Lombroso
Charles Lyell
Jean-François Lyotard
Thomas B. Macaulay
Niccolò Machiavelli
Bronislaw Malinowski
Thomas Malthus
Henri François Marion
Alfred Marshall
Thomas Marshall
David Martin
Karl Marx
Marcel Mauss
Roderick McKenzie
Marshal McLuhan
George Herbert Mead
Margaret Mead
Gregor Mendel
Charlotte Mew
Juliet Mitchell
Robert King Merton
Ralph Miliband
James Mill
John Stuart Mill
Enid Mills
Oscar Montelius
Charles Montesquieu
Elaine Morgan
Lewis Morgan
William Morris
Max Müller
Franz Carl Müller-Lyer
John Nash
Franz Neumann
Isaac Newton
Barthold Georg Niebuhr
Florence Nightingale
Alexander Ivanovich Oparin
Maureen Orth
George Orwell
Robert Owen
Andrea Palladio
Robert Park
Talcott Parsons
Ivan Pavlov
Karl Pearson
Lionel Penrose
Frank Pearce
Jean Piaget
Plato
Karl Popper
James Cowles Prichard
Joseph Priestley
Proletariat
Ptolemaic Egypt
Ptolemy (astronomer)
Pythagoras
Quetelet
Alfred R. Radcliffe-Brown
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Franz Leopold Ranke
Rosalie Rayner
Robert Recorde
David Ricardo
Sheila Rowbotham
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Bertrand Russell
Ernest Rutherford
Alfred Schütz
Mary Seacole
Henri Saint Simon
Jean Paul Sartre
Ferdinand de Saussure
Jimmy Savile
Roger Scruton
Andrew Scull
William Shakespeare
Mary Shelley
Percy Shelley
Irving E Sigel
Georg Simmel
George Eaton Simpson
George Simpson
John Sinclair
Burrhus Skinner
Adam Smith
William Smith
John Snow
Socrates
Pitirim Sorokin
Herbert Spencer
Oswald Spengler
Benjamin Spock
Ed Stephan
Thomas Stevenson
Samuel A. Stouffer
William Sumner
Joseph Swan
Arthur and Edith Tansley
Harriet Taylor
Alfred Tennyson
Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
William Thompson
Alexis de Tocqueville
Ferdinand Tönnies
Peter Townsend
Alan Turing
Edward Burnet Tylor
James Usher
Ludwig Von Bertalanffy
Ernest Walton
James D. Watson
John Watson
Charles Wheatstone
Max Weber
Alfred Wegener
Fay Weldon
H.G. Wells
Betty Westgate
Anna Wheeler
Alfred North Whitehead
Joseph Whitworth
Norbert Wiener
Peter Willmott
Mary Wollstonecraft
Women's Institutes
William Wordsworth
C. Wright Mills
Christopher Wren
Wilhelm Wundt
John Wycliffe
Michael Young
Jock Young

15,000,000,000 years ago The creation of the universe according to Physical Sciences information gateway (psigate) (Launched Manchester September 2001. - last surviving Internet Archive traced is 26.9.2006, but see UK Web Archive)

13,800,000,000 (13.8 billion) years ago The creation of the universe according to present estimates of "big bang" - "Stephen Hawkings and others... estimate between 11 and 18 billion with 13.8 being the closest estimation".

4,540,000,000 years ago Formation of planet Earth - Usher's date was 4,004BC - flood geologists have suggested about 8,000BC

4,540,000,000 to 541,000,000 years ago Pre-Cambrian - Before even old Welsh rocks. The earliest 4.06 billion years (4,060,000,000?) of Earth's history. 88% of geologic time. See Wikipedia. Followed by Cambrian - Ordovician - Silurian

Azoic: Having no trace of life or containing no organic remains. (Oxford Engish Dictionary) (Wikipedia)

3,700,000,000 years ago Did life first come into being in a primordial soup of compounds? In 1924 Alexander Ivanovich Oparin argued that it did. (See biological bases - circumstances - primeval swamp). - Nature 31.8.2016 "Rapid emergence of life shown by discovery of 3,700-million-year-old microbial structures" - Which the BBC re-wrote as "Wavy Greenland rock features 'are oldest fossils'" - See Stromatolites

Archeozoic: end of Azoic to 2,500,000,000 million years ago: The era of the earliest living beings on earth.

Proterozoic: Age of animalculae, jelly fish, green scum and the like. In water "there was probably as rich and abundant and active a life of infusoria and the like as one finds in a drop of ditchwater today". Life in the early paleozoic had a "general resemblance", to ditchwater life on a larger scale. (H.G. Wells)   2,500,000,000 to 542,000,000 years ago The Proterozoic Eon: the most recent part of the Precambrian Supereon. (Wikipedia)

"The Record of the Rocks... begins in the midst of the game... The curtain rises on a drama in the sea that has already begun, and has been going on for some time". (H.G. Wells)   600,000,000 years ago First traceable fossils dated to this time. (psigate) [Edgeworth David (1928 and before) analysed pre-Cambrian rocks in Australia and found traces of micro- biological material] - See also primordial soup - Cambrian - Old Red Sandstone - seed ferns - hominid - Piltdown geology - Noah - word and theory

The soft bodies of worms would not have been preserved as fossils - See Darwin on worms - but traces of (sea) worms are found in Cambrian rocks.

Paleozoic (ancient life) Era includes the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian

Early Paleozoic: Before the appearance of any vertebrate animals. Age of sea scorpions and trilobites. (H.G. Wells)

541,000,000 to 485,400,000 years ago Cambrian (Welsh) Period, including the "Cambrian explosion" of fossil remains. Trilobites. Picture of Paradoxides Bohemicus from the Cambrian period from J. E. Taylor's Geological Stories 1904. Trilobites lived in the sea. All life in Cambrian times seems to have lived in water.

485 to 444 Ma (millions of years ago): The Ordovician period. Nautiloids

Deposits that made Westmorland Green slate formed around 450 million years ago. Grains being deposited in water led to patterning. About 50 million years later, the material was altered by heat and pressure (metamorphosed) to slate, during mountain-building. (Kirk and Cook)

A walk to the Ordovician/Silurian boundary in the Southern Highlands of Scotland.

470,000,000 years ago First evidence of plants on land. Cryptospores - possible affinity with today's liverworts.

443 to 416 MA (million years ago) Silurian period. Sea Scorpions.

"When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the Silurian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled. Judging from the past we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to distant futurity." (Charles Darwin)

Later Paleozoic: Age of fishes, amphibia and swamp forests. (H.G. Wells)

From primal swamp to speaking humans: Ernst Haeckel said (1903) that the Pithecoiden (monkey) theory of human evolution requires tracing our animal ancestors before monkeys. He began to do this in 1866 in the General Morphology. Silurian fish are followed by Devonian Lurchfische," [lungfish] "the Carboniferous amphibians, the Permian reptiles and in the Mesozoic the first mammals. Mammals appear again in the Triassic as monotremes, then in the Jurassic as marsupials, and the Cretaceous the oldest placentals. Mammals in the Tertiary period (Eocene) include our lowest primate ancestors, including lemurs, the first catarrhines the Monkey (Cynopitheken), and later the great apes (anthropomorphic). From a branch of the apes, speechless ape-man (Pithecanthropus alalus) arose in the Pliocene, leading, finally, to the speaking person. (source)

The Old Red Sandstone of Scotland is very thick and contains many fossils, particularly of the Devonian fishes. Lungfish first appeared in the Early Devonian.
408,000,000 to 359.200,000 years ago Devonian period. Primitive fish. Some life left the water.
Primeval swamp?
Ichthyostega (Wikipedia) Greek ikhthus: fish - stegi: roof
G. Paselk pictures four legged "protoamphibians", Acanthostega and Icthyostega, lungfish (Dipterus) and a placoderm (Bothriolepis), with early trees, Archeaosigillaria and Archaeopteris in the background.

Late Devonian So called "seed ferns". See Marie Stopes
360,000,000 years ago Ferns first appear in the fossil record


359.200,000 to 299,000,000 years ago Carboniferous. Giant insects. Brachiopods.

Plate 22 in Observers Book of Geology includes a depiction by Eli Marsden Wilson (1935) in the Natural History Museum, which it titles "A primeval swamp of the chief coal-forming period". The picture used here comes from Edwin J. Houston's The Elements of Physical Geography Philadelphia 1891, which says "The continents during this age consisted mainly of large, flat, marshy areas, covered with luxuriant vegetation."

Alfred Wegener proposed that from the late carboniferous, all continents were stuck together as one big land mass, surrounded by just one ocean. (300,000,000 to 175,000,000 years ago) We can see this in his diagrams (below). Instead of giving the original continent a name, he uses German composite words, beginning ur, that just mean original. Der Urkontinent is the original continent, which is surrounded by einen großen Urozean (a large original ocean). Der karbonischen Urkontinentalmasse is the original continental mass in the carboniferous period. The Urkontinent was later called Pangea (all- earth). (See Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane 1920 - Alfred Wegener - and Wikipedia)

#
Lage der Kontinentalschollen für die Karbonzeit (ohne Rücksicht auf Wasserbedeckung) - Location of continental floes for the Carboniferous period (without regard to water cover)

Pangea existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It assembled about 300 million years ago, was intact until about 200 million years ago. and began to break apart about 175 million years ago.
# The 1922 and 1929 editions of Wegener's book contain a map of the world at three time periods: Late Carboniferous (Jung Karbon: this picture) - Eocene - and Quaternary.
The shading shows land and sea at the time, with white land, dotted shallow lake and shade: deep sea. Outlines of today's continents and some rivers ae superimposed.


# 298,900,000 to 252,170,000 years ago Permian. Named after the Perm district in Russia. In Britain includes dolomite limestones running south from Durham.

Primitive reptiles.

Pelycosaur

Cotylosaur

Picture from H.G. Wells' The Outline of History 1920


Mesozoic (Middle) Era includes the Triassic - Jurassic - and Cretaceous ages. It has been associated with conifers and reptiles.

252,170,000 to 201,300,000 years ago Triassic (So named because it has three divisons in Germany)

In England Bunter (bright coloured) Sandstone and above it Keuper Marl. Forming north-west Midlands and including Cheshire salt beds. Formed in desert conditions. Almost completely without fossils.

230,000,000 years ago "The first dinosaurs appeared about 230 million years ago and for the next 160 million years, the Earth belonged to these ancient reptiles" Natural History Museum. Eli Marsden Wilson's 1935- "Idealized Landscape of the Wealden Lake" showing Iguanodon (iguana tooth), Cetiosaurus (whale lizard) and Polacanthus (many spiked), (from the Natural History Museum, London, has the title "Mesozoic scene with great reptiles" in the Observers Book of Geology

208,000,000 years ago Asteroid impact in what is now Quebec, Canada, created crater 70 kilometres in diameter and wiped out many species (psigate)


201,300,000 to 145,000,000 years ago Jurassic. More dinosaurs.

Jurassic from the Jura Mountains on the borders of France and Switzerland.

Jurassic Park: a 1993 USA film in which re-created dinosaurs escape from a theme park.

Lower Jurassic beds called Lias (quarrymen's layers) in England running between Whitby on the coats of Yorkshire and Lyme Regis in Dorset, consisting of alternate beds of limestone and shale.

Richard and Mary Anning's Ichthyosaurus (Temnodontosaurus platyodon) was discovered in the Lias beds at Lyme Regis in 1811 and 1812. The body (but not the head) of the Anning's find is lost. (Wikipedia)
# This drawing of a Ichthyosaurus (fish lizard) is from J. E. Taylor's Geological Stories London, 1904)

about 200,000,000 years ago After 100,000,000 years the world still consisted of one continent, Pangea, surrounded by one ocean.

# The Tethys sea developed between Laurasia (north america, europe and asia) and Gondwana (africa southwards) during the Jurassic Period
The picture shows the Tethys according to Leopold Kober in 1922. Kober thought it was a sea that ran in a syncline between the two great land masses. Eduard Suess wrote in Natural science: a monthly review of scientific progress in 1893: "Modern geology permits us to follow the first outlines of the history of a great ocean which once stretched across part of Eurasia. The folded and crumpled deposits of this ocean stand forth to heaven in Thibet, Himalaya, and the Alps. This ocean we designate by the name 'Tethys', after the sister and consort of Oceanus." (Oxford English Dictionary)

about 175,000,000 million years ago Middle Jurassic.

Pangea began to rift from the Tethys Ocean in the east to the Pacific in the west. One rift resulted in the North Atlantic Ocean.

#
brontosaurus the thunder lizard - stegosaurus covered lizard - pterodactylus the winged finger - camptosaurus flexible lizard - diplodocus double beam - tyrannosaurus tyrant lizard - trachodon rough tooth - triceratops three horned face - archaeopteryx ancient wing - Pictures from H.G. Wells' The Outline of History 1920
#


145,500,000 to 66,000,000 years ago Cretaceous. Last dinosaurs.

Although cretaceous means chalk, the lower cretaceous does not include chalk. In Britain it comprises the Wealden Beds, the Lower Greensand and the lower part of Blue Gault Clay.

about 139,800,000 to 132,900,000 years ago Valanginian stage of the Lower Cretaceous. Includes Cuckfield Stone Bed. Mary Ann and Gideon Mantell found dinosaur remains, including the original Iguanodon teeth (1822), in quarries in the Whiteman's Green area [around TQ 300 255]. See Gateway to the Earth

Fossil bones of an Iguanodon from the Wealden Beds of the Isle of Wight (Observers Geology Plate 23)

100,500,000 to 66,000,000 years ago. Upper Cretaceous [Chalk]

In Britain the upper cretaceous comprises the upper part of the Gault, the Lower Greensand, and the whole of the chalk.

Upper Cretaceous: Cambridge Greensands. Caprolite (Dinosaur dung)

about 75,000,000 years ago According to Ron Hubbard, science fiction writer and founder of the scientologists, Xenu, ruler of a Galactic Confederation of 76 planets, transported billions of his charges in spaceships to Teegeeack (Earth), placed them near volcanoes and killed them by exploding hydrogen bombs, Their "thetans" (souls) later inhabited the bodies of humans, causing the dysfuntions that scientology claims to be able to repair.

None of the reptile "monsters are found in the rocks later than the Chalk" (Observers Geology, p.132)


Tertiary (third) period: former term (still much used) for the geological period from 66,000,000 years ago to the Quaternary. Cenozoic (recent life). Age of mammals, including primitive horses and hominids. Following the Cretaceous extinction of dinosaurs, the Eocene epochs - Paleocene - Eocene - Oligocene - Miocene - and Pliocene - have been described as chapters in the mammals rise to dominance. Most recent geological materials are soft sediments like sands and clays.

66,000,000 years ago extinction of dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous epoch. Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event . Psigate said 65,000,000 years ago "Impact at Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, created crater almost 200 kilometres across, caused global devastation and possible extinction of dinosaurs, along with an estimated 85% of all life". Another source: Dinosaurs (and 90% of all species) wiped out after a meteorite. defined by a "golden spike" in sediments around the world iridium dispersed from the meteorite.

# 56,000,000 to 33,900,000 years ago Eocene Epoch. Plate 21 in Observers Book of Geology includes this depiction by Eli Marsden Wilson (1935) in the Natural History Museum, which it titles "Eocene landscape, London clay period".

A world that was essentially ice-free

# Wegener's Eozän: Eocene

In the early Eocene, there were land connections between Antarctica and Australia, North America and Europe through Greenland, and probably between North America and Asia through the Bering Strait.

About
60,000,000 to 55,000,000 years ago, Laurasia split when North America/Greenland and Eurasia separated, opening the Norwegian Sea. See Tethys. In the mid-Eocene, Australia and Antarctica separated. New ocean currents cooled the world towards the end of the Eocene. (source).

34,000,000 years ago Antarctic ice sheet began to form around this time (psigate)


Tropical forest to temperate grassland. Enter the beautiful world

33,900,000 to 23,000,000 years ago Oligocene: a transition from the tropical Eocene more temperate climates. Grasslands expanded world-wide and tropical forests receded to the equatorial belt.

During the Oligocene and Miocene the Alpine chain of mountains was formed, replacing the western end of the Tethys.

28,100,000 years ago Upper Oligocene (Chattian) - (Wikipedia) - Abbe Bourgeois announced in 1867 that he had discovered man-made tools in an assemblage of chipped flints in the bed of upper Oligocene age near Thenay. Similar finds were made elsewhere in Europe in 1872 and 1877 in upper Miocene beds. The human origin of these "eoliths" was disputed.

25,000,000 years ago hominoids (apes) diverged from the Old World monkeys according to Wikipedia. The Greek word pithecoid (ape like) was much used in 19th century evolutionary theory. A 1900 Dictionary defines an ape as a four limbed animal with teeth of the same number of form as humans and without either tails or cheek-pouches, and Pithecoid as pertaining to apes, or resembling an ape, or ape-like.

#
"Divergence among great apes, a small ape, and an Old World monkey with respect to humans", figure one from an article in Nature 469, 529-533 (27.1.2011)

Rather than call this Middle Tertiary "in 1833 I proposed the name of Miocene, selecting the 'faluns' of the valley of the Loire in France as my example or type". "No British strata have a distinct claim to be regarded as Miocene". (Charles Lyell)
# 23,030,000 to 5,332,000 years ago Miocene era - (Wikipedia

"If the Creator made this world especially for man, then there was one period paricularly adapted to man's wants. The world never experienced a more beautiful period. That period was the Miocene, and by all manner of logical reasoning it was the time when man should have appeared" Mastodon, Mammoth, and Man by John Patterson MacLean 1878 page 67

Picture of Miocene mammals from The Prehistoric World: or, Vanished Races by Emory Adams Allen 1885.

Whilst accepting the authenticity of the flint tools found by l'abbé Bourgeois at Thenay, Albert Gaudry did not admit the existence of humans in the Miocene epoch. Sommeone suggested Dryopithecus cracked the stones. (Histoire) - See Mortillet.

In 1856 Éduard Lartet described fossil jaw fragments and a piece of humerus from a "très-grand Singe de la tribu des Simiens" [Simian] "ou Singes supérieurs", which had been discovered by Monsieur Fontan, of Saint-Gaudens (Haute-Caronne), a [zealous] naturaliste. He named the monkey whose bones these were, Dryopithecus fontani [See below]. They were found in a strata of marly clays (banc d'argile marneuse) from the Miocene being exploited at the base of the plateau on which Saint-Gaudens is built,
# at the start of the plaine de Valentine that stretches to the foothills of the Pyrenees.
Fontan recovered from the same site, bones of Macrotherium, Rhinoceros, Dicrocerus elegans, apparently identical to species of the same genera previously found at Sansan. These mammals belong essentially, Lartet said, to "nos terrains tertiaires moyens (miocènes)", as we also find their remains in the faluns of Touraine. - See Lartout "Note sur un grand singe fossile qui se rattache au groupe des singes supérieurs" in Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences Paris, Band 43, 1856, pages 219-223. (offline)

The fossils were not (as Lyell states) found in lignite deposits, but Lartet refers to trunks of oak, chestnut and pine in lignite in the lowest foothills of the Pyrenees, which he thinks are the same age as fossils a Saint-Gaudens and Sansan, because he has collected some remains of mammals belonging to the same period. Lartet concluded on the evidence he had that this monkey, of very great size, mainly ate fruit, and lived usually in trees, as Gibbons of the present time. He said he took the name Dryopithecus from [Greek] Dryos (tree, oak) and pithekos (monkey). So Lyell is correct in linking the name to oaks found in lignite. Monsieur Fontan, after who the full name Dryopithecus fontani comes, is named as Urbaine Fontan in the Journal de Toulouse. He may also be "A. Fontan, docteur-médecin", who is mentioned elsewhere.

The Journal de Toulouse carried to reports of the discovery (the second correctin the first) on 3.8.1856 and 5.8.1856. Fontan is reported as saying the find is the more interesting as Cuvier had not managed to find such a fossil. Flourens "went even further, this unexpected result gives him hope that one will soon find fossil men". (3.8.1856 - Third page)

Plate and notes (adapted) provided with Lartet's note

#

1. A series of teeth from "une négresse du Gabon"

2. The same series from an adult Chimpanzee - 3. Orang from Borneo - 4. Gibbon from Siamang - 5. Gorilla

7, 8, and 9 are Dryopithecus. 7 shows shows three views of jaw fragments with teeth and 8 how they fot in to the whole jaw. 8 shows the humerus (upper arm) bone (not to scale)

10 and 11 are the teeth and jaw of Pliopithecus antiquus that Lartet discovered at Sansan in 1837.

6 is a gorilla's jaw (not to scale)

Lartet says the Siamang, "placed by Zoologists in general in the last row of the tribe of the Simians or higher apes, nevertheless, provide by their skeleton, a sum of characters approaching the human type much greater than one can find in Orang or even in the chimpanzee".

13,000,000 years ago divergence between humans and orang-utangs (between 12 and 15 million years ago).

more than 7,000,000 years ago divergence between the two existing beavers: castor canadensis (north america) and castor fiber (europe and asia).

7,000,000 years ago divergence between humans and gorillas (between 6 and 8 million years ago).

6,230,000 years ago The the red deer (cervus elaphus) and Indian spotted deer (axis axis) last shared a common ancestor. However, they remain completely interfertile. ("Neanderthals and modern humans: an example of a mammalian syngameon?" by T. W. Holliday 2006)

6,000,000 years ago divergence between humans and chimpanzees (between 5 and 7 million years ago). Common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans. Skin on face and hands of baby chimpanzees darkens after exposure to the sun. The rest of the body is protected by hair (fur)) and remains pale.

"Six million years are said to separate human beings from other great apes" (Tomasello 1999, p.2);

5,300,000 years ago appearance of Ursus minimus (the Auvergne bear). (Wikipedia). It is thought to have been the ancestor of Ursus etruscus. Etruscus became a larger bear. Radiating across Europe and Asia, it gave rise cave bears in Europe and brown bears in Asia. See A Review of Bear Evolution by Bruce Mclellan and David C. Reiner, 1992/1994.

Geological periods of hominids # Pliocene

Early Pleistocene

Middle Pleistocene

Late Pleistocene

Holocene

Anthropocene

Archaeological

Paleolithic

Middle

Upper

Mesolithic

Neolithic

Pliocene means "more recent". The shelly sand-banks of East Anglia known as crag were formed in the Pliocene. Pleistocene was "was originally regarded as ... the period in which man, as tool-using animal, first made his appearance and ... evolved". But the case was made in "recent years" (1929) that tool-users existed in the "Pliocene or even earlier". (Wills 1929 p.209).

# 5,333,000 to 2,580,000 years ago Pliocene geological epoch. Eolithic means dawn of stone and the term eolith was used for flints that might have been hand wrought, but might be natural. This one is said to resemble a musk ox on the left and a bear on the right. (Larousse Prehistoric)

#
# Nature 29.3.1924 contained a report dating eoliths that could have been tools to "at least, an early phase of the Pliocene period".
Rushton Hall (1928/1930) wrote "Out of the mists of Antiquity appear the earliest known people, to whom the name the people of the dawn or eolithic period has been given" (p.40). "Piltdown may be the remains of a Dawn Period man" (page 57). His Dawn Man developed in River Drift Man, another possibility for placing Piltdown Man. The pictures are of Piltdown Man and an eolith from Rushton Hall.

Ardipithecus ramidus 4,400,000 years ago Earliest known hominid [human, not ape] fossils dated to this time (psigate) -

Ardipithecus ramidus, named September 1994, found in Ethiopia by research team headed by Tim White.

The so called southern apes

4,000,000 years ago to 2,000,000 years ago Australopithecus genus in Africa. Named by Raymond A. Dart (1893-1988) in 1925 from Latin australis "southern" and Greek pithekos "ape". Wikipedia: Australopithecus

about 3,900,000 years ago Equus caballus, the modern horse, , diverged from the lineage it shares with zebras and asses, according to molecular data. The fossil suggests a divergence at least 2 millions years ago.

about 3,600,000 years ago A woolly rhinoceros in the Himalayas lived there during a general world period of warmth. they migrated from there to northern Asia and Europe when the Ice Age began. The woolly rhinoceros co-existed with woolly mammoths in the Pleistocene. Successively named Rhinocerotis antiquitatis - Gryphus antiquitatus - Rhinocerotis tichorhini and Coelodonta antiquitatis.

European land mammals

Lindsay and others in 1980 wrote of "three major dispersal events of large mammals during the Pliocene" at 3,700,000 years ago - then 2,600,000 years ago - then 1,900,000 years ago.

3,600,000 to 3,000,000 years ago or earlier Start of Villafranchian fauna. (Wikipedia) -

Villafranchian: The land-mammal stage that spans the upper Pliocene and lower Pleistocene 3,600,000 to 1,200,000 years ago (Oxford: A Dictionary of Zoology by Michael Allaby 2009). Villafranchian: An age that is dated at base at approximately 3,000,000 years ago. It lasted approximately 2,000,000 years and therefore crosses the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene boundary. (Oxford: A Dictionary of Plant Sciences by Michael Allaby 2006)

Leptobos event. Early Villafranchian starts with appearance of a primitive bovid of the genus of Leptobos in Italy. Leptobos existed only during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene, thus it is a diagnostic taxon for the Villafranchian-Nihewanian land mammal ages of Europe and China

The Etruscan rhinoceros (Stephanorhinus etruscus) was the European rhino from the early Pleistocene. It was succeeded the Steppe Rhino (Stephanorhinus hemitoechus) in the middle Pleistocene.

Elephant-Equus (elephant horse) event. somewhere between 3,000,000 and 2,000,000 years ago. It starts with the appeance of Equus (real horse) and Mammuthus meridionalis. "We now report new data that limit the time of Equus' dispersal and into Europe to the 2,600,000 years ago dispersal event". (Lindsay and others)

Equus was derived from a species of the single-toed horse Pliohippus, known only from North America.

Begining of middle Villafranchian coincides with Gauss/Matuyama magnetic transgresson and onset of Quaternary (Pleistocene) 2,580,000 years ago.

See Tiglian

The Wolf event, may fall near 1,700,000 years ago. The late Villafranchian starts with the appearance of Canis etruscus (Etrurian wolf)

end Villafranchian event

Followed by Galerian Mammal Age and Aurelian Mammal Age (350,000 to 13,000 years ago).

3,300,000 years ago Lomekwi 3 site tools in Kenya discovered 2015. Proposal to call the Lomekwian technology as older and distinct from Oldowan.

"Oldest stone tools pre-date earliest humans" (BBC) - Wikipedia: stone age - stone tools - Article from Nature 21.5.2015 - Article from Science 14.4. 2015

See modes.

3,300,000 years ago hominin (human-like primate) called "Lucy" discovered in Ethiopia in 1974     BBC 4.3.2015 - Wikipedia - Google doodle archive. Jablonski 2012 infers skin and fur similar to chimpanzees as activities would not "built up excess heat as the result of prolonged activity".

2,800,000 years ago Ethiopian jaw bone. BBC 4.3.2015 "'First human' discovered in Ethiopia"

# Wegener's Alt-Quartär: early Quaternary

The major land masses were about where they are today.

Quaternary Period current period of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale. Includes two epochs: the Pleistocene to 11,700 years ago - and the Holocene to today. Quaternary glaciation.
2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago Pleistocene [From Greek for most recent. Term introduced by Lyell in 1839 for ice age deposits after the Pliocene]. Current ice age with permanent ice sheets in Antarctica and perhaps Greenland, and fluctuating ice sheets elsewhere. The ice across much of Russia preserved remains of Pleistocene mammals such as this mammoth from near Moscow whose mounted bones are diplayed in the entrance hall to the Orlov Museum of Paleontology. The Woolly Rhinoceros also roamed Siberia. See Édouard Lartet's age of. Mammoth

# furry coat or sweaty skin

a case of bi-polar - hot then cold - cold then hot

Glacials and interglacials:

North Germany: Pre-Tiglian - Tiglian - Alpine region (Donau = Danube): Biber (Wikipedia) - Biber/Danube - Danube (Wikipedia) - Danube/Gunz (Wikipedia)

MIS 62 - Günz - MS 22 - Cromerian (Piltdowns) MIS 15 MIS 14 MIS 13 - Mindel MIS 12 - Holstein MIS 11 (Swanscombes) - Riss MIS 10 (Bilzingslebens) MIS 8 MIS 6 - Eem (hippos) MIS 5 - Wurm - MIS 2 - Holocene (farmers) MIS 1 .

Mammoth: and rhinoceros - ivory carving - prehistoric art - Aurignacian - mammoths in art - Dolni Vestonice - cave bear and other extinctions - eburnien - reindeer - mammoth extinct -


The first cool period at the junction of the Pliocene and the Pleistocene was the pre-Tiglian. - the Pre tiglian cold stage can be dated between about 2,500,000 and 2,300,000 years ago -

The Tiglian was about 2,000,000 years ago - The Tiglian interglacial phase ends in the Olduvai magnetic event about 1,700 years ago - 1,700,000 to 1,200,000 million years ago Donau-Günz or Tiglian interglacial. Tiglian derived from Tegelen in the Netherlands (Wikipedia). "A classical Villafranchian locality".

#
Part of a sketch of what the Tegelen landscape may have looked like, made by Dubois (1904?). From "A century of research on the classical locality of Tegelen (province of Limburg, The Netherlands)" by Lars W. Van Den Hoek Ostende and John De Vos

Noted for its deer. Dubois wrote about a species of Eucladoceros (bush- antlered deer) Eucladoceros tegulensis, later called Eucladoceros, and Cervus rhenanus Dubois, 1904 (named after him), the small deer of Venlo, remains of which are found primarily in Tegelen.

Elephants, rhinoceroses, a wild pig species and possibly even tapirs - a landscape of riverine woodlands and swamps ("Origins and development of grassland communities in northwestern Europe" by Herbert H. T. Prins 1998)

#
Paleolithic (Old stone age) See stone and bone.

Paleo = old   lithos = stone. The three ages, Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic, were named in relation to the type of stone tools that survived in archaeological sites. The Paleolithic is divided into Lower, Middle and Upper.

Paeolithic savagery (Gordon Childe)

[Strepean?] - Chellean - Abbevillian (Wikipedia) - Oldowan (Wikipedia).
See Mortillet classification

2,600,000 to 2,550,000 years ago Mode one - Oldowan - stone tools. Picture above from Wikipedia of a "simple chopping-tool". Tools made by knocking flakes off a core stone (pebble core) with a hammerstone. Core and flake tools made.

# World prehistory: a new outline, by Grahame Clark. 1969, page 31.

"Archaeology studies human history from the development of the first stone tools.." (Wikipedia). It is one of the main ways in which social theorists have tried to access pre-history (the human story before writing). Another major way has been through speculation on the content of myths. Artefacts, like stone tools, can be dated in a way that inferences from myths can not. On the other hand, myths may give access to the mind in a way that artifacts do not.

See Sweden

Lower Paleolithic

The first homo - Latin for human

2,350,000 years ago upper jaw from Hadar, Ethiopia, oldest fossil attributed to the genus Homo before 2015 jaw

"Man alone has become a biped" (Charles Darwin) - After Lucy.

2,000,000 years ago (or later) Upright human: Homo erectus: "the fossil record between ... Lucy ... and Homo erectus (with its relatively large brain and humanlike body proportions) two million years ago is sparse". ((BBC 4.3.2015) - Wikipedia

"Compared with its australopithecine forebears-who were four feet tall with ape-sized brains and no stone tools - Homo was larger physically, had a larger brain, and made stone tools." (Tomasello 1999)

# From Stepping out: a computer simulation of hominid dispersal from Africa (2002) by Steven Mithen and Melissa Reed
Map based on hominids leaving Africa about 2 million years ago. They get to the far east in 100,000 years, but take over 1,000,000 years to get to west Europe. Why? - Read about
Wushan Man and Indonesia's top five hominid fossil sites - Norfolk footprints and Boxgrove tibia

1,800,000 years ago Hippopotamus antiquus, the European hippopotamus appeared. (Wikipedia)

1,800,000 years ago "Early human migrations began when Homo erectus first migrated out of Africa over the Levantine corridor and Horn of Africa to Eurasia about 1.8 million years ago". (Wikipedia in an earlier incarnation) - Two major dispersals of hominins out of Africa occurred. That of homo erectus began around 1,800,000 years ago. That of homo sapiens began around 80,000 years ago. (Jablonski 2012)

about 1,750,000 years ago The Olduvai child: OH 7 and Zinjanthropus: OH 5

MIS 62 - 1.750,000 years ago: end of the Tiglian

Acheulean about 1,600,000 to 200,000 years ago

Acheulean artifacts from Africa date to 1,600,000 years ago. The oldest sites in India are slightly younger. In Europe [See Mortillet classification], the earliest Acheulean tools appear just after 800,000 years ago, as homo erectus moved north out of Africa. (anthromuseum.missouri). But the classical French Acheulean is much later.

Mode two tools: Large bifacial cutting tools made from flakes and cores such as Acheulean handaxes, cleavers and picks.

about 1,500,000 years ago Turkana Boy or Nariokotome Boy (WT-15000) discovered in Kenya August 1984. 108 bones (view bones): almost all the scull and most of the rest of the skeleton. The most complete early hominid found. Structure suggests a physically very activ biped and Jablonski 2012 deduces that early hominids had lost body hair and increased sweat glands by the time he "traversed the woodland grassland" of the Lake Turkana Basin. Homo erectus preferred to homo ergaster

1,500,000 years ago Attirampakkam, south India, Acheulean site. See Antiquity - Indi-Uni - Science - Indian Acheulean. Also see earlier dating.

# 1,400,000 years ago Acheulean - Mode two tools. The picture, from Wikipedia, is of an Acheulean handaxe from Zamora in Spain.

From Saint-Acheul, a suburb of Amiens where the first tools from this period were found in 1859. Wikipedia: Acheulean

The start of Antroparkbaby in the European Acheulean is based on the Bilzingsleben site of early palaeolithic human remains in Thuringia, Germany, dated about 370,000 years ago. Also Shoningen and Stránská .

The four levels of Antroparkbaby are Acheulean, which it associates with homo erectus - Mousterian (Neanderthal) - Gravettian - and Magdalenian (both homo sapiens)

about 1,250.000 to 700,000 years ago The Mid-Pleistocene Transition or revolution. A period during which the dominant periodicity of Earth's climate (glacial-interglacial) cycles inexplicably changed from 41,000 years to 100,000 years

1,200,000 to 700,000 years ago Günz glaciation (Alps). Britain's corresponding Beestonian Stage consists of alternating glacial and interglacial phases. The Beestonian Stage and Marine Isotope Stage 22 ended about 866,000 years ago. (Wikipedia). H.G. Wells calls the "first glacial age"

MIS 22 - 1,030,000 years ago, marking the end of the Bavelian period in Europe. The Leerdam interglacial is located at MIS23 and the Bavelian at MIS25 by Wll Roebroeks and Thijs Van Kolfschoten. They include both in the Bavelian complex. This complex precedes the Cromerian complex.

Antoine in began a chart of regional sequancies with Leerdam followed by the aluvial Somme terrace "Ferme de Grace" (MIS22). The road to Ferme de Grace is in the Renancourt district of Amiens.

Gabriel de Mortillet's classification
# 1,200,000 years ago Zuzana Balàkovà on Antoparkbaby imagines homo erectus entering Europe from the north coast of Africa aross the straights of Gibralter.

Conceptualising pre-historic human time in Europe

In arranging geological strata Alexander Brongniart (1770-1847) proposed that each stratum could be defined by the presence of one or more specific fossils of animals or plants, which he called a fossile caractéristique. In prehistoric archaeology, Mortillet spoke, instead, of a fossile-directeur, which served the same function. The Fossile- directeur was a tool made by humans rather than a biological remain.

En 1861, [Édouard Lartet] propose une chronologie du Quaternaire fondée sur les espèces successives de grands mammifères dominants, à partir desquelles il pensait pouvoir dater les industries lithiques paléolithiques: l'âge de l'ours des cavernes, l'âge de l'éléphant (mammouth) et du rhinocéros laineux, l'âge du renne et l'âge de l'auroch.

Lartet suggested four ages or periods based on associated fauna, to which Felix Garrigou added an earlier Hippopotamus period:

The Hippopotamus period
The Cave Bear period
The Woolly Mammoth and Rhinoceros period
The Reindeer period
The Aurochs or Bison period

In Mortillet's scheme Hippopotamus became Chellean, most of Cave Bear and Mammoth became Mousterian, although some late finds were put in a separate Aurignacian. Reindeer was divided into Solutrean and Magdalenian, and Robenhausian was added for the Neolithic period. (Oscar Abadía 2002)

Names of some periods of the paleolithic as classified by Gabriel de Mortillet. "Mortillet's most successful idea was to define time- periods by their typical stone tools which acted like the fossile directeurs of the geologists". (Aggsbach's Paleolithic Blog)

Tertiary

#  
See eoliths and pre-mode tools

Thenaisienne - Eolithique. Stones "étonnée par le feu". (shaped, cracked into shape, using fire). Named after Thenay in Loire et Cher where, from 1860, Abbé Bourgeois collected objects from Upper Oligocene beds that he suggested to the Congress of Paris in 1867 were man-made. Possible Tertiary man.

Picture 2 is an example shaped by fire. Picture 5 is an example with its edge (bottom) retouched by chipping.

See mode one tools

See Piltdown often considered before Chellean.

Quaternary

Chelléen (Chellean). Term suggested by Ernest d'Acy in 1878, employed by Mortillet in 1883. Named after site at Chelles (Seine-et-Marne, France) (Wikipedia). Henri Breuil proposed replacing by Abbevillien in reference to sites on the haute terrasse de la Somme at Abbeville (Wikipedia), where tools coexist with the fossils of animals from a hot climate such as Elephas antiquus.
# The characteristic tool is often called an axe, but is a hand tool to cut, drill, trim and do everything. Mortillet calls it a coup-de-poing (blow of the fist - punch) or knuckle-fist. The word bifacial was substituted folowing André Vayson (1920).

Acheuléen (Acheulean), named after a site at Saint-Acheul near Amiens (Somme). A transitonal period with a cooler climate, still dominated by the coup- de-poing, which is refined. The mammoth replaces the elephant as the climate cools

Wikipedia: Acheulean tools are classified as mode two, meaning they are more advanced than the (usually earlier) mode one tools of the Clactonian or Oldowan/Abbevillian [Mortillet's Thenaisienne] industries but lacking the sophistication of the (usually later) mode three tools of the Middle Palaeolithic, exemplified by the Mousterian (below)

See tools

Moustérien (Mousterian). Named after a site at the l'abri supérieur du Moustier à Peyzac-le-Moustier (Dordogne) discovered by Édouard Lartet in 1860. Associated with the great bear of the caves. The Acheulean and Mousterian were both very long periods during which large fluvial (river) alluvium deposits of gravel, sands and silts formed. Their deposits are much more abundant than chelleennes alluvium. The industry gradually changed and eventually was completely transformed. The general purpose tool, though persisting, was increasingly replaced by specialist forms such as the blade, the tip and the scraper.
# Mousterian flint tools in transition to Solutrean

113: a flint pointe.

109 and 110: Two sides of one flint pointe.

116: A double scraper.

111 and 112: two sides of a very large scraper. Lanceolate shape. Montillet notes the care and skill that has gone into shaping each side and comments that "this remarkable instrument approaches solutrean".

114 and 115: two sides of one tool. 114 shows "passage" from a ponte to a scaper. A pointe has been retouched along the length of one side (bottom) "forming a very beautiful scraper". 115 shows a Conchoidal fracture (percusion chonchoid) in the corner.

See mode three tools

Aurignacian

# Solutréen (Solutrean) after a site discovered au pied de la Roche de Solutré (Saône-et-Loire) par Henry Testot-Ferry en 1866, which Mortillet visited at his invitation. First part associated with mammoths, second with reindeer. Tool remains include two types of pointes, which, although not abundant, are characteristic. One type is laurel leaf shaped, the other willow leaf with a side notch. Artistic retouching on both faces, at both ends and at the perimeter, distinguishes them from Mousterian pointes. They were made to be emmanchées (mounted, on wood, for example). Later authors agree that the Solutrean represents the pinnacle of working flint and produced arrowheads of a perfection rarely equalled afterwards.

See mode four tools

Magdalénien (Magdalenian). The name of the site of la Madeleine (Dordogne) discovered by Édouard Lartet in 1863. Humans lived in caves for the most part. Asociated with reindeer throughout. Characterised especially by development of instruments in bone and antler. It develops naturally from the Solutrean. Bone objects begin to appear at the end of the Solutrean and finely worked flint pointes are sometimes found in the early Magdalenian. But the use of bone harms the development of flint objects, which are less beautiful.

A dagger carved from reindeer antler. The handle is carved as a reindeer From Laugerie-Basse (Dordogne) (Wikipedia). Museum of Saint-Germain.

#

[Mesolithic] Term not used on Mortillet's plans. Instead, he added Tourassien to the end of the old stone age and Tardenoisien to the start of the new stone age.

# Tourassien (1872? 1894?) Wikipedia. Term fell into disuse in favour of the Azilien [terme tombé en désuétude au profit d'Azilien]. (Wikipedia)

At the end of the Paleolithic a warmer climate forced reindeer north. Without this "animal heaven" the human populations of Western Europe lived in much more difficult times and (stone) industry declined. The shelter beyond Tourasse, close to Saint-Martory (Haute-Garonne) provides a good set of tools, characterised by harpoons.


Temps actuels = current time

"Sous le nom de temps actuels, on comprend tous ceux qui se sont trouvés dans des conditions de géographie physique, d'hydrographie, de climatologie, de flore et de faune à peu pràs semblables celles de nos jours." (Ascribed to Mortillet - Seems to be an extract from the second edition (Paris 1895) of Alcide Railliet's Traité de zoologie médicale et agricole. Alcide Railliet says that the Neolithic period contains only one time: the Robenhausian. The "gap" between Quaternary and current time is explained by the change from a cold dry climate to a temperate one, which led to the reindeer moving north, followed by the humans who hunted them. The space they left is eventually filled by a new people, bringing their own tools.


Current - Tardenoisien (1897) (Wikipedia) - named after natural French region of Tardenois Wikipedia. Characterised by small flints with geometric shapes. #

After geologic time came the current time, but at the beginning, and for a long time, we are still in the stone age. At this point we call it Neolithic or the new stone age. I begins with an industry characterised by flint instruments which are very small and have geometric shapes. They are in abundance in the Tardenois, Department of the Aisne.

Néolithique (Neolithic)
Period of Pierre polie (polished stone), because it generally polished the most common instrument, the axe. Mortillet counts Tardenoisien and Robenhausian as the two neolithic epochs. He just has one plate for Tardenoisien, but many for Robenhausian.

Robenhausienne (Robenhausian) named after a Swiss Lake Resort, the palafitte of Robenhausen (Wikipedia) on small partly desiccated Lake Pfäffikon, in the canton of Zurich. This important station provided many and interesting information on industry, customs and habits of the men in the end the period of the stone polished. The polishing of stone took especially great development to the robenhausienne time.

Plates with a diverse range of tools. The first plate being hammers or firing pins, "the first of all the tools,.absolutely essential for trimming stone".

# Mortillet says that ("primitive") Pottery, for general use, appeared for the first time in Europe during the Robenhausian, having been completely lacking during the Quaternary. The fist pots ("vases") are crude. (Perhaps?) incompletely fired. Only the surface is reddened by the fire. The interior of the pottery is coloured brown by the charcoal or black of smoke. It is usually mixed with angular fragments of rocks or shells. This mixture intended to give consistency to the clay and to prevent splitting during drying and while cooking. These bottoms of these first pots are rounded, without a flattened foot. To stand upright they would have to be pressed into earth, sand or ash. Side nipples suggest suspension by cords.

Âge; du bronze (bronze age)

Morgienne

Larnaudienne

Âge; du fer (iron age)

Hallstattienne

Marnienne

Lugdnnienne

Chompdolienne

Wabennienne

# Mortillet 1883 Le Préhistorioue - Antiquité de L'Homme p.21

A basic binary division is made between "temps geologiques" (geological time) and "temps actuelles" (current time). In geological time is Tertiary and Quaternary, until the start of the Neolithic in current time, which is marked by the polishing of stone tools.

It was considered possible that hunter humans had simply been replaced by other humans who tilled the soil. It has been suggested (seriously?) that a gap between the two might have marked Noah's flood. The search for an alternative, develomental, process led to the two-stage theory becoming a three stage one with a Mesolithic (middle) stage. See Wikipedia

Mortillet's research gap - the missing middle

Mortillet: 16.4.1874 at la Société d'Anthropologie,

Toute la discussion, je crois, repose sur un malentendu. Entre l'époque paléolithique ou des cavernes et l'époque néolithique ou de la pierre polie, il existe un hiatus; mais cet hiatus n'est qu'une simple lacune dans nos connaissances. Il ne représente'pas une véritable lacune dans le temps et dans l'industrie. Certainement l'époque paléolithique a dû se rattacher et se souder à l'époque néolithique; mais nous n'avons pas encore découvert le point de contact. Entre les deux époques, il n'y a pas eu une période où l'Europe était inhabitable; seulement, les restes de l'époque de transition ou de passage n'ont pas encore été trouvés et reconnus. C'est ce qui constitue l'hiatus que nous constatons. Je le répéte, cet hiatus n'est pas réel un existe que dans le résultai de nos études et de nos recherches actuelles. Je devais une explication parce que je suis le principal propagateur de l'idée de l'hiatus. J'ai signalé le fait pour stimuler les recherches et les investigations.

The entire discussion, I believe, is based on a misunderstanding. Between the Paleolithic era or the caves and the time Neolithic or polished stone, there is a hiatus; but this hiatus is just a simple gap in our knowledge. It is not a real gap in time and in the industry. Certainly the Paleolithic era has had to be connected and merge in the Neolithic, but we have yet to discover the point of contact. Between the two eras, there has not been a period where Europe was uninhabitable; only the remains of the epoch of transition or passage have not yet been found and recognized. That is the gap we see. I repeat, this hiatus is not a real one, but exists only in the results of our studies and our current research. I owe this explanation because I am the main propagator of the idea of the hiatus. I pointed out the fact to stimulate research and investigations.


Mesolithic - needed or not needed?

Phillipe Salmon argued for a Campignian Culture (name from Campigny, Seine Inferieure - Wikipedia)) starting before the Robenhausian (1882? 1891?). The Tourassien (later Azilian) may have been suggested in 1894 and the Tardenoisien in 1897. The Tourassien and Tardenoisien industries were collated to form the Mesolithic period, which remained a controversial concept until after the second world war. From the marxist approach of modes of production, the transition from the old stone age to the new was a transition from savagery to barbarism, and a transitional stage was not needed. Gordon Childe wrote that cultivating the soil "was the first step in the neolithic revolution, and suffices to distinguish barbarism from savagery" (1942, p.43)

#




Musée préhistorique by Gabriel and Adrien de Mortillet. 1903 edition. The major change from the 1883 chart is two transitional epochs between the old and new stone ages.



1,000,000 years ago

about 1,000,000 to 900,000 years ago The "end- Villafranchian" event. A practically total rejuvenation of the fauna of Eurasia, along with new types of adaptation, and changes in climate and vegetation. May have been triggered by tectonic movements in the mountain belts of central and southern Asia. Major reorganization of large-mammal communities within the interval from about 920,000 to 750,000 years ago, which is from the early to middle Galerian mammal age. The bear Ursus dolinensis and the bison, a more evolved form than Bison (Eobison), are taxa typical of the beginning of the Galerian mammal age. Above beds with upper Villafranchian fossils in East Anglia is the Cromer Forest Bed. Early Cromerian and early Galerian may be the same.

Carleton S Coon says his The History of Man begins about 700,000 years ago "at the beginning of the ice age". But he also writes of the "Pleistocene or age of ice" between one million years and 10,000 years ago (8,000BC). His phase one of human history lasted over 650,000 years - over 90% of the time. It was the period of homo erectus (Java, Peking, Olduvai erectus) and Rhodesian that evolved into homo sapiens. , Heidelberg, Swanscombe, Steinheim. Also Neanderthal. See phase 2 and phase 3.

Choppers and flake tools (including scrapers) occur at a number of sites before 1,000,000 years ago. (Gilligan 3.2010) - Scrapers are possibly an indication of work on hides for clothing.

# 1,000,000 to 700,000 years ago Date range for Pithecanthropus erectus (ape-human that stands upright) - Java Man - a fossil skullcap, femur and a tooth discovered by geologist Eugène Dubois in 1891. (Jeremy Norman) - See ape and Haeckel.

See 1900 reconstruction - 1914 reconstruction - by Louis Mascré - Link to display at Natural Science Museum, Leiden - Indonesia

1,000,000 years ago "members of the genus Homo living in Africa ... from which all modern humans evolved ... probably had mostly naked and darkly pigmented skin" (Jablonski 2012)


# Happisburgh - first known settlement in northern Europe

970,000 to 936,000 years ago a prominent warm stage in Britain.

866,000-814,000 years ago a prominent warm stage in Britain. years ago".

Happisburgh: "Site 3 probably dates to one of the prominent warm stages (i.e. those most likely to have supported deciduous forest and other thermophilous plants)". (British Museum) - See British Archaeology January/February 2006

About 80 flint tools

Footprints - Research article: "Hominin Footprints from Early Pleistocene Deposits at Happisburgh, UK" 7.2.2014.


Dates for Cromer Forest Bed: 780,000 to 450,000 years ago? (Wikipedia). Link for West Runton (mammoth and rhino) - See Galerian


The three levels of the Thames Terraces: (gravels black)
# Boyn Gravels (100 feet) contain Chellean and Acheulean tools. 44 feet thick at Swanscombe.

Taplow Gravels (50 feet) contain Mousterian tools.

Flood Plain Gravels (F.P.) are ones younger than the Taplow ones.

The Thames gravels were used to date the Piltdown gravels. As a "missing link" between monkey and man, Piltdown was considered as buried in Boyn level gravels. The gravels he was alleged to have been found in were, in fact, at the younger Taplow level. See Piltdown geology.

The diagram is based on one by Henry Dewey and taken from Wills 1929 p.241.

866,000 to 478,000 years ago or 700,000 to 650,000 years ago: an interglacial period - Called Günz- Mindel - Pre-Illinoian - or Cromerian. Called third interglacial if dating backwards, but H.G. Wells calls the "first interglacial period"
Chellean (Abbevillian) culture in France. The fossil locality of Chilhac three is known for a rich Villafranchian fauna (Boeuf 1983) ...... thought to represent the earliest stage named Chellean (De Mortillet 1883). See Wikipedia. Possible fauna: Etruscan rhinoceros - Hippopotamus - Primitive horse - Sabre tooth tiger - Broad nosed rhinoceros - Straight tusked elephant - Giant beaver - Short faced hyena - Deer - Bison - Wild Cattle.

"With extreme cold glacial times following the Cromerian, the European Hippopotamus moved out of Britain, never to return. It would be another 250,000 years before a hippopotamus were to waddle into Britain again." (Jan Freedman)

Cromerian interglacials starting 563,000 years ago (MIS15) - 533,000 years ago (MIS14) - 478,000 years ago (MIS13)

"Prior to the Cromerian age the fossils are African" "Australopithecus" - Then "hominids are found in Asia and Europe as well - the volcanic strata of Java and the fossil beds near Peking and Heidelberg being good examples. These fossils have recently been grouped as Homo erectus". (Larousse Prehistoric 1957-1962).

Piltdown Man in context 1912 - 1953 - 1954
# A 1934 Encyclopedia says that the Piltdown remains "are usually attributed to the third inter-glacial period, but may be considerably older"

The section from table 28 of The Earliest Englishman (1948) shows Piltdown Man as the earliest "species of man in western Europe".

The "earliest Englishman" was a fraud. Swanscombe woman is genuine.

Other finds were said to "show that the following animals lived in this part of the Wealden country when Piltdown Man was here: Giant Elephant (probably
Elephas antiquus). Horse (Equus caballus). Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). Beaver (Castor fiber). To these may be added the following from Eastbourne:- Small-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros hemitarchus *). Giant Irish Deer (Megaceros hibernicus ). Bison (Bison priscus). The country must have been well wooded, and watered by rivers which were often bounded by swamps. The climate could not have been very different from that of the present day, only perhaps with heavier rain. It was indeed a truly mild episode in the Great Ice Age, and the occurrence of the hippopotamus with the giant forest elephant confirms the supposition that this was the earliest break in the Arctic record. The Piltdown gravel is therefore shown to belong to the early part of the Pleistocene period." (pages 35-36)

* Stephanorhinus hemitoechus - Dicerorhinus hemitoechus - Rhinoceros hemitoechus

The geology of Piltdown, in the Weald of East Sussex: The area is one of "Tunbridge Wells Sand" from the cretaceous period. However, in places, there are shallow surface deposits of gravel. These deposits were not shown on the geological maps until after the first world war. Workman repairing roads excavated them, however, and are said to have provided Charles Dawson with his first scull fragment in 1908.
The strata at Piltdown.

1. 35 centimeters (14 inches) of surface soil

2. A few centimters to a meter (3.3 feet) of pale yellow gravel

3. 50 centimeters (20 inches) of dark gravel in which fossil were "found"

4. 25 centimeters (10 inches) of gravel without fossils

5. Tunbridge Wells Sand (Cretaceous)

Francis H. Edmunds mapped the Piltdown gravel in 1925. He found it correlated with the Thames Taplow gravels, much younger than the Swanscombe terrace deposits.

Leonard Wills' 1929 list of recognised "cultural stages" begins with the Lower Paleolithic or river-drift race. Another source tells us river drift included the Piltdown skull and the Trinil and Heidelberg remains. It was related to the Strepean, Chellean and Acheulean ages. "Chellean man lived in the open in a warm, probably interglacial climate" (Wills 1929 p.248).

River man was followed by Middle Paleolithic or older cave man - Upper Paleolithic or newer cave man - and then Post-Glacial man.

Another account has some Piltdown men (I)Eoanthropus (Eolithic culture) about 1,000,000 years ago probably living in "the valley of the early post-Pliocene Thames". An Ice Age started and then men of the Old Stone Age appeared in the lower part of the valley at least 500,000 years ago. These included both "Chellean and Acheulean Paleolithic cultures". The use of stone tools probably began about 500,000 years ago. Chellean man developed stone tools for about 200,000 years.


about 781,000 to 126,000 years ago (655.000 years): Middle Pleistocene or Ionian stage. See Mid Pleistocene Transition

"toolmakers graduated from the chopping tools to... a handaxe, made of quartzite or flint" (Coon, p.75).

During cold periods towards the end of the Middle Pleistocene, proliferation of scraper tools in the "cooler climatic zones occupied by hominins, facilitated the manufacture of simple clothing. (See below) (Gilligan 1.2010 and 3.2010)

about 750,000 years ago A date for Peking Man (BBC - Wikipedia: Peking Man - Zhoukoudian caves - "a tool-maker, killed and devoured his fellow beings and even knew the use of fire" ( Schenk, G. 1961, p.75)

Creationist criticism on Jesus, dinosaurs and more" includes criticism of the fire hypothesis and the cannibalism claim

MIS 17 - 712,000 years ago

# about 700,000 years ago

Nature 15.12.2005. The scraper on the cover was one of 32 worked flints found in "a clearly datable stratigraphic context" in the "Cromer Forest-bed Formation" at Pakefield, Suffolk, in Britain. Nature summary - BBC - The Guardian

MIS 16 - 676,000 years ago

MIS 15 - 621,000 years ago
# The Somme valley in northern France is developed on an Upper Cretaceous Chalk bedrock (continuous with that under the Thames) and has has terrace system in its middle part (about 70 km long). Between Amiens and Abbeville, ten stepped alluvial formations (nappes alluviales) have been described.
Map extract from Pleistocene fluvial terraces from northern France (Seine, Yonne, Somme): synthesis, and new results from interglacial deposits, by Antoine and others 2007.
# In the area of Amiens, the river terraces tiered system of Somme includes ten fossil alluvial the oldest (the highest) was set up there more than a million years. Numbered from the most recent to the oldest,

The upper terrace (Nappe de Grâce) weathered to red on the surface, may be attributed to the Older Mindel phase. These deposits are generally decalcified, with little wildlife, except at Abbeville.

Table from Le système de terrasses du Bassin de la Somme... by Pierre Antoine. Quaternaire Année 1993 Volume 4 Numéro 1 pp. 3-16. See also his thesis: Les terrasses quaternaires du bassin de la somme. ... Thèse, Université des Sciences et Techniques de Lille Flandres-Artois, 1989. (offline) - and Paléoenvironnements pléistocènes et peuplements paléolithiques dans le bassin de la Somme 2003.

in Abbeville (Carrière Carpentier), where mammal assemblages show that calcareous fluvial deposits have been deposited in an interglacial environment. On the basis of terrace stratigraphy, ESR-quartz dating, and biostratigraphic data, these fluvial deposits are allocated to MIS 15. Handaxes discovered at the base of the slope deposits, directly overlying the fluvial sequence, can be, as a first hypothesis, allocated to MIS 14. They are thus due to Homo heidelbergensis according to the age of the eponymous Mauer site in Germany. Consequently, in the state of knowledge, the "Rue du Manège" and Carrière Carpentier findings represent the oldest in situ evidence of the hominid occupation in the terrace record of Northern France. Dating the earliest human occupation of Western Europe: New evidence from the fluvial terrace system of the Somme basin (Northern France) by Pierre Antoine, Emmanuelle Stoetzel and others 2015.

about 600,000 years ago The Heidelberg jaw discovered in 1907.

about 600,000 years ago First human settlements at Stránská Rock, Brno, Moravia. Further settlements between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago. (Wikiedia) See Bohunician.

MIS 14 - 563,000 years ago

550,000 years ago Possible date for earliest Somme valley Acheulean remains (see below)


MIS 13 - 533,000 years ago

About 500,000 years ago 2003 estimate of earliest known Acheulean localities from South Asia. Persisted in peninsular India until about 125,000 years ago (possibly longer), before yielding to Middle Paleolithic flake-dominated assemblages. Parth R. Chauhan 2003

About 500,000 years ago Flints and a hominid tibia from Eartham Pit. Boxgrove, Sussex in Britain.

500,000 to 450,000 years ago Earliest human occupation in Somme Valley according to Antoine 2003 who says they already represented well developed Acheulean industries (about the start of MIS 12 according to modern excavations)


478,000 to 424,000 years ago Mindel glaciation - Anglian in UK - MIS 12 - "The Anglian Stage and Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 12 started about 478,000 years ago and ended about 424,000 years ago." The most extreme ice age during the last 2 million years. In Britain the ice sheet reached Hornchurch in north-east London" (Wikipedia). Equated with the Elster glaciation of northern Germany, but dates given are very different. H.G. Wells calls the "second glacial age"

Quarry of Menchecourt at Abbeville (where Boucher de Perthes recovered antediluvian antiquities.

In the Somme terraces system in situ Acheulean settlements where dated to early MIS 12 at about 450,000 years ago in the 1990s, but new field discoveries allow to increase significantly the age of the oldest human occupation (Early Middle Pleistocene). The first one (Amiens "Rue du Manège" 2007) is dated at about 550,000 years ago using ESR and terrace stratigraphy. (Antoine, Stoetzel and others 2015).

The Abbevillian type site is on the 150-foot [45.72 meters] terrace of the River Somme. Tools found there are rough chipped bifacial handaxes made during the Elsterian Stage of the Pleistocene Ice Age, which covered central Europe between 478,000 and 424,000 years ago. (Wikipedia). See Mortillet

The Carrière de Menchecourt à Abbeville (Quarry of Menchecourt at Abbeville), Rue de Haut 80100 Abbeville, France, in the grounds of what was the Maison du Temple à Abbeville (House of the Templers at Abbeville) was made an historical monument on 1.12.1983. (See also)

See Chelles

Marcel-Jérôme Rigollot inspected the Abbeville finds and Menchecourt quarry in 1853, and made similar finds at Saint-Acheul in 1854. See Mortillet

See Jardin archéologique de Saint- Acheul - Archeological Travel - Le-Musee-Boucher-de-Perthes



424,000 to 374,000 years ago [Marine Isotope Stage 11] or 300,000 to 250,000 years ago: an interglacial period - Called , Mindel-Riss, Pre-Illinoian, Holstein and Hoxnian. Called second interglacial if dating backwards and by H.G. Wells.

Boyn Hill Thames Terrace deposits . Sand and gravel deposits underneath Swanscombe were laid down between 425,000 and 350,000BC by an ancient course of the Thames, (Swanscombe Heritage Park) - Swanscombe woman and Steinheim (man?)

Swanscombe Animals: lion, straight tusked elephant - rhinoceroses - giant deer - mice - bats - water voles - reptiles - fish - molluscs - A climate slightly warmer than the present day.

MIS 11 424,000 years ago - Hoxnian Stage in Britain.

"Differentiating the two interglacials MIS 11 and 9 is not always possible, as they were short and sometimes shared common climatic and environmental features. MIS 10 is also considered to be short and is not always preserved in the sedimentological record." (Aggsbach's Paleolithic Blog)

The Clactonian is the name given to an industry of European flint tool manufacture that dates to the early part of the Hoxnian interglacial.

a tufa deposit located at the top of a Middle Pleistocene fluvial sequence... correlation of the Saint-Acheul assemblage with malacofaunas recovered in other MIS 11 tufa deposits from the Somme and Seine valleys.... reappraisal of these French molluscan assemblages shows that they are similar to British malacofaunas of Hoxnian age. These new results strengthen the uniqueness and biostratigraphical value of the 'Lyrodiscus assemblage'. (N. Limondin-Lozouet and P. Antoine 2006, "A new Lyrodiscus (Mollusca, Gastropoda) assemblage from Saint-Acheul (Somme Valley): a reappraisal of MIS 11 malacofaunas from northern France". Boreas, 35: pp 622-633). See also - and


400,000 years ago Common ancestors of neanderthal humans and homo erectus began separation. Neanderthal developed in Europe and homo erectus in Africa.

The picture shows a racial depiction of the separation in a 1950s Children's Encyclopedia. The separation of "ape men" from "true men" is shown as equivalent to, or greater than, that separating humans from gorillas and chimpanzees. True men then divide into two distinct lines - black (negro - negroid - australoid) and white (european - mongoloid). This distinction is shown as equivalent to that between orang-utangs and gorillas.

#
A group of individuals that actually or potentially interbreed in nature is considered the same species, however different appearances. See early human gene exchange.

about 400,000 years ago scullcap discovered in Olduvai Gorge by Lewis Leakey in 1960. Coon classifies as homo erectus.

400,000? years ago First use of fire See trees.

about 400,000 years ago Swanscombe woman lived and died in Kent, Britain. Charcoal may indicate fire. Before the Boxgrove tibia, her remains were the earliest in what became Britain. See Britain an island. She lived during the MIS 11 interglacial, near the start of the Aurelian mammal age.

Argued to have a lower Clactonian strata below an Acheulean culture. One of the richest Pleistocene vertebrate localities in Britain, and by far the richest locality attributable to the Hoxnian Interglacial.

About 400,000 to 380,000 years ago Wooden spears made of spruce of from an ancient lakeshore hunting ground. Found in a coal mine in Shöningen, near Hanover, Germany in 1997.
#

374,000 years ago: MIS 10

about 370,000 years ago Bilzingsleben site in Germany. In the 1970s Dietrich Mania excavated "three round ground plans of dwellings with hearths by their entrances". (Antropark). He "found large stones arranged in a circular manner. He thought that it probably was a base for a dwelling. However, ring-center analysis showed that the site was an open air site. C. Gamble proposed that humans congregated at the site around the fire". Stone chopping tools of small size, mainly flint. Numerous bone tools include hoes, scrapers, point and gougers. Some hoes made of antler or ivory. Some wooden artefacts preserved. (Wikipedia)

Sewing The burin, a stone chisel that could shape bone, was rare before the Upper Paleolithic. Instead of bone awls, the Antropark website suggests, people made holes in leather using wooden awls made of dry yew and sewed with sinews. "Another possibility was to cut narrow stripes and to make small holes in those parts of leather one wanted to join using a minor flake. The holes were cleaned using a sharp piece of wood. The stripes were then pushed through the holes and parts of leather were sewn together in this way."

Antropark reconstructions. People said to be homo erectus - Acheulean tool industry.

350,000 to 250,000 years ago Steinheim skull

# In 1999, Ireland celebrated four extinct residents: the brown bear (not cave bear), the mammoth, the wolf and the Irish elk. The stamps and the animals are discussed on paleophilatelie.eu

350,000 to 13,000 years ago Aurelian Mammal Age. (after Via Aurelia, north east of Rome). Start indicated by the Irish elk (Megaloceros giganteus), the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus), and grey wolf (Canis lupus). Few "archaic carnivores survived the transition to the Aurelian ELMA, roughly around the beginning of MIS 9" about 333,000 years ago. (Steven Churchill 2014). MIS 9 - 337,000 years ago. Informally called the Purfleet Interglacial Wikipedia). See GeoEssex

300,000 years ago "Cave bears inhabited caves in Europe throughout the Pleistocene, from about 300,000 to 15,000 BC, disappearing by the end of the last ice age. Their population seems to have diminished upon the arrival of Cro-magnon in Europe" "Most cave bears seem to have died off well before the Weichselian glaciation". (Cave Bears) - See cave Chauvet and Édouard Lartet's age of

Middle Paleolithic 300,000 to 30,000 years ago

300,000 years ago In the mont Châlat area of Chelles a settlement of people whose flint tools were discovered in 1874. Near Lauchonia sylva (forest) and the river Marne. See flint biface in Musée départemental de Préhistoire d'île-de-France, Nemours, from the collection of local prehistorian Edmond Edmee Doigneau (23.9.1825-4.5.1891). See Mortillet

300,000 to 125,000 years ago Rhodesian man - See 1921 and 1950s reconstruction and Heidelberg.


250,000 to 120,000 years ago Riss glaciation

Penultimate Ice Age. H.G. Wells calls the "third glacial age"

Early blade tools in Europe date from the penultimate ice age

The Riss is paralleled by MIS 6, 8 and 10, which would therefore place it about 350,000 and 120,000 years ago (Wikipedia)

MIS 8: Somme level three: Argoeuves. 300,000 to 250,000 years ago lavalloisian


250,000 to 200,000 years ago First "true" Neanderthals (Whatever that means)

# "Most of the Mousterian as well as the upper Paleolithic cultures seem to have coincided with one of the Glacial episodes when man dwelt chiefly in caves" (Wills 1929 p.248). "The cave bears were old tenants with long existing rights. But the Mousterian hunters had... the courage of despair. They must be housed or perish" (Rushton Hall 1928/1930 p.80)

220,000 to 40,000 years ago Mousterian on Antroparkbaby. Mode three tools. Based on Molodova - Ukraine. Tool culture named after Le Moustier. Associated primarily with Homo neanderthalensis. Wikipedia dates Mousterian from 160,000 years ago - See Mortillet classification

# Mode three tools: Flake tools struck from prepared cores, with an overlapping sequence of flake removal (sometimes referred to as façonnage) system - including the Levallois technology, See Archaic Human Culture by Dennis O'Neil and Making Flint Tools by Don Hitchcock.

The picture, from Noël-Hume (1953), shows a core culture axe at the top and then a flake point. Technology moved its emphasis from fashioning cores to fashioning flakes.

sapiens: the wise, discerning, thinking

200,000 years ago "It is most likely that modern Homo sapiens born 200,000 thousand years ago, somewhere in Eastern (Central) Africa" (Dates in the history of biology) (I have assumed it means 200,000)

The first anatomically modern human fossils date back 195,000 years. Geneticists argue that almost all living men gained their Y chromosome from a common male ancestor living between 140,000 and 60,000 years ago. (New Scientist)

"Since the earliest appearance of modern humans more than 150,000 years ago during the Pleistocene (Ice Age), people had always relied on hunting herds of wild animals, fishing, and gathering wild plants to feed themselves... All human groups during the Paleolithic ("Old Stone") period during the Ice Age were nomadic hunters and gatherers." (Gil Stein)

190,000 to 50,000 years ago Range of stone tools discovered alongside homo floresiensis the dragon island Flores in Indonesia. (Wikipedia)

From about 180,000 to about 60,000 years ago: no evidence of human occupation in Britain, Wikipedia: Prehistoric Britain

160,000 years ago


Between 130,000 and 114,000 years ago, the ice retreated during the Eemian interglacial - and then advanced again to create the glacial that most people know as "the ice age". (New Scientist 24.5.2010).     Riss- Würm. Corresponds to Marine Isotope Stage 5e. Called first interglacial if dating backwards, but H.G. Wells calls the "third interglacial period" The Taplow Terrace dates to the rise of the sea in this interglacial.
# At the peak, Northern Hemisphere winters were generally warmer and wetter than now. The hippopotamus was distributed as far north as the rivers Rhine and Thames. (Wikipedia) - and further north:

Bones from a hippopotamus, and some from rhinoceros and elephant, were dug up in Derby in 1895. They are now in the Derybshire Museum's new nature gallery

MIS 5: 130,000 to 71,000 years ago.
MIS 5e - 123,000 years ago. (Eemian or Ipswichian)
MIS 5d - 109,000 years ago.
MIS 5c - 96,000 years ago.
MIS 5b - 87,000 years ago.
MIS 5a - 82,000 years ago.

According to Unwritten History, Dawn man developed into river drift man. River drift man began in the warmer climates that supported rhinoceros, hippopotamus and straight tusked elephants in Britain. In the succeeding cold period, river drift man developed into cave man

A large number of sites in Britain are attributed to Marine Isotope Stage 5e, mainly on the basis of hippopotumus remains. None show signs of humans. See Nick Ashton

In Britain Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus is often found in association with remains of hippopotamus in early Last Interglacial deposits (OIS substage 5e), about 125,000 years old. (Natural History Museum)

Harry William Whanslaw's picture (1934) shows "river-drift men" hunting the "straight-tusked elephant of prehistoric time". A specimen from Upnor, near Chatham, Kent, was mounted at the Bitish Museum of Natural History in 1926.

#

about 126,000 to 11,700 years ago Late Pleistocene or Tarantian geological stage. Strata start with sediments laid down at the start of the Eemian interglacial and include the subsequent ice age. Archaeological remains include scrapers, blades, awls and adornment. Industries with blades and awls accompany humans into colder zones. Signs of modern human behaviour. (Gilligan 3.2010)


125,000 years ago

Modern humans, Homo sapiens, evolved in Africa up to 200,000 years ago and reached the Near East around 125,000 years ago.
#
An attempt to depict migrations from Madison Coonan's website
From the Near East, these populations spread east to South Asia by 50,000 years ago, and on to Australia by 40,000 years ago, when for the first time H. sapiens reached territory never reached by H. erectus.
H. sapiens reached Europe around 40,000 years ago, eventually replacing the Neanderthal population. East Asia was reached by 30,000 years ago. (Wikipedia)

110,000 to 12,000 years ago - The last glacial period - Weichselian glaciation. Frequently just called the Ice Age. H.G. Wells calls the "fourth and last glacial period"
last 100,000 years of the Pleistocene
See maximum.

100,000 years ago Noam Chomsky's date for the chance mutation that he considers made the sudden appearance of language possible.

100,000 years ago Blombos Cave, South Africa, tools for making ochre paint. (BBC) - Wikipedia Blombos Cave

100,000 to 90,000 years ago With the last Ice Age, there developed the more-or-less continuous use of clothing. This was partly because cold promoted the replacement of simple clothing (draped loosely over the body) by complex clothing (shaped to fit body and limbs). This acquired psychosocial functions that have helped to maintain its continuing use up to the present. (Gilligan 1.2010 and 3.2010)

80,000 years ago "Climate Change May Have Spurred Early Human Migration"

70,000 years ago A possible date for the "Python Cave" evidence of ritual in the Tsodilo Hills of Botswana that some suggest is the first evidence of religion. (National Geographic report). Bone tools in Blombos Cave, South Africa, indicate "modern" behaviour in humans. (National Geographic report)

# Modern humans began living above the tropics more than 60,000 years ago.
Jablonski 2012 relates this, and later movement, to survival value from light skin.

#LaChapelle1908 about 60,000 years ago The old man of La Chapelle buried. the first relatively complete Neanderthal skeleton unearthed in France.

The picture is a Musée de l'Homme de Neandertal reconstruction of the grave. The bones were visually reassembled as a skeleton, which gave the basis for an artist's impression.


50,000 to 10,000 years ago Upper Paleolithic (Wikipedia)

"Blades became the favored technology... although they are occasionally found in earlier periods" (Wikipedia blade). Stone burins (French for engraving tools) or chisels were developed for carving ivory, bone and antler into spears, harpoons, throwers, and portable art like figurines. See Gravettian pictures

See Epipaleolithic and Mesolithic

Around 50,000BC years ago, Carleton S Coon "places the emergence of Homo sapiens ... equipped with weapons and clothes ... spread across the earth, accompanied by his new ally, the dog. (blurb). See phase 2. blade - burin - harpoon head - needle - fur garment - spear-thrower - bow .   See polished stone axe


There seems to be more ideology than science in the distinction between "homo sapiens" and "homo neanderthalensis". [See common ancestor and age of true Neanderthal and La Chapelle and exit]

about 48,000 years ago Bohunician "artifact assemblages". Named after Brno. Arguably first presence of Homo sapiens in Europe.

about 45,000 years ago Age of fossilised skull of Homo neanderthalensis discovered at Le Moustier, France, in 1908. The site consists of two rock shelters. - Wikipedia. It has given its name to the Mousterian tool culture.

about 45,000 to 40,000 years ago: 5,000 years of possible Neanderthal and "modern" human co-existence. See Nature 21.8.2014

45,000 to 43,000 years ago "Modern humans' ancestors first reached Europe". Dated remains in Italy and Britain. "Into this environment came the dog". Wikipedia article on dog. Dog like skull 36,000 years ago, remains near humans 17,000 to 16,000 years ago. Wolf or dog drawing 19,000 years ago . Also later estimates.

about 40,000 years ago Age of Feldhofer 1 or Neanderthal 1 discovered in the Neandertal valley in Germany in August 1856 (See 1858). Wikipedia: Neanderthal 1

# Modern humans began living above 50 degrees north about 40,000 years ago.
Jablonski 2012

Prehistoric imagination, art and craft

# Maxime Aubert of Griffith University, Australia, looks at Indonesian Cave Art on the island of Sulawesi. He has dated art in this group to 40,000 years ago leading to it being described as the world's oldest cave art - See Matthew MacEgan - Nature - National Geographic - BBC dating the region -

Ice Age art arrival of the modern mind (2013 exhibition at the British Museum) "Ice Age art was created between 40,000 and 10,000 years ago and many of the pieces are made of mammoth ivory and reindeer antler

Édouard Piette (1827-1906) used the term glyptic for the period of carved figures. In the eburnien (ivory) period he decided (from analysis of carved figures) that two races existed: a hairy and a hairless race or a fat (steatopygous) race and a not fat (asteatogenous) race. The fat race became associated with the idea of people of African appearance (but hairy) living in Europe, and producing fat Venuses, who were dominated by another race - less hairy and thinner, Cro-Magnons.

Between 38,000 and 29,000 years ago Aurignacian
Named after the
cave of Aurignac

Mode four tools: "Punch struck blades with steep retouch" (Clark). A core stone is prepared from which blades are struck and then retouched into various specialized forms such as scrapers, burins, backed blades and points. See pictures

about 40,000 years ago Löwenmensch figurine - 1939: "Im Hohlensteinmassiv wurde die Figur des Löwenmenschen gefunden. Die Höhle ist im hinteren Teil verschlossen". (Art News 2013

The photograph is from the website of fahrrad-tour.de/ (Cycle tours Germany). It shows The figure of the lion human, an ivory carving from the tusk of a mammoth displayed in the Museum of Ulm. The same page shows caves where figures have been discovered. - Cycle tour guide archive)

37,000 to 29,000 years ago Radiocarbon dating of cave bear remains from cave Chauvet. - About 36,000 years ago Cave paintings of the cave Chauvet. (Wikipedia). Include cave bears. (picture) - See New Scientist 2011

#

40,000 to 35,000 years ago Venus of Hohle Fels figurine. Discovered in 2008 in the Hohle Fels cave in Germany.

36,000 years ago Goyet Cave, Samson River Valley, Belgium Dog-like skull

36,000 years ago A date for the Man of Spy - Homme de Spy - Mens van Spy. Discovered 1886. See Espace de l'Homme de Spy

About 35,000 years ago, Carleton S Coon begins his "second phase of history" "the skilled hunter and healer", when "man covers the face of the earth". Ending "about 7000BC with the invention of agricuture". See 50,000BC and phase 3


# "thirty or thirty-five thousand years ago as the climate grew warmer" a "more intelligent" race "ousted the Neanderthalers from their caves ... they hunted the same food; they probably made war upon their grisly predecessors and killed them off" (H.G. Wells 1922. Drawing inspiration from Rutot and Mascré).

Rutot called the new race Paleolithic and argued that it enslaved the Neandethals.

The end of the Mousterian has now been pushed back to about 40,000 years ago. See co-existence.

35,000 to 11,500 years ago mammoths in prehistoric art

around 35,000 years ago The development of the needle

About 35,000 years ago First human occupation of the Grotte d'Aurignac (Cave of Aurignac). Remains also show occupation by wild animals: 10 herbivores include horse (Equus caballus), aurochs (Bos primigenius/Bison europceus), rhinoceros (Rhinoceros tichorhinus), mammoth, stag (Cervus elaphus), elk (Megaceros hibernicus), roebuck (Cervus capreolus), reindeer (Cervus/Rangifer tarandus), and pig (Sus scrofa). Carnivores included cave-bear (Ursus spelceus), brown bear (Ursus arctos?), badger (Meles taxus), polecat (Putorius vulgaris), cave hyaena (crocuta spelae), cave- lion (Felis spelcea), wild cat (Felis catus ferus), wolf (Canis lupus), and fox (Canis vulpis). The oldest layer of the cave is later than the Acheulean (1,700,000 to 300,000 years ago), but before the Solutrean (approximately 22,000 to 17,000 before present), thus defining a new prehistoric culture, the Aurignacian (approximately 39,000 to 28,000 before present), the first culture of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe.

34,000 to 24,000 years ago "With the exception of dwarfed island descendants in the Mediterranean, the expansion of cold grasslands and the contraction of forests drove Palaeoloxodon to extinction" in Europe. (National Geographic - Wikipedia)

About 30,000 years ago, modern homo sapiens entirely replaced earlier man-like forms. Weapons and tools of flint and bone survive along with female carved stone figures with exaggerated sexual features, suggesting fertility symbols and magical ceremonies.

Mentone caves. "Grimaldi Man" "The three best-known skeletons (4,5,6) may have been burials from an early Upper Paleolithic (Aurignacian or Gravettian) level into a sterile layer that may represent an interstadial period. This last level immediately succeeds the latest Mousterian horizon in the cave." (source)

A 1934 Encyclopedia contrasts the "Grimalid Race" remains, which are of "a Negroid type" with "Cro-magnon remains" at a higher level in the Mentone caves.

Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33,000 and 26,500 years ago. (Peter Clark and others Science 7.8.2009). MIS 2: 29,000 years ago (near Last Glacial Maximum)

30,000 years ago Gravettian on Antroparkbaby, which calls it "the biggest and the longest continued civilisation of the modern man". Based on Pavlovian culture. Probably Dolni Vestonice

# 29,000 to 22,000 years ago: Gravettian toolmaking culture Named after La Gravette in the Dordogne region of France. (Don's maps). Toolmaking culture most closely associated with Venus figurines.

Above: Four views of the same blade (lame) in the Muséum de Toulouse. The blade is 5.6 centimeters (2.2. inches) long. It was found in a Gravettian strata at Brassempouy

Right: Four views of one burin, 5.9 centmeters (2.33 inches) long. (Wikipedia)

#

29,000 to 25,000 years ago. Pavlovian culture [a variant of the Gravettian] existed in the region of Moravia, northern Austria and southern Poland. See Antropark - archive

28,000 years ago age of Cro-Magnon cave people: Louis Lartet Lartet discovered the first five skeletons in the Abri de Cro-Magnon in March 1868. "These Cro-magnon humans were soon identified as a new prehistoric human race distinct from the Neanderthal fossils discovered in Germany in 1856". (source). A 1934 Encyclopedia focuses on the Mentone caves (Italy) rather than France, contrasting Cromagnon with Grimaldi man:
"It ws not until the opening-up of the Mentone caves that our direct ancestors were found... early representatives of Homo sapiens... named the Cro-magnon Race".
and saying "These men men were the pre-historic artists and mystics", speaking the possibilities of "a great beyond" in the "cults of nutrition, death and motherhood" revealed by cave drawings.

A 1952 Pictorial Encyclopedia mentions cave painting and tools and says:
# Peking - Piltdown - Neanderthal - Cromagnon. "... only homo sapiens, able to adapt... survived"

Nearly all ice sheets were at their Last Glacial Maximum positions from 26,500 to 20,000 to 19,000 years ago

26,000 years ago

The mammoth hunter of Dolni Vestonice

# Head carved from mammoth ivory showing a person with an asymmetrical face, found in Dolni Vestonice, Southern Moravia. It is a face:

"finely strung, lively, sympathetic and also suffering, a being which stood facing the world devout, pure and humble. This picture...has all the characteristics of human elevation. Everything points to the Ice Age hunter having depicted himself". ( Schenk, G. 1961 , p.127)

First thought to depict a man, it is now known as Venus XV and the consensus seems to be that it depicts the woman who made the ceramic figures from Dolni Vestonice]

about 25,000 years ago La Dame à la capuche (lady in a hood) carved in ivory. Discovered in 1894 in La grotte du Pape at Brassempouy in France by Édouard Piette. Also known as the Venus of Brassempouy. Acquisition number MAN 47 019. Maximum dimension 3.6 centimetres (1.4 inches).

See Randall White (2006) "The Women of Brassempouy" - Karen Jennett (2008) "Female Figurines of the Upper Paleolithic" - "The Venus Cult" (based on The Urantia Book)

#

# about 25,000 years ago Venus of Laussel discovered in 1911 in the Grand Abri de Laussel, Dordogne, France

A photograph of the original, which is in the Musée d'Aquitaine, Bordeaux, and clay reconstruction of 1914.

about 24,000 years ago European "cave bear" (Ursus spelaeus) became extinct.

Wikipedia on Pleistocene extinctions: - Across Eurasia, the straight-tusked elephant became extinct between 100,000-50,000 years ago. The hippopotamus, interglacial rhinoceros (Stephanorhinus), cave bear (Ursus spelaeus), and heavy-bodied Asian antelope (Spirocerus) died out between 50,000- 16,000 years ago. The spotted hyena, woolly rhinoceros and mammoths died out between 16,000- 11,500 years ago. The musk ox died out later, as did the giant deer (Megaloceros) with the last pocket having survived until about 7,700 years ago in western Siberia. A pocket of mammoths survived on Wrangel Island until 4,500 years ago. - See Édouard Lartet

about 22,300 years ago Kostenki I (Polyakov site) prehistoric settlement in the watershed of the river Don in central Russia. Excavation begun by I. S. Polyakov in 1879. See "Palaeolithic Art from the Danube to Lake Baikal" by Väino Poikalainen in Folklore volume 18 2001 and Kostenki Paleolithic site on the Don River

Flint points from Kostenki-I have use-wear traces of hide-working at their tips indicating they were used as awls. (Gilligan 3.2010)

22,000 to 17,000 years ago: Solutrean

a mammoth and racing animal [reindeer] time (eburnien and tarandien) ... a horse, mammoth and racing animal time (liquidien, eburnien and tarandien) ... a Solutrien and Magdalenian time ... or a mild weather open sky and cold cave living time... Von H. Behlen in Haiger. (1907?) "Der diluviale (paläolithische) Mensch in Europa". [The diluvial (Paleolithic) humans in Europe]. (Internet Library). Ebur: Latin ivory. Reindeer in Latin: rene, onis, or tarendus

Eyed needles from the Solutrean (dating to MIS 2) at Grotte de Jouclas. France (Gilligan 3.2010). Marine Isotope 2 began 29,000 years ago near the Last Glacial Maximum. (Wikipedia)

22,000 years ago

# The Venus of Willendorf was found in Austria in 1908. It is thought to be a carving of a woman, without facial features, fat, with pendulous breasts and a huge, perhaps pregnant, belly. Many figures with similar characteristics have been found from Russia to France

Interpretations of Stone Age Art

Wikipedia - Christopher Witcombe


20,000 to 19,000 years ago start of the Northern Hemisphere deglaciation. (Source of an abrupt rise in sea level)

20,000 years ago

20,000 years ago to about 10,500 years ago Epipaleolithic or Levant Mesolithic. The Levant is the eastern end of the Mediterranean: modern Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. See The Mesolithic (EpiPaleolithic) of the Levant The "most diagnostic archaeological feature" of the mesolithic "was a chipped stone industry characterised by microlithic tools". [Mode five tools]. See microlith technology. Levant Mesolithic sites were first discovered in Palestine. The earliest group of these sites was called Kebaran. ( (Wikipedia)). The second phase was called Natufian.

See European Mesolithic for pictures of tools including a microlith.

Mode five tools: Retouched microliths and other retouched components of composite tools - Middle Stone Age toolkits included points, which could be hafted on to shafts to make spears; stone awls, which could have been used to perforate hides; and scrapers that were useful in preparing hide, wood, and other materials. (Smithsonian) - But see Bilzingsleben and Late Pleistocene - Kostenki one

19,400 years ago Ohalo village of six circular brushwood huts on the shore of the sea of Galilee in Palestine. Wikipedia - Ohalo to   Jericho

19,000 years ago wolf-like canid drawing, Font-de-Gaume, France.

By radiocarbon analysis charcoal and bone proteins associated with pottery fragments in strata at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China, it has been possible to "securely date" the pottery to "18,300 to 17,500" years ago. The cave was occupied from around 18,000 to 14,000 years ago. (Elisabetta Boaretto and others, 1.6.2009). Pottery "may be the oldest known to science". (BBC News 1.6.2009). "The Yuchanyan pot is oldest known clay vessel". History of "firing clay and making figurines" is "twice as long as vessel making". See ceramic objects from Dolni Vestonice. Anthropology.net. See clay and settlements and Robenhausian.

18,000 years ago

17,000 years ago is 15,000 BC

17,000 to 12,000 years ago Darren Brewer's events in science and history begins between 15,000 and 10,000 BC with the world warming up from the ice age and people painting in caves. This corresponds with the five thousand year Âge du renne (age of the reindeer). Name given to the final phase of the European Upper Paleolithic by Édouard Lartet in 1861. It was later renamed the Magdalenian. The Magdalenian on Antroparkbaby is based on the cave of Altamira which was occupied from 22,000 to 13,000 years before the present (Museo de Altamira) - See settlements

Stone burin (chisel) characteristic of the Upper Paleolithic (especially Magdalenian) in the Old World and of some Early Lithic and Mesolithic cultures of the New World. Most stratified finds of spear-throwers (Europe) come from the Magdalenian.

# Fragment of engraved reindeer metatarsal decorated on one surface with two reindeer, one of which is now incomplete. Length: 7.1 centimetres. Width: 3.3 centimetres. Thickness: 2 centimetres. Stored in the British Museum where the acquisition notes say "exacavated by both Christy and Lartet in 1863".

16,945 years ago Eliseevich-I site, Bryansk Region, Russian Plain, Russia: "Ice-age dogs"

16,000 years ago

about 15,000 years ago (13,000BC) Cave art Trois Frères, Ariège, France. (French Wikipedia). Dieu cornu (horned god) or Sorcier (sorcerer) or chaman (shaman). In animal skins and stag antlers. Upper wall above the entrance to the 20,000-25,000 year-old grand gallery. #
# Petit Sorcier a l'Arc Musical (Little sorcerer with musical bow), amongst animals in 285 cm wide panel on right hand wall of Sanctuary.
The two human figures in Trois Frères, are wearing animal skins as a form of
clothing.
# In this picture, the little sorcerer is rotated from vertical to horizontal to show it as a person disguised in animal skins stalking prey.

See discussion by Simona Petru, Documenta Praehistorica 39 (2012), "Man, animal or both - Problems in the interpretation of early symbolic behaviour"

13,500 to 11,100BC Hamburg culture a Late Upper Paleolithic culture of reindeer hunters in northwestern Europe. Finds from this culture in Scandinavia have been excavated since the early 1980s.

MIS 1 - 14,000 years ago: end of the Younger Dryas marks the start of the Holocene, continuing to the present.

14,000 to 15,000 years ago start of the deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. (Source of an abrupt rise in sea level)

about 14,500 years ago (12,500BC) to 11,500 years ago (9,500BC) Natufian culture in the Levant sedentary hunter-gatherers. - Wikipedia

about 12,000 to 9,000BC Azilien cultural period. Mortillet's Tourassien.

about 12,000 to 8,000 years ago - 10,000 to 6,000BC
Flood geology locates Noah's flood.
Fossil evidence: On "the highest mountains" "shells, skeletons of fish and sea monsters" have been found, sowing the sea once covered them. Animals are found "far from their native areas": Elephants in England. Crocodiles in Germany. (Edwin Rice 1893). Coder and Howe's The Bible, Science and Creation (1966, page 63) says "flood geology" dates creation to about 10,000 years ago "and relates most of the geological strata and fossil beds to the Flood"
The flood has been located (about 1870) between the old and new stone ages. The New Bible Dictionary (Douglas 1962, page 429) relates much "evidence of a serious flood" to the Ice Age and suggests a world wide flood might have been caused by "release of water" at the end of that about "10,000BC"

12,000 years ago (12,000BP) is 10,000 BC

About 10,000BC End of last glacial period (ice-age), beginning of Holocene (recent), or present period with ice at the north and south and on mountains. [About 11,700 years ago End of the Pleistocene, start of the Holocene]. Holocene defined by boundary between two ice layers in a core taken from Greenland and now stored in Denmark.

On one system, interglacials are numbered backwards from the Holocene (1) and glacials also backwards.

Spindle whorls. Thermal basis for greater use of woven fabrics in post- glacial climates. Production of fibres for textiles a prominent feature of early agriculture. (Gilligan 3.2010)

David Lee's science timeline begins about 10,000 BC, when wolves were probably domesticated. [Darren Brewer "dog domesticated" about 12,000 BC

12,600 years ago (10,600 BC) to 10,300 years ago (8,300BC) Period when the Baltic was a large freshwater, inland, lake. The Baltic Ice Lake. (See evolution of Baltic) "Finds of bone implements (axes, harpoons, fishing tackle), as well as of very primitive flint implements... These ... bone age people evidently lived by hunting and fishing". (Hallendorff and Schuck p.2) See Hamburg culture - bone - Baltic sea - 7000BC Middle stone age - Ertebølle culture - Meilgård midden - Megalit graves - Alvastra - single graves - bronze - iron

"Until recently, the last woolly mammoths were generally assumed to have vanished from Europe and southern Siberia about 12,000 years ago", (Wikipedia)

Jodey Bateman's (2002) Jericho history begins with Natufian camp fires around 11,000BC. Around 11,000 to 10,000BC: Levant warm spell in which Natufians occupied much of the Middle East. "At places like Jericho they left the charcoal of their campfires and the distinctive tools of stone and animal bone that they used". They deserted the Jericho site during "a brief cold spell" from about 10,000BC to 9,800BC. (Bateman 2002)

10,200BC Neolithic (new stone age) in some parts of the Middle East (See Wikipedia) - Europe.

Neolithic barbarianism (Gordon Childe)

10,000BC - 12,000 years ago

# Tell es-Sultan:

In Arabic, a tell is a tall hill.

In Midle East Archaeology, a tell is a mound formed by the accumulated remains of ancient settlements.

Jericho: Earliest permanent settlement at Tell es- Sultan
(Wikipedia) dated between 10,000 and 9.000 BC. "The earliest remains date back to the Natufian period, 10th-8th millennia BC" (UNESCO) - See Ohalo to Jericho - Bateman - town - wall - Cipola - second settlement - 5500BC - bronze age Jericho - Jericho and Ai destroyed - Canaanites - end of bronze age town - Joshua - Hiel - Judea - end - Herod's Jericho

"The round pit-houses in Natufian settlements at Jericho and Abu Hureyra are some of the world's earliest known villages." (Gil Stein)

10,000 to 5,000BC: Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age in Europe. See Levant - (Wikipedia)

# Mesolithic tools from Britain. [Mode five].

from Noël-Hume (1953)

Core axe known as a Thames pick. Small blade known as "microlith" used collectively mounted on wood in spears, and harpoons and a borer.

"The oldest clothing remains in the world in the Middle East dated to around 9,500 years ago" . But we have evidence of the kinds of tools required to make fitted garments - primitive hide-scraping and cutting devices and needles. Until the last cold period, 30,000 years ago, Neanderthals did not bother with specialised cutting and sewing technologies." Ian Gilligan. The Australian National University, See ochre - sewing - 50,000BC - Trois Frères art - Spanish art

9,000BC - 11,000 years ago

Agricultural revolution - "In the archaeological record barbarism began less than ten thousand years ago with the Neolithic Age of archaeologists" Gordon Childe 1950

8,500BC? "The town of Jericho", covering about 6 acres, preceded the wall by about 500 years". It contained round mud-brick houses, without street planning. (Wikipedia)

8,300 to 7,500 BC Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) - cultivation of wheat and barley.

As the the Baltic ceased to be a lake the "climate became less severe and the vegetation less stunted". From this time onwards the "shores of southern Scandinavia yield numerous traces of early man. In particular, the 'kitchen-middens'" "The implements now in use were generally made of flint". (Hallendorff and Schuck p.2)

Eighth millennium BC

8,000BC - 10,000 years ago

Rock Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula (Wikipedia). "According to UNESCO, the oldest art ... is from 8000BC, and the most recent examples from around 3500BC"

# "The bow seems to have been invented near the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic, roughly 10,000 years ago". (Wikipedia). See Valltorta

From 10,000 to 6500BC Valencian cave art. Scene of hunting of deer with bows and arrows. Wall painting in Cueva de los Caballos in the Valley of Valltorta, Castell in Eastern Spain

Other pictures from this area/period show people wearing clothes.

"By the 8th millennium BC, Jericho became a big fortified town surrounded by a stone wall supported by a massive round tower. These are the earliest urban fortifications known in the world, later several times replaced" (UNESCO)

About 8,000BC Star Carr in north Yorkshire, England. Post- holes of a round-house structure. About 7,600BC Howick house, Northumberland, England. Similar to Star Carr.

7,500 to 5,700 BC Çatalhöyük in southern Anatolia. Cast lead beads dating from about 6,500 BC. Earliest metal smelted. See Moses metal list. A city of mudbrick houses crammed together without streets between. Most entered through holes in their roofs. Wikipedia

7,500 to 6,000 BC Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) - domestication of sheep and goats, cattle and pigs. about 6,800BC Second settlement at Jericho: rectilinear (straight-sided) mudbricks buildings on stone foundations. "Square adobe houses". At Jericho from shortly after 7,500BC to shortly before 7,000BC. Wall paintings show dances wearing masks. Seashells (traded?) carved for necklaces and to make eyes in the skulls of their dead. "Left Tell es Sultan shortly before 7,000 BC and the mound which had been building up for almost 1,000 years was deserted for 1,500 years" (Bateman 2002).

Seventh millennium BC

About 9,000BP (7,000BC) insolation peak of Holocene. Separated by some 115,000 years from the Eemian insolation peak at 125,000BP. Suggests insolation maxima at about 240,000BP and 355,000BP.

7,000BC Indus Valley: Mehrgarh precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization.

Remains of an ancient farming village at Jericho have been carbon-dated to around 7,000 BC. The same excavations uncovered materials pre-dating agriculture which have been carbon-dated 800 years earlier (Carlo Cipola 1962, pp 18-19)

7,000BC The climate in Scandinavia was warming as it moved from the Boreal to the Atlantic period. Reindeer and their hunters had migrated to northern Scandinavia, and forests had established. Wikipedia Nordic Stone Age (Mesolithic)

Between 6,430 and 6,120BC Calibrated carbon dating of an underwater oak tree bole at the foot of the underwater cliff at Bouldnor in the Isle of Wight. Mesolithic remains recovered from this underwater site include string (6,220-5,980BC), worked wood (6,240-6000BC), flint tools and flakes, and burnt (cooked?) hazel nuts. There is an imaginative re-construction of this as a "Mesolithic Village" at CosmOnline.

Sixth millennium BC

About 6,000BC Rising sea level cuts Britain off from Europe. About 5,000BC Rising sea level submerges Bouldnor Cliff

By 6,000BC, Carleton S Coon 's "third phase of history" had begun. This included "eight distinct ages comparable to the Paleolithic and Mesolithic. These were the Neolithic, Bronze, Iron, Gunpowder, Coke, Oil, Hydroelectric and First Atomic ages."

About 6,000 to 4,000BC Neolithic or New Stone Age in Europe. [See Middle East] Marked by the adoption of agriculture, the development of pottery, polished stone tools and larger, more complex settlements. "European Neolithization ~6000-4000 BC represents a pivotal change in human history when farming spread and the mobile style of life of the hunter-foragers was superseded by the agrarian culture". (Tegel)

6,000BC or earlier: beans, lentils, peas, and chickpeas believed to have become part of the eastern Mediterranean diet.

The Eurasian aurochs were domesticated into modern taurine cattle breeds around the 6th millennium BC in the Middle East, and possibly also at about the same time in the Far East.

about 5500 to 45005BC Linearbandkeramik flourished in Europe. (Wikipedia). "Longhouses, pottery and stone tools". The longhouses have left "only ground-plans in the soil". (Tegel)

about 5400BC The Sumerian settlement of Eridu (Eridug) founded on a site that was then close to the Persian Gulf near the mouth of the Euphrates River. It appears to be the earliest settlement in the region. The Sumerian King List begins by saying that "After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years." Sumerian was the first language to be written. No related languages are now known. It died out as a spoken language about 2000BC

Enki, the god of wisdom, was the patron god of Eridu. Sumerians believed that he created civilisation by bringing humanity's skills together in a cohesive world order. Sumerian language, writing and culture continued after their passing, in Mesopotamia, under the Akkadians and Assyrians. Assyrians belied that Enki gave his people metal working skills. (Haidar, D. 2011). See also Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Godesses

5500BC Pit-house dwellers at Jericho made pottery storage jars for grain. A new people came who built houses of stone and adobe. The pithouse people (unusual for Jericho or the Middle East) lived peacefully in the same village with the house builders. Gradually everyone in the community came to live in houses. The site was deserted again in 4000BC approximately. (Bateman 2002)

about 5300BC to 3950BC Ertebølle culture of southern Scandinavia. The last hunter-gatherer culture of the Stone Age? Preceded by Kongemose culture and followed by Funnelbeaker culture. (Wikipedia). The shell bank at Meilgaard was discovered in 1850.

5206 to 5098BC Date given to oak timbers in excavation near Leipzig, Germany, by Willy Tegel and Dietrich Hakelberg. See "Early Neolithic Water Wells Reveal the World's Oldest Wood Architecture"

From prehistoric to historic times: Time and space Narrative

Fifth millennium BC

5000BC to 4000BC Millennium between pre-history and (recorded) history. History is story told by human beings about human beings, and our first written records come from Sumerian (southern Mesopotamia) and Egyptian cultures in the fourth millennium 19th century historians were inclined to start written history much later, at the end of the second millenium BC.

antiquity is the (long) period before the middle ages. Sometimes classical antiquity is used for the period of ancient Greece and Rome. Christian antiquity refers to the early centuries of the Christian church.

about 5000BC In Ensisheim, France, a 50-year-old man died. His skull, excavated in "had two holes" that Sandra Pichler (and others) 1997 say "were clearly the result of surgery, not violence". (offline)

4700BC Possible beginning of Sumerian calendar.

4600BC to 4200BC Varna Cemetry (Bulgaria). Some of the world's oldest gold jewellery hanging on skeletons. See silver and coins.


4500BC Meilgård midden-settlement. In east of the coastal forest of Nederskov on the
Djursland peninsula in Denmark. Just north of Meilgård castle. "Land covered debris" from a settlement of the Ertebølekultur about 4500BC. (Panoramio - fortidsmindeguide)

Worsaae (quoted Gräslund, p.36) described artifacts found in association with shell banks like this as

"rough-hewn flint axes, chisels, arrows, flint cores, nodules and flint flakes made of deer antlers and a great many bodkins and implements made of bone"

4228BC Possible introduction of Egyptian calendar.


Fourth millennium BC

4004 BC was the creation of the world in Usher's chronology       See above.

Days of creation: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 -
Adam and Eve in more detail

"If the Creator made this world especially for man..."

Quran: thy Lord said to the angels: "I am about to create man from clay". Adam is considered the first of the prophets in Islam. Others include Ibrahim (Abraham) - Musa (Moses) - Daud (David) - Sulayman (Solomon) - Isa (Jesus) - and Muhammad

4000BC
Sumerian writing on clay tablets using picture signs. See Eridu - 2400BC - library.

By 4000BC the Sumerians could melt copper - and so extract the metal from its ore. (Haidar, D. 2011). Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. Brass in the 1611 Bible may refer to copper or bronze. See Moses metal list and brass/bronze and Bristol brass and Bunhill.

Hypothetical reconstruction of neolithic village of Aichbühl on the Federsee in Wuertemburg - later neolithic 4400BC to 3500BC - Gordon Childe 1950
Foundations of 25 buildings discovered in peat wetland by Robert Rudolf Schmidt in 1930. About 20 two-room houses with walls of split wooden posts. A much larger central building probably used for community acrivities. Other buildings possibly for storage. A hunting community with wheat and barley fields and livestock. Small polished stone hatchets and bone tools found. Hearths and clay ovens in the houses. Unpainted pottery. (Britannica)

"In prehistoric Europe the largest neolithic village yet known, Barkaer in Jutland, comprised 52 small, one-roomed dwellings, but 16 to 30 houses was a more normal figure; so the average local group in neolithic times would average 200 to 400 members". (Gordon Childe 1950)

3800BC
"Babylonian"
[Sumerian] "census (for taxation purposes)" - Start of Ed Stephan's demography timeline and [Ireland's] the census through history an [UK] census-taking in the ancient world [Does anyone know the evidence?]

about 3500BC Limestone tablet engraved with pictographic writing Kish, Mesopotamia. Contains pictographs of heads, feet, hands, numbers and threshing-boards. Now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Photographed by José-Manuel Benito.

The cuneiform (wedge shaped) writing of
Sumeria (now Iraq) starts about 3400BC. It is the earliest form of writing known that does not use pictures. The early stages of Egyptian hieroglyphics date from about 3200BC

Metallurgists dealt with copper for thousands [??] of years until bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, was discovered. The Bronze Age in Mesopotamia started around 3300BC and it denoted that bronze tools, decorations and weapons were commonly used and owned items. The transition from the Copper to the Bronze Age was simplified because the melting temperature of bronze is less than copper, between 1084C and 232C 449.4F) depending on the percent of tin, so new techniques to cast and forge bronze were not required. (Haidar, D. 2011)

See Wikipedia on tin sources and trade - See Sweden - Bunhill tin.

about 3600 to 2900BC Megalithic tombs in Sweden. The oldest megalithic tomb in Europe was built in Brittany around 4800BC. A few other countries in Europe have tombs to the beginning of bronze age, around 1500BC. Skegriedsen is a well-preserved stone chamber tomb surrounded by seventeen stones, dated 3000 to 2500BC. Wikipedia: Megalitgrav - Megalith. See Alvastra and single graves

about 3500BC New village on Tell es-Sultan now over 20 feet high is first of the bronze age. Walled with a tower. Pottery styles show contact with Sumeria and Egypt. Early village unplanned, with rubbish discarded between houses. In "later Early Bronze layers" laid out in a grid and rubbish discarded outside wall. Deforestation for construction or firewood. (Bateman 2002)

About 3100BC. Reign of Narmer in Egypt. The Narmer Palette (left) was discovered by James E. Quibell in 1898 in Hierakonpolis. On it, Narmer displaying the insignia of both Upper and Lower Egypt, giving rise to the theory that he unified the two kingdoms and was the founder of the first dynasty.

Narmer is sometimes identified with Menes.

See:
5000BC - calendar - hieroglyphics - Narmer - papyrus - geometry - Old Kingdom - Middle Kingdom - Thebes library - New Kingdom - Eighteenth Dynasty 1549-1292 - Amenhotep 4 - Nineteenth Dynasty 1292-1189 - Ramesses 2 - Twenty-sixth Dynasty 672-525 - Amasis - Ptolemaic (Hellenistic) - Argead Dynasty 332-305 - Ptolemaic Kingdom 305-30BC - Cleopatra

Papyrus, depicted on the Narmer Palette, is a plant that grew in the river Nile from which a writing material, also called papyrus, was made.

about 3100BC end of the Late Ubaid period in Mesopotamia. A setlement from this period lay under the Ur flood deposit disovered by the archaeologist Leonard Woolley and announced in In 1929. Wooley believed the 3.75 meter (12 foot) thick clay deposit had been laid down by the Great Flood. Jona Lendering writes "It is likely... the event ... behind the myth... can be dated to the end of Early Dynastic I period". (2,750BC?)


Third millennium BC

See Wikipedia article on Ancient History which has table from different parts of the world from 3000BC

About 3000BC Alvastra pile dwelling constructed in the Dags Mosse mire, Alvastra, Östergötland, Sweden. Swedish stone age. See Sweden graves

About 3000BC Silver first mined in Anatolia (Turkey) - source. See gold - Moses metal list - Shalmaneser - coins - Edmund - Spain.

3000BC: Five thousand years ago, the Egyptians began the invention of practical geometry. The waters of the river Nile overflowed every year and wiped out the land boundaries. Perhaps geometry was invented because it was necessary to reconstruct the fields for taxation purposes and to tell people where to plant their seeds.

One of the geometrical rules discovered was the 3,4,5 Rule for constructing right angles. It may have been discovered by people laying out fields, or perhaps by builders or architects. This way of making right angles was used as a trick of the trade. It was not known why the rule works, but it does, and it was used to make temples and pyramids.

Cities = civilisation (!?)

Urban revolution. "About 5,000 years ago irrigation cultivation (combined with stock- breeding and fishing) in the valleys of the Nile, the Tigris-Euphrates and the Indus had begun to yield a social surplus, large enough to support a number of resident specialists who were themselves released from food-production. Water-transport, supplemented in Mesopotamia and the Indus valley by wheeled vehicles and even in Egypt by pack animals, made it easy to gather food stuffs at a few centres... Thus arose the first cities - units of settlement ten times as great as any known neolithic village." (Gordon Childe 1950)

about 2900BC Eridu (in southern Mesopotamia), argued to be the oldest city in the world has been said to have become a substantial city of mudbrick and reed houses covering 20 to 25 acres. Eridu is south of the (later) city of Ur. This are "was the birthplace of cities and of civilisation about 5,000 years ago and home to the Sumerians and the later Babylonians". (Stuart Campbell, Manchester archeologist. See below)

about 2800BCE Swedish-Norwegian Battle Axe culture appeared. It is known from about 3000 graves. Wikipedia Corded Ware culture. Associated with single graves. See Sweden graves

"the stone-chamber tombs and the passage graves consitently yield smoothly shaped, finished and sharp-edged flint artefacts and, in addition, neat stone hammers, amber ornaments and earthenware pots, several of which have quite tasteful shapes and decorations" (Worsaae quoted (Gräslund, p.36)."

Old Kingdom of Egypt

The first pyramid of Egypt. The Pyramid of Djzosèr built at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630-2611 BC. Said to have been designed by Imhotep, who may be the first architect whose name we know, and who was defied 2.000 years later as a god of medicine and healing. The picture is taken from the Wikipedia website. Clicking on it will take you to more information
The pyramids in the Egyptian deserts are monumental tombs for the rulers of ancient Egypt, who were believed to be gods.

The Great Pyramids at Gizah were erected about 2650BC. One of these, the grave of Cheops, is built of stone blocks averaging 2.5 tons in weight. The pyramid, 481 feet high, is of great geometrical accuracy.

The way the pyramids were built and the mathematical calculations involved are subjects of much speculation.

Jewellery From the old kingdom onwards, much archaeological and textual evidence of expeditions in search of copper, gold, turquoise, malachite and other gemstones. (source)

about 2600 to 2400BC Early Dynastic Three period in Mesopotamia - Royal Tombs. A stratum from this period lay on top of the Ur flood deposit

"In China a complex civilisation flourished from about 2500BC which developed its own independent outlook on the world" (Colin Ronan, The Atlas of Scientific Discovery, 1983, page 12).

pottery - Xia Dynasty 2100-1600 BC - Shang Dynasty 1600-1046 BC - Zhou Dynasty 1045-256 BC - [Hundred Schools of Thought including Confucius] - Qin Dynasty 221-206 BC - [compass] - Han Dynasty 206BC-220AD - [paper - Census AD2] - Three kingdoms - Jin Dynasty 265-420 - Southern and Northern Dynasties 420-589 - Sui Dynasty 581-618 - Tang Dynasty 618-907 - printing - gunpowder? - Liao Dynasty 907-1125 - Song Dynasty 960-1279 - [ gunpowder formula - Zhu Xi] - Yuan Dynasty 1271-1368 - [Wenxian Tongkao] - Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 - Qing Dynasty 1644-1911 - [Transit of Venus - Edouard Biot] - Republic of China 1912-1949 - [Liang and Tao] - People's Republic of China 1945 - [sociology - women - stamps]

"The Wen-tong-hian-kao" [Wenxian Tongkao] "... contains a section entitled Hou-keou-men ... which presents various population counts made in China since the reign of the first dynasties until year 1223 of the Christian era." (Edouard Biot 1836)

2400BC Sumerian baked clay tablets with arithmetic . There is a large body of mathematical tablets dating back to the old Babylonian period (1800 to 1500BC).

2348BC "The Second Age of the World" "When Noah was 601 years old, on the 1st day of the 1st month (Friday, October 23rd), the 1st day of the new post-flood world, the surface of the earth was now all dry. Noah took off the covering of the ark". (Usher) refering to Genesis 8:13. See 1736 "evidences of the Deluge" and flood geology. See Epic of Gilgamesh and Ur flood. Picture described as "Various animals entering the Ark built by Noah because of the great flood".

2286BC One of the classical dates for the foundation of the city of Babylon, originally a small semitic, Akkadian speaking city. See Old Babylonian Period - Hammurabi - Ninevah falls - and Nebuchadnezzar

about 2300 to 2200BC Jericho and Ai (the largest town in the area) destroyed. Invaders broke the walls of Jericho with fires. (Bateman 2002)

2200BC Approximate date for the erection of the standing stones at Stonehenge. The earlier earthbank and ditch have been dated about 3100BC

2015BC Word Siqlu, as a unit of weight, in use in Mesopotamia. The Hebrew term shekel derives from this.

about 2100BC in the Third Dynasty of Ur, Early Sumarian poems. Surviving copies of the complete Epic of Gilgamesh date from the 18th to 10th centuries BC. In these the Cedar Forest, the realm of the gods, is desecrated by Gilgamesh by cutting down cedars for timber. See Jan Oosthoek wood in world history.

Some argue that the Sumerian language, as a mother tongue, had died out by the end of the third millennium.


Second millennium BC

"Old Babylonian Period" used for south Mesopotamia from about 2000BC to 1600BC. Initially a number of (city?) states dominating the region: Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna and, from 1894BC, Babylon.

Middle bronze age in Middle East: 2100 to 1550BC

Excavation of Tell Khaiber, 20 kilometres from Ur

about 2000BC "We provisionally date the site to around 2,000 BC, the time of the sack of the city and the fall of the last Sumerian royal dynasty." Stuart Campbell, (April 2013) ,Manchester archeologist excavating at Tell Khaiber, 20km from Ur, "the last capital of the Sumerian royal dynasties". - Web page of Ur Region Archaeology Project

The naked lady features on the 2013 Report

The Jewish book of Genesis say that Abraham came from "Ur of the Chaldees" (Genesis 11:31)

around 2000BC Middle bronze age Jericho (Canaanite) had stone walls six to nine feet thick on ridges of packed earth. The main street, about six and a half feet wide, was built in stair steps to the top of the mound and there was a small ditch alongside the street to catch rain water and keep the area from flooding. In the Middle Bronze, about 200 settlements on the highland ridges including Jerusalem, Hebron and Nablus (Shechem). (Bateman 2002)

2000BC Time that Cadmus would have introduced the original (Phoenician) alphabet to Greece if the speculations of Herodotus were correct. See Hobbes on the invention of letters.

about 2000BC The Lavagnone plough (Italy), made of wood, claimed to be the world's oldest surviving plough.

"You might as reasonably expect to understand the nature of the adult man by watching him for an hour.. as to suppose that you can fathom humanity by studying the last four thousand years of its evolution" (Herbert Spencer quoted by Paul Hirst, 1976, p.32)

1921BC Usher's Third Age of the World. Start of 430 years which Abraham and his posterity spent in foreign lands.

about 1850BC The "Petrie Papyri", from Kahun and Gurob, (named after Flinders Petrie who discovered them in 1889). "Principally of the Middle Kingdom" They include literary, medical and vetinary papyri and mathematical fragments. The three pages of medical text are all gynaecological and include a brief passage that suggests crocodile dung and/or honey to prevent child-birth. I think this is the bit with the crocodile:

1812BC to 1637BC (175 years). Traditional Jewish dates for the life of Abraham. "He lived, an hundred threescore and fifteen years". A Christian term for Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and other revered rulers of families (tribes) in the Bible is the Patriarchs. The same term is used for high ranking bishops in the church. See Die Familie (1912). In Jewish tradition "Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, known as the Patriarchs, are both the physical and spiritual ancestors of Judaism". The word "Jew" is derived from Y'hudah (Judah), the fourth son of Jacob.

1800BC

1792BC to 1750BC Reign of Hammurabi, who extended the rule of Babylonia throughout Mesopotamia

Code of Hammurabi - Babylonian law code.

1700BC to 1100BC Possible date range for the (oral) composition of the Rigveda. - See artificial limb

Sweden: Bronze age ahips

"The stone age was followed by the bronze age, which lasted from about 1800BC to 600BC" (Hallendorff and Schuck p.5). Johan Ling: BA Bronze Age 1700BC to 500BC.

about 1700BC to 500BC. Rock Art (Hällristningar - Cliff-drawings) in Uppland, Sweden includes some 2000 ship pictures. Drawings, dates and text on these ships based on Johan Ling Rock Art and Seascapes in Upland 2013.

Early Bronze Age 1700BC to 1100BC

Period one 200 years to 1500BC - Period two 200 years to 1300BC - Period three 200 years to 1100BC -

Late Bronze Age 1100BC to 500BC

Period four 200 years to 900BC - Period five 200 years to 700BC - Period six 200 years to 500BC

Ling suggests that the rock art at Bogösa indicates a meeting ground in a maritime space for a wide area that was, at the time, penetrated by the sea. (p.96)

Metres above sea-level of lowest images from succeding periods (ordered by type of ship): Period one: 25 metres. Period two: 22 metres. Period three: 19-20 metres. Period four to five: 18 metres.

Scandinavian boat drawings have been interpreted as skin boats, planked boats, dugouts and rafts.

1670BC According to Lenormant, a royal library was established at Thebes in Egypt. See Amasis

1650BC The Hyksos (Shepherd Kings) ruled northern Egypt. (Wikipedia)

1600BC

about 1550BC (stratigraphical dating by Kenyon). about 1573BC (later carbon dating): Destruction of the Bronze Age Jericho.

1500BC Domestication of silk worm in China. [I think this is far too late a date]

Meteoric iron had long been known, but not their relation to iron ores used for pigments The Hittites (greater Armenia) found out how to smelt iron ore between 1500BC and 1200BC and the practice spread to the rest of the Near East after their empire fell in 1180BC. The subsequent period is called the Iron Age. Bronze had not replaced stone tools in many trades, but iron was cheap enough to be used (for example) for ploughs. It was democratic rather than an aristocratic metal! (Wikipedia and Forbes and Dijksterhus) See Sweden

1500BC to 1300BC: Sweden bronze two.
All images with inturned prows and horizontal or slightly upturned keel extensions were 24 metes or more above sea level. (Ling page 81)

1500BC to 1300BC: Baal with Thunderbolt. (Wikipedia). Drawing (1960) by Gillian Potter from a photograph of the limestone stele in Musée du Louvre, excavated (1932) from Ras Shamra, Ugarit.

Baal meant lord, master, owner or husband in Semitic languages. It was also applied to Gods. The plural was Baalim. Baalim might own specific areas, being the Gods of specific peoples.

The Jews also called God lord and believed he had a special relationship to them. However, they (eventually) believed in only one God (monotheism) who is master of all, and they believed that graven images should not be made of him. [See ten commandments]

See Amenhotep 4

1400BC Possible date for Jews settling in what became Israel. Traditionally, the ten commandments and the rest of the Torah (Five books of "law" or Pentateuch) is conceived to have been received by Moses before this. The Tabernacle, a portable shrine said to have been created by Moses to contain the law, eventually became part of the Temple

"the gold, and the silver, the brass, the iron, the tin, and the lead" (Numbers 31:22) - chariots of iron

1446BC Suggested date for fall of Jericho to forces under Joshua (Hoshea), who God told to "march around the city... with seven priests carrying seven trumpets of rams' horns before the Ark". When they heard the sound of the trumpet all the people were to shout "and the wall of the city will fall down flat". "Cursed... be the man that ... Jericho. At the cost of his first-born shall he lay its foundation, and at the cost of his youngest son shall he set up its gates." (Joshua 6:26 RSV).

1380BC to 1050BC Approximate period covered by the Jewish book of Judges. "In those days there was no king in Israel: every man did that which was right in his own eyes". See John Locke on justice in a state of nature.

1300BC Suggested date for the (mythical) journey of the ship Argo in which Jason and the other Argonauts sought the Golden Fleece. Vase painting (480-470BC) in British Museum shows 4 oarsman, but 6 oars. Suggested there were 12 men, 6 oars each side, 3 men to a bench.

1300BC to 1100BC: Bronze three

1348/1346BC Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep 4th raised Aten (the Sun) to the status of supreme God. This, and the "Great Hymn to the Aten" have been considered as origins of monotheism (belief in one God). Amenhotep's chief wife was Nefertiti.

about 1279 to 1213BC Ramesses 2nd. The Ramesseum in Thebes is the 'mortuary temple' of this Egyptian king. The Petrie Papyri were found beneath this.

Iron age in the middle east sometimes dated from about 1200BC, with the diffusion of iron technology following the collapse of the Hittite Empire (centred in what is now Turkey)

1194BC to 1184BC Dates of possible conflict behind the stories of a "Trojan War". Roughly corresponds with archaeological evidence for burning of Troy 7.

1107BC The start of Deborah's forty years of judging Israel according to traditional Jewish chronology. She died in 1067BC. The Song of Deborah may date to as early as the 12th century BC and is perhaps the earliest sample of Hebrew poetry.

1100BC

1100BC to 900BC: Bronze four. In periods four and five more elaborate "depictions of humans" (Ling, page 87)

*********

First millennium BC from 1000BC

1050BC Conventional date for start of Phoenician alphabet which was spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, Aramaic and Greek alphabets developed from this.

about 1046BC Zhou Dynasty in China - Wikipedia

Julius Wellhausen (1885) proposed four documentary sources for the Jewish Bible: Yahwist (J) written about 950BC in Judah - Elohist (E) written about 850BC in Israel - Deuteronomist (D) written about 600BC in Jerusalem - Priestly written about 500BC by Kohanim (Jewish priests) in exile in Babylon. See Wikipedia Documentary hypothesis

911BC to 891BC Adad-nirari 2, King of Assyria begins to found the Neo-Assyrian Empire. A large increase in the use of iron for tools and weapons took place from the neo-Assyrian period onwards.

about 900BC Late iron age Levant: separate Kingdoms of Israel (north, centered on Ephraim's territory, capital Samaria) and Judah (south, capital Jerusalem). Jericho was in Israel. Around 850BC, Hiel is said to have rebuilt the walls. "In Ahab's time, Hiel of Bethel rebuilt Jericho. He laid its foundations at the cost of his firstborn son Abiram, and he set up its gates at the cost of his youngest son Segub, in accordance with the word of the LORD spoken by Joshua son of Nun" (1 Kings 16:34)

900BC to 700BC: Bronze five - Sweden

India See Rigveda

"During the time between 800 and 200 BCE the Shramana-movement formed, from which originated Jainism and Buddhism. In the same period the first Upanishads were written." (Wikipedia)

ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME "Freeman and slave"
See slavery and social science

Engels in 1884 spoke of this period as entering "the field of written history", which coincided with the advent of the "patriarchal family" and a period where "comparative jurisprudence can give valuable help". The history of writing is much older, but picture and cuneiform scripts were only re-deciphered in the 19th cenury.

Bronze relief from the Balawat Gates (in the British Museum) dated to the Shalmaneser 3. It shows a six wheeled Assyrian battering ram with a metal tip. The metal tip may well have been of iron. See (Haidar, D. 2011)

859BC to 824BC Shalmaneser 3 king of Assyria.

853BC 853BC Battle of Qarqar

825BC Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser 3 was erected in Nimrud. It was excavated in 1845 and is now in the British Museum. It includes this bas relief of tribute from Jehu, king of Israel.
"The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears."

850BC: Date assigned to Homer by Herodotus. Stories recited as poems transmitted culture. See Wikipedia on Odyssey.

800BC - 480BC Archaic period in Greece. Rise of the polis (city states)

8th century BC (800BC-701BC)

776 BC First Olympiad: The olympic games were held every four years and became the standard measure by which Greek and Roman historians dated time. See Olympics

770 to 221 BC "Hundred Schools of Thought" of Chinese philosophy includes Confucius

Lupa di Roma The She-Wolf with Romulus and Remus illustrates the founding myth of Rome. Their father was the god of war, Mars. Abandoned, they were reared by a she wolf. Romulus murdered Remus before founding Rome. The 1929 stamp shows the bronze in the Capitoline Museum
21.4.753 BC A traditional date for the foundation of Rome
The oldest
gentes claimed to have originated before the foundation of Rome. - Roman Kingdom 753 to 509 BC - Roman Republic 509 to 27 BC - Roman Empire 27 BC to AD 476. Romulus, the legendary founder of Rome, is said to have called together one hundred elders to form a senate to advise him. [consulere senatum: calling together the old]. The institution continued beyond the fall of the empire in AD 476.



755BC to 745BC Ashur-nirari 5 king of Assyria. Followed, 745BC to 727BC, by his son, Tiglath-Pileser 3.

740BC "The year King Uzziah died" (Judea). Start of the teaching of Isaiah the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible.

727BC to 722BC Shalmaneser 5, son of Tiglath-Pileser 3, king of Assyria.

Hoshea was the last king of Israel. 722BC is the usual date for the fall of Samaria (capital of Israel) to the Assyrians. Much of the population of Israel is said to have been moved, but a Jewish dispora was not created as they did not retain their identity as Jews. Many from Israel fled to Judea and pats of Israel, including Jericho, were incorporated into Judea. The religious reforms of Hezekiah (716-697BC) and Josiah followed.

7th century BC (700BC-601BC)


Brandskogship - Boglösa 109. Photo: Hallendorff and Schuck
700BC?. This ship from Brandskog is the largest. Some have argued that it post-dates the Swedish bronze age

Ling (p.66) says the out turned prows ending in horses heads are typical of period five (900BC to 700BC)

The image was discovered in September 1925.

The oldest surviving royal library in the world is that of Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria 668 to around 630BC (British Museum)

Coins developed independently in Anatolia and Greece, India and China around the 7th and 6th centuries BC, spreading rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries through Greece and Persia... See trade . The British Museum describes the coin illustrated as a Lydian (western Anatolia) 1/6 stater made of electrum (an alloy of gold and silver) between about 650 and 600BC.

641 to 609BC Josiah king of Judea is credited with overseeing the "Deuteronomic" revision of the Jewish Bible. [See 2 Kings 22] The last chapter of the final Bible outlines Jewish history from the death of Josiah to the promised restoration of the Temple under Cyrus .

612BC Battle of Ninevah led to the destruction of what was at the time the world's largest city. In 626BC Babylon replaced Nineveh as the seat of the Mesopotamian Empire.

6th century BC (600BC-501BC)

597 - 587 BC Nebuchadnezzar 2nd, King of the Babylonians, conquered the Jews and took many into exile in Babylon. They included an elite "skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science" who were to serve amongst the "wise men of Babylon". One of these was Daniel. See Diaspora

Tisha B'Av, 586BC On Sunday 9th Av, Nebuchadnezzar's forces set the Temple on fire and destroyed it. Some people date Ezekial's vision of a future Temple to 573BC.
Jericho was destroyed by the Babylonians. This was probably the end of settlements on Tell es-Sultan

The book of Daniel (Chapter 4) says that Nebuchadnezzar lost his reason and ate grass for many years. See mental health timeline

569-525 BC Amasis, a common man, was Pharaoh in Egypt. He allowed the Greeks (previously excluded for bad behaviour) to enter Egypt to trade, but not to study in the Royal Library. His golden foot-pan trick gave Aristotle an illustration, used in his comparison of state and family politics

551 to 479 BC Confucius

About 550 to 330 BC The Achaemenid Empire or First Persian Empire [Iran] under Cyrus the Great (Reigned 559 to 530BC). Darius 1st (Reigned from 522BC) and subsequent Kings owed religious allegiance to Ahura Mazda.

Ahuramazda has granted unto me this empire. Ahuramazda brought me help, until I gained this empire; by the grace of Ahuramazda do I hold this empire.

Map of the Persian Empire about 500BC drawn by William Robert Shepherd 1923

Cyrus promised to restore the Temple. [See Chronicles] 536BC Return of some Jews to Jerusalem, followed by the construction of the second Temple, which lasted until 70AD

509BC Roman Republic established "patrician and plebeian"
See theory of social class

Early years of the Roman Republic Burgess and Locke (1945) (p.20) say the patriarch of the Roman family in this period was a "very close approximation" to "absolute power" in the Large Patriarchal Family. They say that "Among the Greeks the power of the head of the house was less absolute, since it was considered a trust to be administered for the welfare of the family. In the Hebrew patriarchal family the power of the father was limited by the Mosaic Law" See Die Familie (1912)

In Greek philosophy the nature of " reason " is explored. Human thought consciously sought to define what reason is and to use it as the key to understanding the world. The Greek philosophers were drawn on by later thinkers in the Arabic and European worlds. They include Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Euclid.


PYTHAGORAS Pythgoras's theorem

Pythagoras, who died about 500BC, founded the Pythagorean School of thinkers. They created mathematical ways of representing and analysing musical harmony, and theories explaining sight mechanically: thinking of light as an emission of particles travelling in straight lines between the eye and the object seen. Mathematics, experiment, theory, aesthetics and religious speculation were all part of the Pythagorean imagination. They established the relationship of harmonious sound between families of notes produced by striking metal bars of different lengths, and the numbers that relate the lengths to the notes. Pythagorus also believed in the harmony of nature: See
Derek Antrobus, 7.2002 Philosophy of diet - or philosophy of life?

5th century BC (500BC-401BC) Possibly in this century that the Hebrew Book of Job was written with its description of mining and its image of Leviathan - See 1651. The Priestly texts are usually related to the reading of the law by Ezra.

Swedish iron age: Pre-Roman Iron Age 500 to 100BC - Roman Iron Age 100BC to 376AD (See Thomsen) - Germanic Iron Age (See Völkerwanderung and Vendel period) 376AD to Viking Age

484BC to 425BC Life of the Greek historian Herodotus

about 480BC Triremes, war ships with three banks of oars. Pictured on vase of Argo. See Replicas of the world

480BC to 404BC So called "golden age" of Athens.

Before 469BC Socrates (philosopher) born in Athens, Greece

451BC In Rome the laws were inscribed on tablets. These were the foundation of Roman jurisprudence. (The science of law). The Ten Commandments of the Jews, another source of jurisprudence, were also originally inscribed on tables of stone. 449BC Traditional date for completion of the "Law of the Twelve Tables" (Latin: Leges Duodecim Tabularum which were posted in the Roman Forum so all Romans could read and know them. (See Wikipedia)

445/444B In the 20th year of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, Nehemiah was cup-bearer to the king. The reading of the Law by Ezra.

431BC Start of the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta) [Thucydides Book 2]

429BC Pericles (leader of the democracy in Athens) died of fever during a long war between Athens and Sparta. Political turmoil followed his death.

427BC
Plato (philosopher) born

404BC Athens surrendered to Sparta. Government of the thirty tyrants came to power in Athens.
403BC Restoration of democracy in Athens.

4th century BC (400BC-301BC)

399BC Socrates tried for misleading the Athenian youth with his philosophy. Sentenced to death.

PLATO'S ACADEMY

386BC Plato, a pupil of Socrates, established the Academy - the first university - where he taught for the rest of his life. See later academies

Socrates, Plato
and
Aristotle in Raphael's School of Athens Plato argued that:
  • truth and reason are external.
  • we must govern our personal and social lives using reason.
  • humans can reason to external truth.
  • 384BC Aristotle (philosopher and naturalist) born.

    363BC Aristotle studied under Plato.

    347BC Plato died. Following Plato's death, Aristotle left Athens.
    342BC Aristotle tutor to Alexander, who became the Emperor Alexander. Strabo wrote that Aristotle was "the first man, so far as I know, to have collected books and to have taught the kings in Egypt how to arrange a library".

    335BC Aristotle returned to Athens, where he opened a school called the Lyceum. Most of his writings were composed during the following thirteen years.

    331BC onwards Alexander destroyed the power of Persia, and established an empire which stretched from Macedonia to Egypt, and to the Indus.

    322BC Aristotle died. He bequeathed his library and the school (Lyceum) to Theophrastus (about 371BC to 287BC)

    323BC Alexander died. His empire was divided between the Antigonids, who controlled Greece, the Seleucids, who ruled most of Asia Minor, Syria and Mesopotamia, and the Ptolemies, who ruled Egypt.

    Ptolemy 1st, one of Alexander's generals, ruled Egypt from 323 to 283BC. His son, Ptolemy 2nd, ruled from 309 to 246BC. During this time, a library was established at Alexandria. [See Berti and Costa 2009]. The library was part of the Musaeum (Greek mouseion = seat of the Muses).

    3rd century BC (300BC-201BC)

    EUCLID'S GEOMETRY

    About 300BC Euclid taught in Alexandria, Egypt. Building on the practical geometry of the Egyptians, Euclid laid the foundations of theoretical geometry
    Read: Euclid's axioms

    ARCHIMEDES - born about 287BC - died 212Bc
    (Wikipedia)

    221BC Qin Dynasty in China - Wikipedia

    Chinese compasses: "The compass was probably invented in the Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) by Chinese fortune-tellers who used the lodestones to construct their fortune telling boards" (source) - Other sources say this was in the 4th century BC:

    206BC Han Dynasty in China - Wikipedia

    2nd century BC (200BC-101BC)

    Chinese paper 2nd century BC - Wikipedia: history of paper

    The Dead Sea Scrolls are probably a library of the Essenes, mainly from the period from about 200BC to 68AD, although some date back to the third century BC. (See Jewish Virtual Library)

    167BC Judas Maccabeus led a Jewish revolt that led to the restoration of the Temple of Jerusalem in 165BC. [Extracts from the first book of Maccabees - link to book another]. The Maccabees founded the Hasmonean dynasty, which ruled from 164BC to 63BC. From 129BC to 63BC, Judea was independent. Roman rule began in 63BC. In 104BC Judah Aristobulus I was the first "Hasmonean" to declare himself a king. The Hasmonean's built the winter palace which was part of the new Jericho (Herod's) at Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq (destroyed 70AD)

    101BC "Defeat of the Cimbri". Defeat of Celts by Germans and Romans in the next century is argued by Hallendorff and Schuck (p.7) to have led to the Roman Empire extending "as far as Germanic territory on the Rhine" (see 58BC) and Roman culture penetrating Scandinavia in the "Roman iron age".

    *********


    1st century BC (100BC-1BC)

    69 BC Cleopatra, the last great queen of Egypt, born in Alexandria. Died 12.8.30 BC (aged 39)

    58BC to 51BC Conquest of Gaul (France and north west Europe) by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar (13.7.100BC - 15.3.44 BC). See 1929 stamps

    Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War) ascribed to Julius Caesar, describes the north-west European tribes the Roman legions fought. A source of images of Druids practising human sacrifice. It is also the source of the statement (6.19) that, amongst the Gauls, "Husbands have power of life and death over their wives as well as over their children". [See John Stuart Mill 1869]

    February 44BC Julius Caesar, constitutional dictator of Rome, declared himself dictator for life and, shortly afterwards (15.3.44 BC), was assassinated. See Neumann's dictatorship types

    Augustus. See 1929 stamps

    31BC The Age of Augustus, from 31BC to 14AD, is taken as the transition from the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire. The empire may have included a larger percentage of the world's population than any other, before or since. Its survival was dependent on trade. Roads it built survive today. Its engineers also constructed long tunnels and bridges, including aqueducts. The arithmetic of its trade and commerce was calculated using counting boards and hand abaci. See problems of arithmetic with Roman Numbers


    BIRTH OF CHRIST

    AD1 Alleged date of the birth of Jesus Christ. Calendar dates back from here (BC: Before Christ) and forward from here. Time and space

    Centuries are also numbered backwards and forwards from here.

    SO:

    1600 AD to 1699 AD is the 17th century AD not the 16th century
    1900 AD to 1999 AD is the 20th century AD not the 19th century
    2000 AD to 2099 AD is the 21st century AD not the 20th century

    The system of numbering things at equal intervals (years in this case) from an arbitrary starting point (the birth of Christ in this case) with items being counted backwards and forwards from the starting point, is called an Interval Scale.

    The birth of Jesus took place in Bethlehem (instead of Nazareth) because the Roman Emperor, Caesar Augustus, ordered people throughout his empire to go to their family home to be counted for taxation. This is an example of political arithmetic, state arithmetic, or statistics.

    AD2 First "tolerably accurate census of the Chinese empire" (under the Han dynasty) although Chinese census counts "go back to back to the second millennium BC" "There was little pretence of scholarly interest in the numbers... the emperor was interested in revenue" (Hollingsworth T. H. 1969 pp 65-66 and 67)

    18.9.14 AD Tiberius the Roman Emperor

    Strabo's Geography was finished within the reign of Tiberius. Strabo died in 23AD

    37-41 Reign of the Roman Emperor Caligula who banished or murdered most of his relatives, executed large numbers of people, confiscated property and, for entertainment, had people tortured and killed whilst he was eating. He made himself a God. A Jewish philosopher, Philo Judaeus, went to Rome to plead with Caligula for the lives of Jews who had refused to worship him as God. Philo is remembered as a theorist who fused Greek and Jewish thought. Caligula was assassinated and is remembered by many social theorists as an example of an undesirable ruler. They read about him in the works of Philo.

    about 40 to 90AD Pedanius Dioscorides, a Greek physician who compiled five volumes about the (largely herbal) materials of medicine in Greek. Translated into Latin as De Materia Medica.

    43 Romans invaded Britain

    Tisha B'Av, 70AD: 4.8.70 The Roman army destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem. After this the oral tradition of the rabbis began to be written in what became the Talmud. See Talmud Yerushalmi and Talmud Bavli

    75 to 99AD The period of Josephus writing.

    90 to 168AD Claudius Ptolemaeus or Ptolemy: Astronomer and geographer who lived in Alexandria and compiled a large compendium of astronomy, with the earth as the centre of the universe. His compendium was called the Almagest when translated into Arabic.

    around 98AD De Origine et situ Germanorum (On the Origin and Situation of the Germanic Peoples) by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus.

    Tacitus wrote about the Baltic tribes of Suioneso [Swedes?], north of the Germans, who were powerful in ships. Their naval craft had bow and stern constructed alike, equally well suited for landing, The oars were not fastened along the sides, but left free and they did not use sails. Hallendorff and Schuck p.8). See Viking ships
    Stone with engraved ship from the Roman iron age of the type described by Tacitus. Found in Uppland. Hallendorff and Schuck p.15)

    About 110AD Suggested date for the Targum of Onkelos (born about 35AD, died 120AD). The Targum Onkelos was written down between this date and the 4th century AD. The Targum Onkelos uses the word Shekhinah for the presence of God. See Polyglotta.

    Tisha B'Av, 135AD The Fall of Betar. End of the revolt of the Jews against the Romans led by Simon bar Kokhba. See Diaspora

    170AD to 180AD Note "to myself" of the Roman Emperor, Marcus Aurelius. "I ... have seen the nature of ... him who does wrong, that it is akin to me, not only of the same blood or seed, but that it participates in the same intelligence and the same portion of the divinity,.. we are made for co-operation, like feet, like hands, like eyelids, like the rows of the upper and lower teeth." (Meditations Book one) - See organism

    The two centuries from 200AD to 400AD are a critical turning point in the Saint-Simonian system of history between the epoch with polytheist ideas and a society based on slavery, and that with "theological" ideas and a feudal organisation of society.

    About 251 to 356AD Anthony (or Antony) one of the earliest of the desert fathers, from whom developed monasticism.

    306 to 337 Constantine Emperor of the Roman Empire. He rebuilt Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinopolis (Constantinople), which became the new capital of the Empire, tolerated Christianity and other religions, and promoted Christianity throughout the empire.

    about 350AD Traditionally, the Talmud known as the Talmud Yerushalmi (Jerusalem Talmud) was thought to have been redacted (made into one book) by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel.

    376? Death of Ermanaric, king who ruled the Goths when their realm may have stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south and as far eastwards as the Ural Mountains.

    376 Start of first war between Visigoths and Rome. Völkerwanderung (German), age of the folk-wanderings, (Hallendorff and Schuck), barbarian invasions (of Roman Empire), migration period Wikipedia. Leading to Viking Age.

    The "Scandinavian people ... seem to have learnt the art of sailing during the period of the folk-wanderings" (Hallendorff and Schuck), page 15.

    393-397 AD Synods of the Christian Church decided which books would form the Christian Bible. This is composed of an "Old Testament" (the Hebrew Bible) and a "New Testament" (books about Jesus and the early Christians). The whole is arranged in approximate chronological order, giving a history of the material world from its beginning (Genesis) to future end (Revelation) [See 1611]

    405 AD Jerome completed his translation (commenced in 382) of the Bible from Hebrew and Arabic into Latin: the language common to educated christendom. It became known as the versio vulgata or Vulgate [external link   another ]

    Oldest surviving Targum dates from the fifth century, but Aramaic translations came about after the return from exile. See Onkelos

    Mythologiae (mythologies), a book accredited to the the Christian writer Fulgentius, re-told classic Greek stories of the Gods, and tried to explain them in Christian terms. - [early 5th century AD]

    410 Sack of Rome by Alaric 1

    De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii ("On the Marriage of Philology and Mercury") by Martianus Minneus Felix Capella, in which the seven female servants of Philologiae (word-love) are Grammar, who cuts out errors with her knife, Dialectic, Rhetoric, Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy and (musical) Harmony. Architecture and Medicine, were present but kept silent, because they are earthly rather than heavenly arts.

    420 to 650 Occupation of village at what is West Stow, Suffolk. The modern reconstruction uses wood and thatch. Most houses are partially sunk in the ground. Noël-Hume (1953) (Archaeology in Britain p.86) suggested "walls of wattle and daub, puddled clay floors, and ... roofs covered with thatch or turf" as common building materials, and a "single, window-less room with a hearth in the middle and a hole in the roof to allow smoke to escape".
    See
    Autopsy of a sunken house and The History of West Stow Manor, West Stow Heath and Anglo-Saxon Village Site - internet archive

    about 429 Germanus of Auxerre (in Gaul) visited Britain to combat the Palagian heresy. Bede's account tells of a journey accompanied by miracles, through which some scenes of ordinary life show through. A "large fire" was "lit in the middle of the house". It threw up sparks and, the house and neighbouring houses, being thatched, caught alight, but the house in which Germanus lay was untouched.

    429 Conquest of North Africa by the Vandals

    The Talmud Bavli (Babylonian Talmud) was finished in the late fifth century using document from the third to fifth centuries.

    4.9.476 Romulus Augustus, last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, deposed by Odoacer, a Germanic [Teutonic] chieftain

    476 to about 800 The European "dark ages" were so called because historians considered they were a time of ignorance and lack of progress (Webster's dictionary 1960). [In the mid-1960s I attended adult education classes about this being a mistake]

    "Among our Teutonic forefathers the village community was apparently the chief sphere of sympathy and mutual aid for the commons all through the 'dark' and middle ages" (Charles Cooley 1909)

    A graph with a broader world-view

    The graph is taken from "One Thousand Years of Missing History" by Salim Al-Hassani

    INDIAN MATHEMATICS

    Brahmagupta `Bhillamalacarya' (589-668) Rajasthan (India). His textbook Brahmasphutasiddhanta is sometimes considered the first textbook "to treat zero as a number in its own right." It also treated negative numbers. Brahmagupta was also among the first to express equations with symbols rather than words. [See Great Mathematicians - Wikipedia - and Weber's Introduction to The Protestant Ethic... ]


    The legendary King Arthur of medieval romances is said to have led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders before his death at the Battle of Camlann about 542.

    "The Chronicles of Arthur relate how King Arthur, with the help of a Cornish carpenter, invented... the miraculous Round Table at which his knights would never come to blows... "no knight will be able to raise combat, for there the highly placed will be on the same level as the lowly"." (Mauss p.81)

    597 Augustine (of Canterbury) arrived in Kent to try to convert the inhabitants to Christianity. St Martin's Church, Canterbury, is said to have been the private chapel of Bertha, the Queen of Kent, before 597. The oldest surviving Anglo-Saxon church may be the Chapel of St Peter-on-the-Wall built between 660 and 662

    EUROPEAN CIVILISATION

    "lord and serf" - "guild-masters and journeyman" -
    See feudal and feudalism

    There is well established division of European history into antiquity or the Classical Period (ancient Greece and the Roman Empire), which comes to an end about the 5th century AD, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period, which stretches from there to about the 15th century, and then Modern Civilisation. [External Link]. This last period may be what present day theorists mean by modernity.

    Foucault: Middle Ages

    External link to Fordham University's Internet Medieval Sourcebook

    James Richards (2001) of Gordon University, Georgia, maintains that European culture has a "core of recurring basic ideas, values, beliefs, and aspirations" - archive

    BIRTH OF MUHAMMAD

    ARABIC CIVILISATION empire   weblinks

    26.4.571 is one date given for the birth of the prophet Muhammad

    About 570 to 632 Muhammad. The Quran, the revelations of God to Muhammad from 610 to 632, was compiled into a single book shortly after Muhammad's death. It is the primary source of Shariah law. A translation into English was made in 1734.

    11.12.630 Muhammad's army conquers Mecca, which becomes the holy city of Islam

    Pages of the Quran discovered in a Birmingham archive are written on goat or sheep skin that has been carbon dated between 568 and 645, with a probability of more than 95%.

    See The Quran: The long journey into British life

    622AD is the first year of the Hijri era used in the Islamic lunar calendar. It marks the year that Muhammad and his followers moved from Mecca to Yathrib (later Medina).

    The works of the Greeks and Egyptians originally reached Christian Europe via the translations of scholars living in muslim countries. See 8th century


    At about the time that Muhammad was born, Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms were emerging in England (external link: Anglo-Saxon Origins: The Reality of the Myth by Malcolm Todd) - archive

    Iron helmet from ship burial ground at Vendel in Uppland, Sweden. "Vendel Period" is a term used for about 550 to the Viking Age.

    Early Germanic law codes were oral compilations of custom. Under contact with Rome, and literate civilisation, these laws began to be set down from the 7th century on. (Medieval Sourcebook)

    618BC Tang Dynasty in China - Wikipedia

    about 680 AD death of Caedmon, who gave birth to English poetry

    673 to 735 The Venerable Bede of Jarrow. Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (AD 731) was the first history to use the AD dating system. Written in Latin - Five Old English manuscript translations survive from the tenth and eleventh centuries. Bede's World), a theme park in Jarrow, closed from 12.2.2016 for lack of funds. Internet archive.

    Sometime in the 8th century AD The Vespasian Psalter. Latin to which an Old English translation was added in the ninth century. Old English cirican, which developed into church used: Latin "In medio ecclesiae laudabo te" translated as "in midle cirican ic hergo oe". (Psalm 22:22 translated "in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee" in 1611). See 597 and 900

    30.4.711 Islamic leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad landed at Gibraltar and by the end of the campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula was under Islamic rule. An Islamic presence continued until 1492 when Muhammad 12th surrendered Granada.

    10.10.732 The Battle of Tours or Poitiers (Christian) or Battle of Court of the Martyrs (Muslim) held Muslim advances and helped lay the foundations of the Christian Carolingian Empire.

    751 Battle of Talas between Abbasid caliphate and Tang dynasty. The Abbasids obtained the secret of papermaking from Chinese prisoners. See Wikipedia Islam during the Tang dynasty

    It is also suggested that the Abbasid army brought back sugar cane from northern India. See Sicily and Spain - Cyprus - Madeira islands - Hispaniola - Jamaica

    762 Abbasid caliphate established its capital at Baghdad

    Charlemagne (Charles the Great) was king of the Franks from 768 to 814

    793 to 1066. The Viking Age [See Sweden ships and iron]. wicingsceaoa is found in Anglo-Saxon glossaries from the 8th century. vikingr in Old Norse and Icelandic from the late 10th cent. Hallendorff and Schuck (page 14) define Vikings as "daring pirates and traders" sailing in "large bands" from Norway, Sweden and Denmark "to gain riches ... by peaceful barter or force of arms".
    "The Viking ship was perhaps the greatest technical and artistic achievement of the European dark ages. These fast ships had the strength to survive ocean crossings while having a draft of as little as 50cm (20 inches), allowing navigation in very shallow water". (William R. Short at Hurstwic, Massachussets.) - See Norman ship

    8.6.793 Vikings destroyed the abbey on Lindisfarne in Northumberland

    Chinese gunpowder 9th century AD? - Wikipedia - See 1044

    Under slave the Oxford English Dictionary says that the Slavonic peoples were reduced to a servile state by conquest during the 9th century.

    809 to 877 Hunain ibn Ishaq who directed the translation of numerous texts from Greek to Arabic at Baghdad

    About 820 al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wa'l- muqabala (later translated into Latin as Hisab al-jabr w'al- muqabala written by Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (780 to 850). "Al'Khwarizmi was an Islamic mathematician who wrote on Hindu-Arabic numerals and was among the first to use zero as a place holder in positional base notation." The word algorithm derives from his name and the word algebra from the title of the book. (See St Andrew's biography)

    859 The University of Al-Karaouine or Al-Qarawiyyin founded at Fes in Morocco.


    From Jeff Israel's map showing pre-colonial cultures of Africa

    The Sankofa bird recovers history
    The Ghana Empire or Wagadou Empire in West Africa existed from before about 830 until about 1235)

    The history of hourglass shaped talking drums can be traced back to the Ghana Empire. [See electric telegraph]

    The Akan have roots in ancient Ghana. They may have migrated from the Sahara into the forested region around the 11th century

    865 Mmycel heathen here (great heathen army) of Scandinavans invaded the four Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia and Wessex.

    868 "the 'Diamond Sutra' is the world's earliest complete survival of a dated printed book". (British Library)

    Woodblock printing made the written word available to many more people during the Tang Dynasty (618 to 907) in China

    Wikipedia: History of printing in East Asia

    20.11.869 Death of Edmund, King of East Anglia, who became "Saint Edmund the Martyr". Killed by the Great Heathen Army. Greenstead Church booklet published about 1950: "the heathen Danes invaded... demanded that the young King, Edmund, should deny the Christian Faith. When he stoutly refused he was tied to a tree, shot with arrows and afterwards beheaded... The body of the martyred King was enshrined at Bedriceworth, modern Bury St Edmunds, and was greatly revered".
    See coins - 985 - 1003 - 1214 - Saint George

    23.4.871 - 26.10.899 Reign of Alfred of Wessex.
    877AD "This year came the Danish army into Exeter from Wareham; whilst the navy sailed west about, until they met with a great mist at sea, and there perished one hundred and twenty ships at Swanwich." (Anglo Saxon Chronicle). The Chronicle was begun in Alfred's reign (about 890- 892) and one copy continued to be updated to 1154.
    Memorial on Swanage front "In commemoration of a great naval battle fought with the Danes -in Swanage Bay by Alfred the Great. AD 877". "Erected by Johm Mowlem. AD 1862". John Mowlem was a builder who recycled London materials in Swanage. Alfred
    appears to have launched attacks on ships close to land, but not from Swanage. The four cannon balls that top the monument come from the Crimean War. See 1260

    before 899 to 910 or later Copper and silver coins minted with the Latin inscription Sce Eadmund Rex. Sce is taken to be an abbreviation for sanctus: saint. Rex is king.

    By 900 sugar cane was grown in Arab Sicily with irrigation that used underground tunnels (qanats). The irrigation also enabled cultivation of oranges, lemons, and pistachio. Carmen Trillo dates the introduction of "monsoon plants" to southern Spain to the same period.

    900 Approximate date for the Viking ships (used as graves) excavated in Norway at Tune in 1867, Gokstad in 1880 and Osberg in 1904

    From about 900 an English parish church was often built by the manorial lord, generally close to his house. Most would probably have been built of wood (timber), like that at Greensted in Essex whose timbers have been dated between 1063 and and 1108 (Researching the history of churches)

    907 Liao Dynasty in China - Wikipedia

    960 Song Dynasty in China - Wikipedia - Issued banknotes - established a permanent standing navy - first known use of gunpowder - discernment of true north using a compass.

    985 Abbo of Fleury's Life of St Edmund told the (mythical?) story of Edmund's martyrdom. See St Edmundsbury Chronicle

    987/988 Abu'l-Faraj Muhammad bin Is'haq al-Nadim's Kitab al-Fihrist "an Index of the books of all nations, Arabs and non-Arabs alike, which are extant in the Arabic language and script, on every branch of knowledge; comprising information as to their compilers and the classes of their authors, together with the genealogies of those persons, the dates of their birth, the length of their lives, the times of their death, the places to which they belonged, their merits and their faults, since the beginning or every science that has been invented down to the present epoch : namely, the year 377 of the Hijra."

    "lord and serf"
    See feudal - 1066 - and medieval
    Feudalism? Marc Bloch's Feudal Society covers the period (roughly) from the middle of the ninth century to the first decades of the 13th in western and central Europe. He divides the period into a first and second feudal age, separated by "profound and widespread changes" towards the middle of the eleventh century

    The High Middle Ages was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention end around 1500. (Wikipedia)

    The two centuries from 1000 to 1200 are a critical turning point in the Saint-Simonian system of history between the epoch with "theological" ideas and a feudal organisation of society and that with positive, scientific ideas and an industrial social organisation.

    Kalmar County Museum (Kalmar Läns Museum) in Sweden has a "Meet the Middle Ages" website that describes life in the 11th and 12th centuries.

    About 990 to 1050 Guido d'Arezzo (Guido Aretino) lived. Guido was an Italian monk trying to find ways of improving the teaching of monks to sing the Gregorian Chants that were a large part of their religious duty. He used a system of recording music as writing by arranging symbols for notes on either side of a line (later lines) so that, if you understood the notation you could sing the music. As music became writing it became possible to compose on paper instead of having to work as a group developing and transmitting it. Writing music created a system of concepts for the analysis and manipulation of a sphere of deep sensual experience believed to be sacred. It was part of the development of rational analysis out of religious tradition in Europe.

    1003 to 1013 Danish conquest of England under Sweyn Forkbeard. Saint Edmund's remains were moved from Bury St Edmunds to London for safekeeping in 1010. On the way back in 1013 they may have rested in a Saxon timber church at Greensted. The timber nave wall of the present church may be the oldest surviving wooden church in the world, but counting the rings gives a date after 1053.

    about 1008 Olof Skötkonung, he first Christian king of Sweden, baptised.

    Sweyn Forkbeard's son became King Cnut [Canute] of England, by conquest, in 1016. He went on to be "king of Denmark, England, Norway, and parts of Sweden". He established Benedictine monks at Bury St Edmunds in 1020.

    1021 Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics in Iraq.

    1044 Zeng Gongliang recorded three formulae for gunpowder in his The Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques, Each was based on saltpetre (potassium nitrate), sulphur and charcoal. Joseph Needham identified these as the earliest formulae for what we now know as gunpowder. The formula for gunpowder reached the Arab world in the 12th Century and Europe in the 14th century (source)

    1066 Norman conquest of England

    ["A Norman Ship" drawing by C.H.B. Quennell. In ships like this the last succesful invaders crossed the channel]

    See French - Latin - Old English

    A new society "knit together by the firm organisation of the
    feudal system" (Quennell 1948, vol. 1, pp 1-2)

    "After the Norman conquest" [both] "Viking raids and also peaceful emigration" [to England] "ceased" (Hallendorff and Schuck p.29)

    1073 to 1076 Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum (Deeds of the Bishops of Hamburg) written by Adam of Bremen. It includes an account the pagan temple at Uppsala, the images of three gods: Thor, Odin and Frö, and human sacrifices.

    1086 " William 1st commissioned a detailed inventory of all the land and property in England and Wales. The results of this first major statistical enumeration were set out in the Domesday Book" - First entry UK Statistical System Timeline

    1088 Convenience date for the foundation of the University of Bologna, Italy - the first in Europe. See L'Antico Studio di Bologna But where is it? by Mary Tolaro Noyes, January 1996 and Wikipedia article on universities
    See Paris and Oxford - 13th century - 14th century - 15th century

    Late 11th century on: European translations from Arabic into Latin of Greek authors, including the anatomist, Galen

    1095 Pope Urban 2nd called upon all Christians to join a war against the Turks. First of the Christian Crusades against the Muslims that ended in the late 13th century. See Wikipedia articles on Crusades.

    1048-1131 Omar Khayyám - Persian philosopher - Author of Al-jabr wal mugabalah of Omar Khayyam, a Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra - and of the poems known as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

    "towards the 12th century Carolingian script was replaced by a heavier, more pointed Gothic style. One of the reasons for this was that quill pens began to be cut at an angle, making it easier to produce these shapes." [External Link] . The term gothic (German) was used in the 17th century to distinguish this style of writing from the (French) Carolingian. Gothic then was applied to the architecture of the period.

    About 1120 Euclid rediscovered

    1130-1200 Life of Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi), Chinese neo- Confucian philosopher who wrote:
    "I have seen on high mountains conchs and oyster shells, often embedded in the rocks. These rocks in ancient times were earth and mud, and the conchs and .and oysters lived in water, Subsequently everything that was at the bottom came to be at the top, and what was originally soft became solid and hard"
    See William Smith 1815

    A Common Law for England: Henry 2nd (ruled 1154-1189) established royal courts at Westminster and divided England into circuits, over which his judges travelled and tried the more important civil and criminal cases in county courts. The judges did not impose a law from above, but brought together the traditional law they found in the different parts of the country to create one law that was common for the whole nation. To establish what the law of a district was, the traditional practice of trial by a jury of local people was revived. See law and crime time line

    Jews were encouraged by Henry 2nd to settle in England's towns. They were a source of finance and taxation until 1290.

    1157 Henry 2nd of England "to his justiciars, sheriffs, and all his officials in England, greeting. I command you to guard, maintain, and protect all the men and citizens of Cologne as if they were my own subjects and friends, and all their goods, merchandise, and possessions. You shall not permit them to suffer any loss or damage in their house in London, which is called their gildhall, or in their goods, or merchandise, or anything else that belongs to them, because they are faithful to me, and they are in my ward and protection. They shall have complete protection, and they shall pay only their customary tolls, and you shall not exact new tolls from them." (source)

    Before 1170? The University of Paris developed out of the Cathedral schools of Notre Dame. The short history of Oxford University says it (Oxford) developed rapidly after 1167, when Henry 2nd "banned English students from attending the University of Paris".

    1175 Ptolemy rediscovered

    Friday 2.10.1187 Fall of Jerusalem to Salah ad-Din

    1189 English king Richard 1st succeeded Henry 2nd. Time of "legal memory".

    16.3.1190 The entire Jewish community of York (about 150) died in attacks on the Royal Castle at York, where they had taken refuge.

    about 1199 Peter of Blois, archdeacon of London, stated in a letter to Pope Innocent 3rd that the City of London contained 120 parish churches and 40,000 inhabitants. (About the size of Ramsgate, Kent, in 2011). Charles Creighton in 1891 suggested that the population of London from Richard 1st to Henry 7th (about 300 years) varied between about forty to fifty thousand. See 1532 - 1602 - 1724 - 1801 - 1931 - 1945

    Mongolian peace? Genghis Khan established the Mongol Empire in 1206. It rapidly expanded by invasion and by 1300 stretched from Korea to Central Europe. Political stability re-established " silk road" trade between east and west. - 1260 - 1271 Yuan Dynasty - 1275 on: Japan resists - 1300: Marco Polo's book - 1347: plague - 1368: Ming Dynasty (end of Mongols) - 1453 (end of silk road) - 1488 sea route.

    Wikipedia timeline of the Mongol Empire

    The Early English Period in architecture was the 13th century according to Panoyre and Ryan 1958 or the reign of Richard 1st to 1307 according to the originator of the term Thomas Rickman

    "guild-masters and journeyman" - " Towns were growing rapidly... banded together in gilds [guilds] craftsmen and merchants grew powerful" (Quennell 1948, vol. 1, pp 68-2). In a craft guild, a worker started as an apprentice (unpaid trainee), might become a journeyman (paid by the day), and finally might become a master.

    Universities founded at Cambridge (1209) - Salamanca (1218) - Padua (1222) - Naples (1224) - Toulouse (1229) - Siena (1240) - Montpellier (1289) - Lisbon (1290)

    15.6.1215 King John signed the document later called Magna Charta at Runnymede, near Windsor. In 2014, barons are said to have met at Bury St Edmunds. This led to the town adopting Sacrarium Regis, Cunabula Legis "'Shrine of a King, Cradle of the Law" as its motto, possibly in 1849.

    22.12.1216 Ordo Praedicatorum (Order of Preachers), which became known as the Dominican Order or Black Friars, founded in France by a Spanish priest, Dominic de Guzman. Aquinas was a Dominican Friar.

    1220 Start of the building of the (new) Salisbury Cathedral - the one we now have. It took about hundred years to build. [external link]. The Norman Westminster Abbey was replaced in the middle of the 13th century. The oldest parts of the present building date from this period. [external link]

    about 1225: Sumer is icumen in, Lhude sing cuccu.
    Groweth sed, and bloweth med, And springeth the wude nu

    1225 to 1274 Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas created a synthesis between Christian theology and Aristotelianism. He asserted that political power is natural, as hierarchic relations already exist among the angels in heaven.

    1253 A reference to "Secole lan' extra Neugat' in suburbio London" in connection with a Charter of Henry 3rd is one of the clues that suggests coal was brought from north-east England to London by boat in the thirteenth century.

    3.9.1260 In the battle of Ain Jalut (Galilee) the Muslim Mamluks checked the westward movement of the Mongols. Explosive hand cannons were used frighten the Mongol horses and cavalry.

    1264

    "To the Sheriffs of London, 23 July, 1264 Contrabreve to purvey for the King in the City of London without delay and without fail a boat- load of sea-coal and four millstones for the King's mills in Windsor Castle and convey them thither by water for delivery to the constable of the castle."

    1266 Henry 3rd of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa (merchant guild) a charter for operations in England, and the Cologne Hansa joined them in 1282 to form the most powerful Hanseatic colony in London. (Wikipedia)

    about 1270 Hasan al-Rammah described the purification of gunpowder in his Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices

    1271 Yuan Dynasty in China - Wikipedia - Established by the Mongolian leader Kublai Khan.

    1271 Last of the Christian Crusades against the Muslims.

    ["A Thirteenth Century Ship" drawing by C.H.B. Quennell. In ships like this Christians sailed to fight what they regarded as holy wars against Islam. The drawing is based on the Dover seal of 1284]

    By 1291 muslims had re-captured all the territory in Syria held by the Crusaders

    This is a war ship with castles at each end from which bowmen would shoot arrows. Quennell comments on the influence of tall Mediterranean ship design on
    northern ship design allowing archers to shoot down on lower ships. The steering is still by rowers rather than rudders.

    Early English parish chirch from Panoyre and Ryan 1958

    about 1275 "Holy church is a house of prayer, born of heaven Christ does it call, to worship therein our saviour".

    1275 to 1293 Composition of Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba, illustrated Japanese scrolls of battles with Mongolian invaders.

    In this the Mongols are believed to be using Chinese gunpowder bombs

    Lübeck's seal of the year 1280, depicted in Ernst Wallis Illustrated verldshistoria, published in Stockholm in 1882, page 333. From about 1200, Germans colonising conquered Baltic territories left from the north German port of Lübeck. It became the central Hanseatic trading city. The ship on its seal has similar features to Swedish boats 2,000 years before.

    1290 Edward 1st's Edict of Expulsion expelled all Jews from England. Jews did not return until 1657.

    1291 Fall of Crusader city of Acre to Muslims. End of Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099 -1291). Cyprus became an important Latin Centre. There is a record of the export of sugar from Cyprus (to Pisa, Italy) in 1301. Sugar was Cyprus' most profitable agricultural export from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. (Fergus Murray)

    1299 Osman I declared himself Sultan. His territories became known as the Ottoman Empire. Centred in what we now know as Turkey, The (Islamic) Ottoman Empire established itself in Asia, Europe and Africa. Constantinople, the capital of the (Christian) Byzantine Empire, was captured by the Ottoman Empire in 1453

    1245-1322 Life of Ma Duanlin 1245-1322, Chinese writer who wrote the Wenxian Tongkao [Wen-tong-hian-kao]

    Universities founded at Rome in 1303 - Prague in 1348 (external link) - Krakow in 1364 (external link) - Vienna in 1365 (external link) - Heidelberg in 1386 (external link) - Erfurt in 1379 - Cologne in 1388 (external link)

    about 1300 Livres des merveilles du monde (Book of the Marvels of the World, also known as The Travels of Marco Polo.

    Edward 2nd ruled England from 1307 to 1327


    Illustration of Reeve and Serfs in August calendar of a Psalter (now known as Queen Mary's) produced about 1310-1320 and now in the British Library.

    1327 Edward 3rd king of England aged 14, following his father being deposed.

    1336 Wreck of Kogge (Cog) in Flevopolder at Nijkerk. This has been reconstructed as the Kamper Kogge. Cogs were cargo ships operating from about 1200 to 1450, mainly in the Baltic and North Sea for the Hanseatic League. They could carry heavy cargoes of cloth, salt, fish, butter, wine, furs, grain, wax, beer, copper, iron, oil, flax and similar goods. (Twitter)

    1337 Conflict between Edward 3rd of England and Philip 6th of France over feudal rights in France led to the start of the "hundred years' war"

    1339 Confirmation of Hanse privileges in England and crown jewels of England pawned to Cologne merchant.

    1340 Edward 3rd of England asserted his claim to be king of France. 24.6.1340 Naval batlte of Sluys in which the English navy largely consisted of converted mercantile cogs. (Wikipedia)

    Europe: The Renaissance (cultural rebirth) is generally regarded as beginning in Florence, Italy, in the early 14th century. However, some historians speak of an earlier renaissance in France.

    "The civilisation of Greece and Rome, which ever since the fourteenth century obtained so powerful a hold on Italian life, as the source and basis of culture, as the object and ideal of existence, partly also as an avowed reaction against preceding tendencies - this civilisation had long been exerting a partial influence on medieval Europe, even beyond the boundaries of Italy. The culture of which Charles the Great was a representative, in the face of the barbarism of the seventh and eighth centuries, essentially a Renaissance, and could appear under no other form. Just as in the Romanesque architecture of the North, beside the general outlines inherited from antiquity, remarkable direct imitations of the antique also occur, so to monastic scholarship had not only gradually absorbed an immense mass of materials from Roman writers, but the style of it, from the days of Eginhard onward, shows traces of conscious imitations." (Burckhardt, J. 1960 pp 176 and 178. See also p.5.)

    Renaissance Oxford English Dictionary: Mid 19th century term for "The revival of art and literature under the influence of classical models between the 14th and 16th centuries, begun in Italy; the period of this movement". Penguin Encyclopedia: In Italy "from the death of Giotto 1337 that of Michelangelo 1564". See High Renaissance and Rinascita.

    1341

    Easter Sunday 8.4.1341 Francesco Petrarca's speech receiving a crown of laurel in Rome: "there was an age that was happier for poets, an age when they were held in the highest honour, first in Greece and then in Italy, and especially when Caesar Augustus held imperial sway, under whom there flourished excellent poets: Virgil, Varius, Ovid, Horace, and many others."

    1347-1350 Black Death (Bubonic Plague) in Europe. "In England it reached a peak in July 1349"... "between a third and a half of the population died, the total falling from about 4.7 million to about 2 million, with a consequential severe shortage of labour." (Michael Warren). Further outbreaks (England) in 1361-1362, 1369, 1379-1383, 1389-1393, and during first half of the 15th century.
    ["A Fourteenth Century Ship" drawing by
    C.H.B. Quennell. In ships like this rats and fleas brought the bubonic plague] - "Europe's plagues came from China". "Plague would have reached Europe across the Silk Road".

    Lars Bruzelius (2000) writes of the "most intense development of the sailing ship" beginning when perpendicular square sails (common in northern Europe) were readopted in the Mediterranean in the mid-14th Century, in place of triangular sails. Carvel (flush, even planking) hulls replaced the northern clinker (overlapping planking) hulls.

    1349 English "Ordinance of Labourers"

    before 1350 Edward third of England founded St George's College, Windsor, attached to the chapel of St Edward the Confessor. The Order of the Garter was founded and the chapel became St George's Chapel. Part of the process by which St George became patron saint of England, displacing St Edmund

    1356 Delegates of the Hanseatic towns met in Lübeck. Taken as the formal foundation of the Hanseatic League, which made Lübeck its administrative headquarters in 1358. (Chronology - Rainer Postel - Wikipedia - Die Hanse today - Commerce)

    Ornamental gardens and civilisation

    "The creation of ornamental gardens indicates a degree of civilisation and a settled economy.... Such conditions had obtained in China long before the Christian era and also for a long time in Persia, whence they spread to Turkey about A.D. 1360." Richard Gorer The Growth of Gardens 1978, page 38.

    1362 The English Statute of Pleading required English as the language of the courts

    1362 Piers Plowman by William Langland published. New versions were published in 1377 and 1392.

    1368 Ming Dynasty in China, followed the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. - Wikipedia

    Mental Health 1377 Bethlem

    1381 Peasants' revolt in England

    1384? Completion of the translation of the Vulgate into English now known as the Wycliffe Bible. Wycliffe Bibles are the most common manuscript literature in Middle English. Over 250 of them survive. Those who believed that the Bible could be interpreted directly by lay people, without the intervention of the church, became known as lollards.

    1387 Geoffrey Chaucer (1328-1400) started writing The Canterbury Tales. The East Midland dialect he wrote in became the basis from which standard English evolved.

    Before the age of printing
    Rhymers like Geoffrey Chaucer
    Were needed to preserve in public verse
    The life of the people.
    Whilst in the monasteries
    Chorister's memory preserved
    Plain song, whose metrical rhythm
    Underpinned the mathematics still to come.
    And in ways like this, modern science
    Was made possible by medieval poetry.


    Although she was the daughter of a town Mayor, Margery Kempe (about 1373-1438) was unable to read and write, but heard many sermons, and books read. When she came to write her book, she dictated it.

    1389 Death of Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari (born 1318), founder of the Sufi Muslim order known as the Naqshbandi.

    1397 Foundation of the Medici Bank in Florence, Italy.

    *********









      From Robin Rowles:

    "I am puzzled as to why you think that from AD1 (alleged year of birth of Jesus called the Christ) to AD99 is a century. At best it is 99 years and were Jesus to have been born in December AD1 as we celebrate it (unlikely), it is nearer 98 years. Why is the (eg) seventeenth century so called? Because it ends with 1700 so that is what it is! Mind you, this is a common mistake, after all the entire world celebrated the millennium a year early so you are not alone!"









































































































    Schools.

    A schoolman is a teacher in any of the universities of medieval Europe - a medieval scholastic - someone versed in the traditional philosophy and theology of medieval scholasticism. The terms were developed in the 16th and 17th centuries to distinguish old knowledge from new knowledge.

    Scholasticism by Joseph Rickaby, Oxford, 1908

    Wikipedia article on scholasticism

    John Stuart Mill on importance of

    The ancient regime in France ended with the French Revolution in 1789. It is the revolutionaries term for the social and political order they abolished. But when did it begin? Wikipedia dates it from the 15th century. Others date it from 1610 France

    15TH CENTURY

    Mental Health 1409 Spain

    Universities founded at Leipzig in 1409 (external link) - St Andrews (1413) - Rostock (1419) - Leuven (1425) - Bordeaux (1441) - Barcelona (1450) - Glasgow (1451) - Greifswald (1456) - Bratislava (1465) - Uppsala (1477) - Copenhagen (1479) - Aberdeen (1495)

    1413-1415 Margery Kempe's pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
    She sailed from Norfolk to the continent in the Autumn of 1413 and followed the Rhine River to Switzerland, and then followed paths over the Alps to Italy, arriving in Venice in January 1414 and spent thirteen weeks, leaving in April 1414.
    She travelled from Venice to the Holy Land by sailing in a galley (a ship moved mainly by oars) probably to Jaffa, arriving in May. On a mule or donkey she travelled through Ramlah to Jerusalem and visited Bethlehem. Returning to Italy she stayed in Assisi before going to Rome, where she arrived in September 1414. Leaving Rome in Easter 1415, she travelled home though Middelburg (in today's Netherlands), and sailed from Zealand to England (probably Yarmouth) on a two day voyage in a small ship in mid-May 1415. (Sources 1 - 2)

    Friday, 25.10.1415 Battle of Agincourt. In Shakespeare's Henry 5th 1598, the king's 'once more unto the breach' speech concludes "Cry 'God for Harry, England, and Saint George!'"

    Ocean trade: the age of exploration

    1418 - 1419 A Portuguese expedition along the coast of Africa was blown into the open ocean and discovered the Madeira Islands.

    Ancient civilisations, like that of Greece were made possible by slavery. In western Europe this method of production gave way to feudal relations and then to free labour. But, as free labour developed in Europe, Europe developed slave labour abroad. From the 15th century, a system of colonial slavery was developed by the European powers. Transporting slaves from Africa to America began in the 16th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the theoretical analysis of slavery played an important part in the development of social science. In the 18th and early 19th century, these theoretical developments, in their turn, played an important part in undermining the colonial slavery that Europe had established throughout her colonies.
    Colonial slavery index 15th century: 1433 (Guinea) - 1447 (Pope) - 1455 - 1492 (Columbus) - 16th century:   22.1.1510 transalantic - mid century: negro and adventurers - 1562 John Hawkins - 1580 Mexico - triangular run - 17th century: 1607 Virginia - 1619 - 1627 Barbados - 1697 Bristol - 18th century: Rhode Island triangular - 1746 Bristol brass - 1791 - 1793 - 1794 - 19th century: 1802 - 1833 - 2.7.1839 - 1840 - 1863 -

    1422 to 1509 Paston family letters

    Burgess and Locke (1945) (p.20) say these give a "clear picture" of "the small patriarchal family of medieval society" in which " marriage was arranged by parents with stress upon economic rather than romantic considerations". See Die Familie (1912)

    1425 Portuguese introduced the cultivation of sugar to the Madeira islands. Expansion of the plantations began in 1445. At some time, African slaves were used.

    1433 Gil Eanes joined the service of Infante Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (died 3.11.1460. Later known as Henry the Navigator). Eanes brought slaves to Portugal from the Canary Islands. In 1434 he succeeded in sailing beyond Cape Bojador on the coast of the Western Sahara. By 1462 , the Portuguese had explored the coast of Africa as far as present-day Sierra Leone. The west African coast was known as Guiné

    1436 Four hundred years before Pugin's Contrasts.

    1447 to 1455: Pope Nicholas 5th authorised the Portuguese, and others, to make war on muslims and pagans, and to make them slaves. He applauded the trade in negroes, and hoped that it would end in their conversion.

    About 1450 Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press (but see China) - Which is probably why the middle of the 15th century is the most popular date for starting "modern history" (see above) - Another suggested start is towards the end of the sixtenth century - - Although the Penguin Dictionary of Modern History starts in 1789 (and finishes in 1945!)
    See Diamond Sutra - printed Euclid - English New Testament - printed Herbals - Copernicus - London 1635 - Beccaria: Printing enables human rights

    2.4.1453-29.5.1453 Siege and fall of Constantinople: The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror ended the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman) Empire after more than a thousand years by capturing the capital, Constantinople Consequent closure of the traditional overland route from Western Europe to the Far East. "An exodus of Greek people and works of art and literature into the Italian city-states" (Spark Notes).

    8,1.1455: Bull Romanus Pontifex of Pope Nicholas 5:

    "many Guineamen and other negroes, taken by force, and some by barter of unprohibited articles, or by other lawful contract of purchase, have been sent to the said kingdoms. A large number of these have been converted to the Catholic faith"

    In 1456 a comet appeared sufficiently brilliant for Pope Calixtus third to issue a declaration against "the Devil, the Turk and the comet". (Story possibly untrue). Detailed observations were made by Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli in Florence from 8.6.1456 to 8.7.1456. Not available to Halley, they were rediscovered in 1864 and allowed Giovanni Celoria to establish the comet's 1456 orbit with great precision. (Perihelion: 9.6.1456)

    1476 William Caxton established a printing press at Westmenster in England where he first printed an edition of Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales

    1471 Pope Sixtus 4th donated bronze statues of symbolic significance to the People of Rome: The She-Wolf, the Spinarius (boy with thorn), the Camillus and the colossal head of Constantine, with hand and globe. The Capitoline Museums trace their history back to this. The museums are mainly from and about Rome.

    The first printed edition of Euclid was a translation from arabic into latin in 1482

    22.8.1485 Battle of Bosworth Field. Richard 3rd, last of the Plantagenets, replaced by Henry 7th, first of the English Tudor monarchs. A skeleton believed to be that of Richard 3rd was disinterred in Leicester in September 2012. Richard's identity was "proved" by his mitochondrial DNA, handed down in an unbroken chain through the female line from his sister to two living relatives.
    Death and Humility: Richard 3rd and the Historical Desecration of Corpses by Sarah Bond. "Accounts of the battle do hint at degradation of his body".

    1488 The rounding of the Cape of Good Hope by the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias was a significant step in establishing a sea route, round Africa, from Europe to India and the far east.

    1492 Christopher Columbus's first voyage to America. He visited Haiti. America

    On behalf of Spain, Columbus made four voyages to America

    ["Ship of the time of Christopher Columbus" drawing by
    C.H.B. Quennell, who argues that the "development of trade meant a corresponding improvement in ships" (p.186). Columbus's flagship, the Santa Maria, was about 93 feet long and 25 feet broad.]

    23.11.1492 "The Indians aboard call this Bohio and say it is very large and has people there with one eye in the forehead, as well as others they call cannibals, of whom they show great fear. When they saw I was taking that course, they were too afraid to talk. They say that the cannibals eat people and are well armed" [Log entry of Christopher Columbus translated by Robert H. Fuson 1992. p.115 source]

    1493 Pope Alexander 6th apportioned the non-European world west of the Azores to Spain, that east of the Azores to Portugal. Broadly, this meant Africa and Asia for Portugal and the Americas for Spain. The shape of South America, however, resulted in Portugal claiming what became Brazil. The grant was conditional on their converting the natives to Christianity.

    Marx and Engels wrote in the Communist Manifesto (1848) that "Modern industry has established the world market, for which the discovery of America paved the way". An earlier passage, however, also includes the opening of the Indian and Chinese markets.

    1494 ship of fools


    source
    Part of the Hunt of the Unicorn tapestry, dyed with weld (yellow), madder (red), and woad (blue). Dating from between 1495 and 1505

    Bethlem 2015 "The earliest recorded uses of colour by man were from pigments from plant extracts".

    *********





    16TH CENTURY

    The transport of Africans to the West Indies, as slaves, began early in the 16th century.

    Early in the 16th century, Paracelsus (1493-1541) studied alchemy and chemistry at Basel University and learned the properties of metals and minerals in mines. His unorthodox mystical theories lost him the position of town physician of Basel (1526-1528), but through empirical experiment in pursuit of his dreams he made new chemical compounds and changed medicine and pharmacy. (See mental health history)

    High Renaissance 1500 to 1527: "to which belong Michelangelo's earlier works, Raphael's Roman works, and most of Leonardo de Vinci's works" (Penguin Encyclopedia)

    22.4.1500 A Portuguese fleet landed in what became Brazil. It then crossed the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean and India.

    22.1.1510 Ferdinand of Spain authorises 50 African slaves to be sent to Santo Domingo. The start of the systematic trans-Atlantic transportation. Until 1530 slaves were shipped from Europe.

    1512 Portugal discovers the Moluccas (Spice islands) in the East Indies, the source of cloves, nutmeg and mace. See 1555.

    1513 Niccolò Machiavelli's manuscript De Principatibus (About Principalities) circulating. Published in 1532 as Il Principe (The Prince)

    1517 The publication of Luther's ninety-five theses became the official launch of protestant christianity. The Bible was given priority over the church as the source of authority. The scope for religious disagreements multiplied as more and more people were able to read it for themselves. The movement for the reform of the Catholic (universal) church and the breakaway of protestant and reformed churches is called The Reformation.

    1518: Royal College of Physicians founded

    1519 Ferdinand Magellan sailed from Spain with a fleet of five carracks - large ships with plenty of room for crew, provisions and a return cargo. One ship returned in 1522, having circled the world

    1521-1530 97% of precious metal imports to Spain from America was gold, only 3% silver. Thereafter, 90% plus was silver. Most treasure before 1530 came from Hispaniola, Porto Rica and Cuba. After 1530 treasure came from the mainland of South America (Tierra Firme) and (less so) North America (New Spain) (Earl J. Hamilton 1929)

    1525 William Tyndale's The New Testament in English printed in Germany and shipped into England against official hostility

    1525 An anonymous herbal, an English translation of an unknown manuscript, published by the London printer, Richard Banckes, was the first English printed herbal. It was small, without illustrations, and therefore relatively cheap.

    about 1525 An alphabetical list of herbs 'necessary for a garden' compiled for Thomas Fromond (Surrey landowner, died 1543. Alphabetical list followed by groups of plants for specific purposes and by plants for a pleasure garden. First clear indication of gardens soley for pleasure in Britain. (Harvey 1989)

    1528 Copernicus finished a book arguing that the earth goes round the sun, not the sun round the earth. The first printed copy was in 1543 (see Galileo)

    1530: Juan de la Barrera of Seville transported slaves directly from Africa to the New World - See 1510.

    26.8.1531 Perihelion of a comet that had appeared in the sky above the earth. Peter Apian had observed that the comet's tail was always oriented into the direction away from the sun.

    November 1532 Bills of mortality were produced intermittently in the several parishes of the City of London during outbreaks of plague. The first bill of mortality is believed to date from November 1532. Working with the data that is available from this date, Charles Creighton in 1891 made to following estimates of the growth in London's population: 1532-1535: 62,400 1563: 93,276 1580: 123,034 1593-1595: 152,478 1605: 224,275 1622: 272,207 1634: 339,824 1661: 460,000

    Creighton (p.481) says the earlies figures (1532 and 1535) were produced to see if London was safe for King Henry 8th and his court.

    England breaks from Rome

    November 1534 Act of Supremacy established Henry 8th as head of the Church of England

    1534 - 1543 Travels around England of John Leland. "The advent of the first English antiquary... may, if we wish, be taken for a sign that the Middle Ages were indeed passing away and becoming matter for retrospect". (Trevelyan, G.M. 1942 p.99)

    1535 Coverdale's Bible. Ecclesiasticus 39:13 calls on people to flourish (flower) "as the rose garden", sing a song of praise.

    1536 Latin publication of John Calvin's Institution of the Christian religion: embracing almost the whole sum of piety and whatever is necessary to know the doctrine of salvation. French translation in 1541. Weber says that "the gracious and kindly father of the New Testament... dominates the first books of the Institutio Christiana, and behind him the Deus absconditus as an arbitrary despot"

    29.9.1538 Parish registers for every church ordered to be kept in England, recording "the day and year of every wedding, christening and burying".

    1544

    Sebastian Cabot's map of the world

    1546 Large silver deposits discovered in Zacatecas (Mexico) and Potos (Bolivia).

    1548 According to Edward Step in 1903: "The Oriental Plane is popularly supposed to have been introduced to England from the Levant by Francis Bacon, but if Loudon's statement that it was "in British gardens before 1548" rests on good evidence, Bacon's claim is dismissed, for he was not "introduced" until 1561."

    Step in 1903 suggests the oriental (eastern) and occidental (western) planes could be treated as "two varieties of one species". The form then (1903) familiar in London, known as the "Maple-leaved Plane" being a variety of the eastern whose leaves approached the form of the western. In the 1941 revision the London Plane is presented as a hybrid of the eastern and western appearing in 1670.

    Division of labour and manufacture: "That co-operation which is based on division of labour, assumes its typical form in manufacture, and is the prevalent characteristic form of the capitalist process of production throughout the manufacturing period properly so called. That period, roughly speaking, extends from the middle of the 16th to the last third of the 18th century". (Marx 1867 chapter 16). One of Marx's main examples is the division of labour in the manufacture of needles. (Compare Adam Smith and pins). See also Communist Manifesto

    1550 Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori da Cimabue insino a' tempi nostri (Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects) by Giorgio Vasari published in Florence. He wrote of a rinascita (rebirth) in the arts, and used the word Goth to describe a barbaric German style. [Go back to 376 - Gothic and 1436.

    1555 Richard Eden's The Decades of the Newe Worlde or West India..., being translations from Spanish, published. Speaks of the conflict between Portugal and Spain over the "trade of Spices". Later in the century, people also began to write about "commerce".

    1557 "Because no two things can be more equal" than two parallel line segments of the same length, Robert Recorde used the sign = for equals (As in 2+3=5). Recorde wrote all his mathematics texts in English, using clear and simple expressions. O'Connor and Robertson say that "Recorde virtually established the English school of mathematics and first introduced algebra into England". However, the = symbol was not widely used until the eighteenth century (See Euler in 1765, whe explains terms such as +, - and =)

    1558 Elizabeth 1st queen of England and Wales from 1558 to 1604, in succession to Mary. Elizabethan domestic architecture might use brick or stone or timber frames according to local materials. In London, narrow, timber framed houses commonly overhung the streets with each story wider than the one beneath.
    1559 The earliest surviving map of London depicts the crowded city and its suburbs just outside the wall.

    11.11.1563 Council of Trent doctrines on matrimony and celibacy.

    In the second half of the sixteenth century the words negro and niger entered the English language. Niger meant black in Latin. From it derived Negro as black in Spanish and Portuguese. In the 15th century this had come to mean black people, especially African people from south of the Sahara. Due to colonial slavery, negro was also used for slaves, as when a writer in 1589 writes of "Spaniards, with their servants and Negroes".

    From the mid-sixteenth century, the Portuguese attempt to monopolise the trade in African slaves and the Spanish attempt to possess all of America (apart from Brazil) - see 1493 - were challenged by French, English, Dutch, Danish and Swedish adventurers.

    1562 Commotion when a needle is lost. This tool was precious. "Until far on in the sixteenth century, there was not a needle to be had but of foreign manufacture" (Stone 1840)

    "A lytle thing with an hole in the end, as bright as any syller,
    Small, longe, sharpe at the poynt, and straight as any pyller."
    [ Gammer Gurton's Needle

    1562 to 1568 The slaving adventures of John Hawkins started English participation in the slave trade.

    from 1565 Galeón de Manila across the Pacific. from 1566 Flota de Indias Spanish West Indies Fleet across the Atlantic.

    1566 to 1568 Start of "the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain" - See 1648

    Adler von Lübeck (Eagle of Lübeck), a galleon, was the world's largest ship when launched in March 1566. The flagship of the Hanseatic League , it could carry 1,000 men and had 138 cannons to protect the Baltic trade.

    1570 I quattro libri dell'architettura (The Four Books of Architecture) published in Venice by Andrea Palladio (1508-1580).

    Palladio derived laws of architectural proportion for the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. He set out the principles for buildings in the "classical era" which has been dated as between 1620 and 1800 in England.

    According to Zygmunt Bauman and Timothy May, "It was roughly towards the end of the sixteenth century that in parts of western Europe" a picture of the social world as naturally ordered "began to fall apart". (Bauman, Z. and May, T. 2001 p.117) - See nature and culture. Before this time, they say, is "often referred to as 'pre-modern'. The modern period "established itself in the western world approximately three centuries ago" (1700), so the 17th century is their century of transition.

    In th history of social theory, we could relate the transition between "pictures of the social world" to the publication of Bodin's Six Livres de la Republique.

    1577 Jean Bodin published Six Livres de la Republique, the first major systematic treatment of politics since Aristotle. He argued that property and the family form the basis of society. His arguments from the material world (in contrast to Aquinas who argues from theology) make him a founder of the philosophical approach to social theory known as state of nature theory.

    Marx and Engels argued that one of the qualifications required by science is that its theories should start from material premises rather than theological ones. In this sense, Bodin is one of the earliest founders of social science.

    13.12.1577 Start of pirateering journey that was to become Francis Drake's circumnavigation of the world. Plymouth - San Julian (South America) - Strait of Magellan - Mocha Island - coast of California (17.6.1579) - Moluccas - Cape of Good Hope - Sierra Leone (22.7.1580) - Plymouth (26.9.1580). Brought back a cargo of spices and captured Spanish treasures. Although Drake's journey was hailed as a circumnavigation of the globe, the details were made a state secret, for fear of Spain.


    1578 There is a series of tables showing weekly christenings and burials (from plague and other causes) in London for the five years from 1578 to 1582. Creighton (p.479) says "everyone was christened in church under Elizabeth, and there were no Dissenters' burial grounds".

    1579 The Shepheardes Calender with twelve pastoral poems, one to each month, by Edmund Spenser. Woodcut for May. In the woodcuts, astrological signs represent heaven above the earth. See 1597 and 1632.

    1580 to 1640 Indigenous populations in Mexico declining due to new infectious diseases. Africans brought to Spanish colonies in deals with the Portuguese, who controlled the African slave market. See "The black people 'erased from history'" and Afro-Mexicans

    1584 to 1604: Long war between England and Spain. June to September 1588: Spanish Armada

    1588
    Robert
    Filmer (author of Patriarcha) and Thomas Hobbes (author of Leviathan) born

    1593 to 1597 Richard Hooker published the first five volumes of his
    Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity. These argued that the Bible is not the only guide to truth that God has provided, because God has established the universe according to laws and provided human beings with reason by which they can discover those laws. Three other volumes were published after Hooker's death. Locke's arguments in his Two Treatises of Government, and elsewhere, have strong similarities with Hooker's.

    1592: Bernard Ericks of Holland taking part in the slave trade.

    1594: L'Espérance of La Rochelle, France, taking part in the slave trade.

    1596
    31.3.1596
    Rene Descartes born

    1597 William Shakespeare, in Merchant of Venice describes the music that the heavenly spheres create as they circle the earth. See Copernicus

    1597 John Gerard's (1545 - 1611 or 1612)'s Great Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes. Enlarged and revised by Thomas Johnson (Died 1644, probably aged under 44) in 1633 (also re-published 1636).

    1598 In Catholic France, Henry 4th enacted the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to the Protestants. He was assassinated by a Catholic in 1610. France

    1598 James 6 of Scotland (James 1 of England) published The True Law of Free Monarchies. Theories from this and other writings of the king were used by Filmer.

    1598 First publication of John Stow's A Survey of London - See mental health timeline

    1599

    In his play, As You Like It, William Shakespeare said that the whole social world is a stage on which the same people play different parts at different times. This is the basic idea of role theory, later developed by social scientists. The same passage defines the "seven ages of man".

    In Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar, Cassius says "Men at some time were masters of their fates. The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, But in ourselves that we are underlings."


    John Donne "To his mistress going to bed", sometime late 16th century

    "In this love's hallowed temple, this soft bed.
    "... thou, Angel, bring'st with thee
    "A heaven like
    Mahomet's Paradise;

    "License my roving hands, and let them go
    "Before, behind, between, above, below.
    "O my America! my new-found-land,

    The late 16th century is a possible beginning for the triangular trade or run with slaves as the middle run. The first leg of the run was of manufactured goods (see Bristol 1746) from European ports to the west coast of Africa, to be bartered for slaves and other produce. Then, with slaves packed in the cargo holds, across the Atlantic (the Middle Passage - where some cargo died) to colonies in the Caribbean and on mainland America. Slave were there auctioned and mainly became plantation workers. The ships returned to their European home with goods like cotton, sugar, coffee and tobacco.

    *********

    17TH CENTURY
    See Social Science History, chapter two:
    Hobbes, Filmer and Locke:
    17th Century Models for a Science of Society

    1600 William Gilbert in De Magnete coined the word "electrica" for "quae attrahunt eadem ratione vt electrum" (that which attracts in the same manner as amber). His word referred only to the property of attracting lightweight objects, which we now call static electricity. As the science of electricity developed, so the word took on expanded meaning.

    1601 Elizabethan Poor Law under which each parish was responsible for looking after its own poor.

    1603 Death of Elizabeth 1. James 6 of Scotland became James 1 of England

    Brick replacing timber: English Heritage describe brick buildings being built in 17th century London as small groups of two or three in streets, yards, and alleys, and as ribbon development along the main raods. They were not just houses, but workshops, offices, shops, and taverns, each with a rear private space used either as a garden or as a backyard for trade or washing. Few survive. See 1666

    1603 Christopher Heydon's A Defence of Judicial Astrology argued, against John Chamber's A Treatise Against Judicial Astrology (1601), that astrology is a valid science, supported by experience. Natural astrology argued that the position of the stars influenced nature, judicial astrology that they influenced individuals and society. Astrology adopted the idea of crises:

    "When the moon comes to the 22 of Gemini, she shall there begin to work a dangerous crisis, or alteration .. so preventing her ordinary working" (Heydon)

    1603 Shakespeare's The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice includes the phrase "making the beast with two backs"

    1604/1605 Shakespeare's All's Well that Ends Well. Critics have never been sure if it ends well or badly. It includes a weaving analogy

    "The web of our life is of a mingled yarn, good and
    ill together: our virtues would be proud, if our
    faults whipped them not; and our crimes would
    despair, if they were not cherished by our virtues."

    Shakespeare's Macbeth, cannot be dated precisely, but appears to many to be celebrating King James's ancestors and the Stuart accession to the throne in 1603. Some have suggested their are allusions to the Gunpowder plot. (Wikipedia)

    The character of Lady Macbeth was used by Lombroso in 1876 as evidence for his conclusion that "violent women far exceed men in their ferocity and cruelly".

    1606 An essay of the meanes how to make our travailes, into forraine countries, the more profitable and honourable, by Thomas Palmer, divided the "fuitfullness of the soil" into things that live and move on the surface (plants and animals) - "things as are hid in the wombe and veines of the earth" "mines of mettals and fossiles" - and the "plentie of rivers and ports". See Noah - fossils 1736 - William Smith - census fossils - vestiges of creation - Caprolite - Mortillet

    Johannes Kepler recorded his observations of a comet at Prague from 26.9.1607 to 26.10.1607 and Christian Longmontanus at Malmo and Copenhagen from 1.10.1607 to 26.10.1607. (Perihelion: 27.10.1607 at at 2 16' Aquarius). These observations were later used by William Halley.

    The summer of 1607 by Able Grimmer of Antwerp

    1609 Comentarios Reales de los Incas by Garcilaso de la Vega (1539-1616) published in Lisbon. Garcilaso de la Vega was the son of a Spanish conquistador and an Inca noblewoman and his book is based on stories he had been told by his Inca relatives.

    21.3.1610 Speech to Parliament in which King James said "kings are not only God's lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon God's throne, but even by God himself they are called gods". (external link)

    14.5.1610 Francois Ravaillac assasinated Henry 4th of France. Henry's widow initially acted as Regent for their son, Louis 13th. Under the guidance of his minister, Cardinal Richelieu, Henry 13th consolidated his royal power. An "absolute monarchy" was established in France in his reign and that of his son, Louis 14th. France

    1611 Official (King James or Authorised) version of the Bible in English published. [See 393] The Bible story is largely chronological - beginning with the genesis of the world and ending with divine revelation of its end. It provided the framework for many historical explanations of nature and society. Usher gave it precise dates. For generations this book, more then any other, provided the English speaking peoples with poetry, history, religion, politics, ethics, names, imagery and visions, as well as a framework for natural and social science. Its downfall as the basis of science in the 19th century was a cultural cataclysm. However, the Bible, critically read, continued to be a major source of material for emerging social sciences such as anthropology.

    The Westminster Confession (1647/1648) effectively, although only for a short time, set the Bible up against the King: Which was not what James had intended!

    1613 Francisco de Suarez, a Spanish Catholic theologian, published Defensio Fidei Catholicae, criticising James 1st's theory of the divine right of kings. Saurez's book was burned in London.

    1614 In France, the Queen Regent called the States General (a representative body like the English parliament) together in an effort to counter the power of the nobility. It was dismissed in 1615, and did not meet again until 1789 France

    1618 Start of the thirty years war that concluded with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648

    1618 Company of Adventurers of London Trading to the Ports of Africa granted a charter. Developed into the Company of Merchants Trading to Guinea in 1631. Known as the Guinea Company/)

    Inigo Jones finished the Queen's House in Greenwich, England, in 1619

    Picture from Panoyre and Ryan 1958 p.118, who date the "buildings of the classical era" (in Britain) from 1620 to 1800

    1620 Francis Bacon published Novum Organum, one of the works in which he publicised his new method of gaining knowledge (science) by a process of induction.

    Francis Bacon was the Lord Chancellor of England from 1617 to 1621. On 16.6.1620 he and others recommended that the Attorney General, Henry Yelverton, should be tried in the Star-chamber on the ground of having officially passed a charter to the city of London containing unauthorised provisions. "James 1 was always in want of money, and not over nice in his methods of raising it" (Edward O'Donoghue 1914)

    1621 Oxford Physic Garden founded by Henry Danvers, Earl of Danby, See 1632. Renamed the Oxford Botanic Garden in 1840.

    12.9.1621 A light display in the sky witnessed by Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) and Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) led them to use the term aurora borealis: northern light or northern dawn. The next one so far south was in 1716.

    1623 Probably after this date that Hobbes translated several of Bacon's essays into Latin and took down his thoughts as Bacon dictated them.

    See Social Science History, chapter one:
    John Stuart Mill and his problems with Francis Bacon

    1623 Devotions upon Emergent Occasions by John Donne: "No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friend's or of thine own were: any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee." (Meditation 17)

    1624 Njinga Mbandi (born 1581) took power and became queen of Ndongo and Matamba. She "defined much of the history of seventeenth- century Angola". Her tactics in warfare and espionage, her diplomatic skills, her ability to forge numerous strategic alliances, and her knowledge of trade and religious issues served her well in tenaciously resisting Portugal's colonialist aspirations until her death in 1663" (UNESCO "Women in African History: An E-Learning Tool", launched 12.11.2013)

    1625 Charles 1st succeded James 1st. See Richard Cust The Personality and Political Style of Charles 1. "His reform of the royal court ... introduced a style of ritual similar to Louis 14th's Versailles in an attempt to create an ideal society for his subjects to emulate" [That is, the dramaturgical procedures of the English court preceded those of the French]

    1625 De Jure Belli ac Pacis (On the Law of War and Peace) by Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) published. "He wrote this volume while the Thirty Years' War raged around him in the hope that rational human beings might be able to agree to legal limits on war's destruction."

    1628

    17.3.1628 Benjamin Rudyerd in the English House of Commons: "This is the crisis of Parliaments: we shall know by this if parliaments live or die. If we persevere, the King to draw one way, the parliament another, the Commonwealth must sink in the midst."

    1629

    Charles 1st decided to rule without Parliament. Parliament was not recalled until 1640

    1629 John Parkinson's Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris Or A garden of all sorts of pleasant flowers which our English air will permit to be nursed up. With a kitchen garden of all manner of herbs, roots and fruits, for meat or sauce used with us, and an orchard of all sort of fruitbearing trees and shrubs fit for our land. Together with the right ordering, planting and preserving of them and their uses and virtues Collected by John Parkinson Apothecary of London.

    1632

    In Italy Galileo published his A Dialogue on the Two Principal Systems of the World-Ptolemaic and Copernican.   See Ptolemy and Copernicus. Notes on Hobbes and Galileo and Hobbes on Deductions from simple axioms

    The Latin edition (engraving left) was published in 1635, making the book international. In the engraving, Aristotle discusses with Ptolemy (holding an earth centred universe) and Copernicus (whose earth circles the sun)

    If Copernicus was right, where is heaven?

    1632 Inscription on the new gate to the Oxford Physic Garden "Gloriae Dei optimi maximi Honori Caroli I. Regis in Usum Academiae et Reipublicae Henricus Comes Danby, Anno 1632". [To the glory of God and the greatest honour of King Charles I Henry Earl of Danby for the use of both the University and the state in the year 1632]. (source)

    1632 John Locke (author of Two Treatises of Government) born

    1633 In Johnson's edition of Gerard's Herbal he describes two small plants of the American or Western (Occidental) Plane growing in John Tradescant's garden in Lambeth. (Louden 1836). It has been inferred that Tradescant (the younger?) brought seed to England about 1630. See 1670

    1635

    In 1635 there were twenty two master printers of London - Some licensed, some not survivors' history

    31.7.1635 Royal proclamation "For settling of the letter Office of England and Scotland". Origin of the public post office in Britain.

    1637 In France, René Descartes published Discourse de la méthod, a slim book in which he argued reason as the foundation of knowledge and the source of certainty. He also reviewed his previous argument that the body is a machine which, in humans, but not animals, is directed by the soul.

    1640

    November 1640 Hobbes left England to live in Paris because he thought parliament might arrest him as a supporter of the king's powers against parliament.

    1642

    Isaac
    Newton born

    ENGLISH CIVIL WAR

    Saint Simon refers to "the two English revolutions of the 17th century". One I take to be the civil war and the other the bloodless revolution of 1688 [See revolution]

    November 1642 English civil war began between Charles 1st and parliament over the power of each. [See Hobbes, Filmer and Locke]

    1643 Filmer arrested by Parliamentary forces and kept for several months in Leeds Castle, Kent. It is not clear how much of 1643-1647 he was imprisoned, but he was at liberty in 1647

    In 1644 the seven General Baptist churches issued the London Confession which said that men must be allowed to obey their own conscience and understanding. In 1647 George Fox (Quaker) began preaching under the conviction of the "inner light". The civil war, and the republican Commonwealth that followed it, were a period of intense religious ferment, individual thought and social disorder. Knowledge by the inner inspiration of God was known as "enthusiasm". Locke's Essay on Understanding (1690) sought to establish science as a common knowledge that could control the divisiveness of enthusiasm.

    1368 Qing Dynasty in China

    1645

    19.2.1645 New Model Army Ordinance. "The scoutmaster-general ... was responsible for reconnaissance and collecting intelligence on enemy movements".

    1646 In Paris Hobbes became mathematical tutor to the exiled Prince of Wales (later Charles 2nd)

    May 1646 King Charles 1st surrenders himself to the Scottish Covenanters, who ally with the English Parliament in the summer. He is still King - But from now on he is a king under duress. From June 1646 he was held by the army. He is still free enough (in prison on the Isle of Wight) to initiate a new civil war by a concluding a military alliance with the Scottish Covenanters that threatened the English Parliament - 1647/1648. (See Open University Civil War Timeline) - archive

    1647/1648 The Westminster Confession: An official document (no longer official in England after 1660) specifying the Bible as a foundation of belief superior to (though not, presumably, contradicted by) nature. [External link to Michael Marlow's introduction]

    1648 Filmer published political pamphlets in support of absolute monarchy and the divine right of king's

    30.1.1648 End of the war between Spain and the Netherlands. Treaty of Münster signed 15.5.1648 (first of the Peace of Westphalia treaties). Karl Marx referred to "the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain" as the "only model" for the English revolution of 1648. The revolt had begun in 1566/1568. [See revolution]

    May to October 1648 Peace of Westphalia - It is argued that the peace treaties recognised the territorial integrity of nation states.

    LIVING WITHOUT A MONARCH

    17.8.1648 - 19.8.1648 Battle of Preston (Lancashire). The New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell defeated the Royalists and Scots commanded by the Duke of Hamilton. End of the Second English Civil War.

    6.12.1648 Begining of "Pride's Purge" removing members of Parliament sympathetic to King Charles and leading to the declaration of a republic. Karl Marx refers to an "English revolution of 1648" in which "the bourgeoisie was allied with the modern aristocracy against the monarchy, the feudal aristocracy and the established church." [See revolution]. The purged parliament is known as the Rump Parliament.

    30.1.1649 Execution of Charles 1st.

    From a German engraving published in 1649.
    Abolition of the monarchy and the House of Lords in England. Commonwealth established. Under the Commonwealth Filmer lost some of his property as a result of his loyalty to the king

    The Interregnum (period between reigns) was a republican period in the England, Ireland and Scotland, ending with the restoration of Charles 2nd in 1660

    1650 Rene Descartes died

    Between 1650 and 1654, James Usher's Annales Veteris at Novi Testamenti (years of the old and new testaments) dated the events in the Bible. The creation was fixed as taking place in 4,004 BC. Usher's dates were not only printed in the margins of many Bibles, but were accepted as scientific for a long time. See 2 - 3 -

    April 1651 Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan or The Matter, Form and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiastical and Civil published in London (Hobbes still in France). It distressed some of his previous supporters because it defended absolute rule, but not necessarily monarchical rule.

    Lecture notes on Hobbes
    Social Science History, chapter two: Hobbes, Filmer and Locke
    Extracts from Leviathan
    Hobbes weblinks

    Louise 14th and absolutism France
    7.9.1651 Procession to mark the formal ending of the minority of Louis 14 of France. Hobbes watched the procession from his window. From 1661, when he threw his chief minister into prison, until his death in 1715, Louis 14 ruled personally. "L'etat c'est moi" (I am the state), he said.
    See his system of power and Wollstonecraft's comments

    End of 1651 Hobbes returned to England

    1652

    Quaker disturbances in north-east England. George Fox and others drawing people out of the national church and setting up an alternative organisation.

    1653

    20.4.1653 Oliver Cromwell, Commander in Chief of the Parliamentary Army, dissolved Parliament.

    30.5.1653 Sir Robert Filmer died

    16.12.1653 Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector under a constitution that combined his rule with a Parliament. First volume of Biblia Sacra Polyglotta published. It hadthe support of Cromwell.

    1654 Community care under the Old Poor Law

    1657 Sixth volume of Biblia Sacra Polyglotta. The six volumes included texts in Latin, ancient Greek, Arabic, Chaldean, Hebrew, Ethiopian, Persian, Samaritan and Syriac. Italan Wikipedia. Included Onkelos Targum. ara

    1658 The Annals of the World by James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh. Church of Ireland. London. Printed by E. Tyler, for F. Crook, and G. Bedell. 1658 Available online.


    RESTORATION and ROYAL SOCIETY

    1660 Restoration of English monarchy under Charles 2nd, who attempted to unify the country around a common religion. Charles landed at Dover on 25.5.1660 (Pepys). From then to 1662 there was a period attempting to include moderate puritans (not baptists, ranters and quakers) in the established church.

    " In the reign of Charles II. a degree of licentiousness was deemed the characteristic of a liberal education. It was connected, according to the notions of those times, with generosity, sincerity, magnanimity, loyalty, and proved that the person who acted in this manner, was a gentleman, and not a puritan" Smith, A. 1759

    Mary McIntosh (1968) says "there was no homosexual role, with its associated preclusion of heterosexual activity and justificatory belief systems" before this. The homosexual role "did not emerge in England until towards the end of the late 17th century."

    28.11.1660 Meeting that decided to start a "College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning" which led to the "The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge" (the Royal Society). John Locke became a member 26.11.1668. Isaac Newton became a member 11.1.1672. Thomas Hobbes did not become a member.

    External link to Royal Society web:. This includes a history of the Society and (via library and archives) information on its members.

    Trailblazing timeline 1650-2005 To celebrate the 350th anniversary in 2010 - Articles published by the Royal Society. - See Philosophical Transactions

    18.12.1660 Charles 2nd granted a charter to The Company of the Royal Adventurers into Africa.

    1661

    1.1.1661 to 4.1.1661 Venner's Rising.

    1662

    19.5.1662 Act of Uniformity requiring the use of the Book of Common Prayer and an oath of allegiance.

    Act of Settlement said one acquired a right to relief in a parish by being born there, married there or serving an apprenticeship there. Adam Smith later (1776) criticized this Act for interfering with the mobility of labour.

    Ed Stephan's A Sociology Timeline begins with the birth of John Graunt on 20.4.1620. In 1662 Graunt published his Observations on the Bills of Mortality which drew social conclusions from the tables of London deaths (See words). The time line concludes with Ed Stephan's own The Division of Territory in Society in 1995.

    "We have (though perhaps too much at Random) determined the number of the inhabitants of London to be about 384,000"

    1662: Simon Patrick in Brief account of the new sect of Latitude Men, together with some reflections on the New Philosophy argues that the mechanical idea of the world will mend a clock, but the scholastic will not. A fashionable version of the mechanical philosophy is that everything is the result of the inter-action of atoms. There was a hope (soon to be disappointed) that microscopes would reveal this. - See external link Atomism in the 17th century

    1662 Anonymous publication of The Port Royal Logic: La logique, ou l'art de penser (logic or the art of thinking), by Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694) and Pierre Nicole (1623-1695) of the Jansenist convent of Port Royal just outside Paris. Written in everyday French, and translated into everyday English and other modern languages, it popularised "the art of using reason well in the acquisition of the knowledge of things". (See Mill A System of Logic)

    29.1.1663 Death of Robert Sanderson who is said to have planted the London Plane trees at Buckden Towers in Cambridgeshire.

    12.10.1663 Abbortive plot "to re-establish a gospel ministry and magistracy; to restore the Long Parliament; to relieve themselves from the excise and all subsidies and to reform all orders and degrees of men, especially the lawyers and clergy" did not storm Leeds in Yorkshire. Distancing Quakers from the plotters, Francis Howgill said of one of them, Reginald Fawcett "has been disowned by us these six years, nor do I believe he hath pretended to come among us these two years".

    1663 Shecinah: or, A demonstration of the divine presence in the places of religious worship by John Stillingfleet, rector of Beckingham, Lincolnshire (died 1687) defended the church against the Quakers.

    February 1665 Announcement at an ordinary meeting of the Royal Society of the publication of Philosophical Transactions, which the society claims as the "world's first and longest-running journal of science".

    Philosophical Transactions was initially a project of Henry Oldenburg (born about 1619, died 5.9.1677) who was secretary to the Royal Society and its foreign correspondent. The early journal consisted of letter-excerpts, reviews and summaries of recently-published books, and accounts of observations and experiments from European natural philosophers (scientists). After his death it continued to be produced by a succession of individual proprietors until 1752, when the Royal Society took over financial responsibility for it.

    See Royal Society events to mark 350th anniversary and Philosophical Transactions: 350 years of publishing at the Royal Society (1665 - 2015) and 350 year birthday


    Sunday 2.9.1666 for five days: Fire of London.
    Bethlem rebuilt. and Quakers re-located. - See St Paul's 1697

    Brick was widely adopted as a London building material after the great fire. See Plough Court. - five ways the fire changed London

    15.12.1666 three ships come sailing in

    1667 First edition of John Milton's book long poem Paradise Lost

    About 1670 Henry and Flood (1919) suggest the possible origin of the London Plane tree in the Oxford Physic Garden as a hybrid between the Oriental and Occidental Plane. See Platantus. But see Buckden Planes - The Ely Plane is consistent with this date.

    about 1670 Maypole song

    1673 The first of the letters from Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632- 1723) to the Royal Society, in which he described what he saw through his single lens magnifier (microscope). Amongst the small living things he looked at were sperm, blood cells, bacteria, algae (spirogyra) and protozoa (vorticella). See external link

    1679 Thomas Hobbes died.

    1680 Patriarcha by Sir Robert Filmer (died 1653) published. This supported absolute divine right of kings.

    1680 Possible date for planting of the Ely Plane. The Plane at Barn Elms (In the Ranalagh Club grounds in 1919) was considered by Henry and Flood to be the same size and so they suggested the same date. It is known to have existed in the mid-eighteenth century.

    22.1.1680 Locke bought a copy of Patriarcha. It was probably at this period that Locke wrote the first treatise on Government (published 1689/1680), criticising Filmer. If so he would have kept it secret for fear of the king's police.

    March 1680 London Penny Post introduced by William Dockwra. (Link to British Postal Museum and Archive). The service used coffee houses and similar places as collecting points. "... the coffee houses in their golden age between 1680 and 1730" (Habermas, J. 1962/1989 p.32).

    1682

    Between 26.8.1682 and 10.9.1682 Edmund Halley observed the comet which was later to be named after him. (Perihelion: 15.9.1682 at 2 53' Aquarius), and noticed how similar its path was to the recorded movements of comets seen in 1531 and 1607.

    Late November 1682 Notices in London Gazette the (private) Penny Post having been closed as unlawful, government officers would take it over, employing the same staff and using the same receiving houses, from Monday 11.12.1682.

    Summer 1683 For his safety, Locke left England to live in Holland.

    7.12.1683 Algernon Sidney beheaded for High Treason, partly as a consequence of a book he had written (not published) criticising
    Filmer's Patriarcha



    1685 James 2nd English king. He tried to enforce Catholic toleration.

    1686 First edition, in Latin, of Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (English translation 1729). See also 1713, 1723, 1740.


    1689
    Geometry and war "The New Method of Fortification as Practised by Monsieur de Vauban, Engineer-General of France and New Treatise of Geometry were published in English in 1691. They translated a book published in French in Amsterdam in 1689.

    For a "perfect" understanding of fortifications, it was necessary to learn geometry, and the gentleman on the frontispiece (left) are pointing to geometric designs.

    The Preface to my (1762) edition says the book is designed for people "addicted to the study of this part of the Mathematics, who have not the leisure or opportunity to read over the vast systems of voluminous writers... It contains... all that is requsite for the theory and practice of a good soldier".

    November/December 1688 Glorious Revolution: William and Mary (protestants) were invited to become king and queen by the English parliament. James 2nd fled to France.   -   Constitutional monarchy - The monarch having been selected by parliament, under conditions laid down by parliament, Divine Right ceased to be the legitimating argument for monarchy. Legitimacy could be built on the consensual grounds of theorists such as John Locke. This secular (non-religious) base reduced the need for all loyal subjects to be members of the established church.

    "... after the Revolution the glory of the Court grew dim... Patronage was sought elsewhere, in the lobbies of Parliament, in the ante- chambers of Ministers, in the country houses of the... aristocracy - finally in an appeal to the educated public". (Trevelyan, G.M. 1942 p.338)

    1689 Bill of Rights and Act of Toleration

    1689/90 John Locke's Two Treatises of Government published. They were probably first drafted in 1679/1680. The Two Treatises has 1690 on its cover, but it and his Letter on Toleration were both in print by the autumn of 1689. Both were published anonymously.

    1690 Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding published. This work he signed.

    1693 Locke's Thoughts Concerning Education published

    January 1693 Edmund Halley's "An estimate of the degrees of the mortality of mankind, drawn from curious tables of the births and funerals at the city of Breslaw; with an attempt to ascertain the price of annuities upon lives" published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London

    1694

    Mary Astell's A serious proposal to the ladies, for the advancement of their true and greatest interest. By a lover of her sex. Part 1. London:

    "The Incapacity, if there be any, is acquired not natural; and none of their follies are so necessary, but that they might avoid them if they pleased themselves."

    27.9.1694 Royal Charter establishing "The Governor and Company of the Bank of England", with the exclusive right to issue bank notes in England and Wales, in exchange for a loan of £1.2 million to the government.

    1696

    Gregory King's manuscript Natural and Political Observations and Conclusions upon the State and Condition of England, 1696, was not published until 1801.
    King proposed using the number of houses (where available) to estimate the population. There were 6,790 houses in Norwich City. He calculated a population of 28,546. This was calculated by multiplying by 4.2. [almost!] A local population census in 1673 had recorded 28,881 residents then living in the city. Using figures like this, historians have concluded that Norwich was the second largest city in England after London.

    1697 Britain began to keep records of the gap between its imports and its exports (the "balance of trade"). When nations kept figures from year to year (time series) in economics, weather or whatever, it made possible the production of graphs like the following which shows the British balance of trade from 1697 to 1925. Click on the picture to read the article by James Galbraith from which the graph comes.

    See also economic cycles - UK balance of payments crisis 1947 - and peaks and troughs of USA economic cycles

    1697 to 1807 Bristol (as well as London) part of the slave trade.

    2.12.1697 Christopher Wren's new St Paul's Cathedral, in the City of London, consecrated - a classical construction replacing the medieval old St Paul's destroyed by fire thirty two years before. The design for the dome was not agreed until 1697 and not completed until 1710.

    1699 Seed of a sweet scented pea sent from Sicily to England and Amsterdam. It had a small, two coloured (purple and maroon) flower, but a strong scent. Later named Lathyrus odoratus. The sweet pea self- fertilises and this led Francis Galton, in 1875 to select it for his experiments on hereditary transmission.

    *********


    18TH CENTURY

    Historical roots of the Public Sphere (Öffentlichkeit)

      "A public sphere that functioned in the political realm arose first in Great Britain at the turn of the eighteenth century" (Habermas, J. 1962/1989 p.57).

      "The clubs, salons and coffee-houses (there were 3000 [coffee-houses] in London in the early 1700s) supported by the growing and increasingly free press formed a critical forum, in which gentlemen independent of the court and other political institutions could get together on a basis of relative equality and discuss the great events of the day" ( Outhwaite, W. 1994 on Habermas, J. 1962).
    See Winchester Journalism on "Courants"

    1700 Leonard Plukenet's Almagesti botanici mantissa published in London. On page 153 this contains what is thought to be the earliest written description of what we now know as the London Plane tree: "Platantus orientalis et occidentalis miedliam faciem obtinens, Amnericanus, globulis grandioribus, foliis splenidenitibus atris." [See Oxford Physic Garden

    1701 Thomas Bray founded The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, which was later abbreviated to Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

    1702 Queen Anne succeded King William as the ruler of Britain. She gave her name to a style of architecture which was to last. Picture from Panoyre and Ryan 1958 p.123, who argue that the style fitted the "classical way of building to the ordinary well-to-do gentleman's home"
    It might also be said to adapt classical principles to British rain, as the roof slopes but hips instead of gables meant a horizontal eave line could be preserved all round the building. Mathematical proportion is kept with more comfort and curvaciousness. Style and convenience suited the new "sash" windows whose "ingenious mechanism", Panoyre and Ryan say, "shows clearly the new scientific approach". These spread to domestic building for all classes in the following two centuries.


    26.11.1703 Midnight: start of the Great Storm in southern Britain. It lasted until 6am [??]. Between 8,000 and 15,000 people were killed, a fifth of the Royal Navy's seaman drowned. Thirteen navy ships were lost, as well as merchant ships. Thousands of building were damaged or destroyed, millions of trees lost and the Eddystone Lighthouse swept away.

    19.1.1704 Day of fasting in repentance for the sins of the nation that had provoked the late storm. (Declared by Queen Anne)

    28.10.1704 Death of John Locke.


    About 1705 Birth of
    Ukawsaw Gronniosaw

    1705 Edmund Halley in Synopsis Astronomia Cometicae argued that comet sightings of 1456, 1531, 1607, and 1682 were of the same comet. He predicted it would be seen again in 1758. When it was, the comet became generally known as Halley's Comet. See 1910 - 1986.

    1706

    22.7.1706 Treaty of Union between England and Scotland leading to Acts of Union (1706 and 1707) which established a common Parliament of Great Britain in London.

    30.3.1707 Death of Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban (Born May 1633) Maréchal de France and Commissaire général des fortifications from 1678 to 1703.

    1708

    The 1708 Parochial Libraries Act (England and Wales) sought to preserve libraries that had been established for the use of parish clergy.

    1710

    John Arbuthnot's "An Argument for Divine Providence, taken from the Constant Regularity observed in the Births of both Sexes" (external text) published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society for 1710. "... perhaps the first application of probability to social statistics and includes the first formal test of significance. In this paper Arbuthnot claims to demonstrate that divine providence, not chance, governs the sex ratio at birth." (J J O'Connor and E F Robertson)

    1710 The dome of St Paul's completed.

    This is England's only classical cathedral. It speaks of proportion and reason as well as grandeur and adoration and was the tallest building in the City.

    See maths in the city

    1711
    David
    Hume born

    1711 -1712 Daily London journal The Spectator sought "to bring philosophy out of the closets and libraries, schools and colleges, to dwell in clubs and assemblies, at tea-tables and coffeehouses".

    1712 Jean Jacques Rousseau (author of The Social Contract) born

    1713 Second edition of Newton's Principles contained Roger Cotes' Preface trying to show how Newton's practice was consistent with the new ( Baconian) inductive science.

    1713 Posthumous publication of Ars conjectandi (Art of Conjecturing) by Jacques Bernoulli (1655-1705), said by some to represent the "beginning of the mathematical theory of probability". A Bernoulli trial is an experiment like tossing a coin in which there are two possible outcomes. The probability of the different outcomes in a series of trials is calculated. In coin tossing, the "binomial" probability of all heads in one toss is 0.5., in two tosses 0.25, in three tosses 0.125, and so on. See Probability

    1714 First of the Georges succeded Queen Anne as the ruler of Britain. The term Georgian is applied to architecture over a long period.

    Pictures from Panoyre and Ryan 1958
    The development of terraced houses conserves space in towns
    867 to 869 High Road, Tottenham are, according to English Heritage, early eighteenth century houses. They are constructed of red brick.

    1.9.1715 Louis 15th (aged 5) King of France. Died 10.5.1774. The term Rococo "usually covers the kind of ornament, style and design associated with Louis 15th's reign and the beginning of that of Louis 16". (1835 Dictionary of the French Academy) [See Habermas]

    6.3.1715, and for three nights: Northern lights (aurora borealis) visible in London, and in Europe from Prussia to Italy. The last aurora to be seen so far south was in 1621.
    1719 Daniel Defoe, author of the account of the Great Storm of 1703, published his most famous work, the story of Robinson Crusoe. See 1722 - 1724 - 1870

    1720

    August 1720 Peak of prices in shares on the London before they fell. The burst of this "South Sea" bubble coincided with the end of the "Mississippi" bubble in Paris towards the end of the year and led to collapse in Amsterdam as well. Foucault calls this the "disaster of 1720" (Foucault The Order of Things)

    1722 A Journal of the Plague Year being observations or memorials of the most remarkable occurrences, as well public as private, which happened in London during the last great visitation in 1665. Written by a Citizen who continued all the while in London. Never made public before Signed H.F. Now attributed to Daniel Defoe.

    1723

    27.2.1723 David Hume, aged 12, started at Edinburgh University. He did not take a degree, but for two or three years was exposed to the new philosophy particularly that of Sir Isaac Newton.

    1724

    1724 First publication of Logic, or The Right Use of Reason in the Enquiry After Truth With a Variety of Rules to Guard Against Error in the Affairs of Religion and Human Life, as well as in the Sciences by Isaac Watts

    1724Immanuel Kant, author of the Critiques of Pure and Practical Reason, born.

    Between 1724 and 1727, Daniel Defoe published A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, divided into circuits or journies. "When a survey is demanded of Queen Anne's England and its everyday life, our thoughts turn to Daniel Defoe, riding solitary and observant through the countryside" (Trevelyan, G.M. 1942 p.293) [But note that the journeys were through Great Britain and so included Scotland.]

    "London was, in Defoe's day, the only town in England that could be reckoned large by modern standards. Bristol and Norwich, which came next to it in population, had in the 1720s probably no more than 30,000 inhabitants." Greater London possibly half a million. (Cole. Persons and Periods p63)


    1726

    Westwood Trust established by London Quakers for "the putting out to Apprentice such two poor Friends sons within the limits of the Monthly Meeting as are not entitled to any allowances of that sort" - See 1958

    1726 William Rufus Chetwood's The Voyages and Adventures of Captain Robert Boyle (London) contains the sentence "There may be about 20,000 Whites (or I should say Portuguese, for they are none of the whitest,) and about treble that number of slaves." [White distinguishing people by skin colour. Oxford English Dictionary entries go back to 1604]. See 1737


    1727 Isaac Newton died

    1728

    1729 English translation of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World (Published, in Latin, in 1686)

    1730 to 1740 Possibly about here that the continental word bronze was introduced into English to distinguish copper and tin alloys from the modern brass that used a zinc compound. Johnson's dictionary (1755) says brass is a "yellow metal made of copper and lapis calaminaris" [copper and zinc oxide]

    1734: The Koran: Commonly called the Alkoran of Mohammed An English translation, directly from arabic, by George Sales, a London lawyer, who included a long Preliminary Discourse explaining the history and context of Mohammed. Served for centuries its declared purpose of making the Koran (Quran) available to christians. My copy (Frederick Warne 1889), first bought for the Seafarers' Education Service, then joined the small library of Herbert Henry Moss, a primitive methodist, from whom I would borrow it in the late 1950s.

    1735

    The Table of the Animal Kingdom (Regnum Animale) in Carolus Linnaeus's first edition (1735) of Systema Naturae (System of Nature) includes "Homo" (Latin: man) in "Anthropomorphia" (Latin: of human form) along with "Simia" (Latin: ape or monkey) and "Bradypus" (Latin: sloths). Homo is divided into European, American, Asian and African. In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae (1758) Linnaeus introduced the term Homo sapiens (sapiens Latin: wise). The full title of System of Nature (in English) is "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with characters, differences, synonyms, places". [See Race]

    America
    1736

    Publication of Matthew Hale's History of the Pleas of the Crown (1736), vol. 1, ch. 58, p. 629: "But the husband cannot be guilty of a rape committed by himself upon his lawful wife, for by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract." [See domestic violence]

    1737

    John Atkins published A Voyage to Guinea, Brasil, and the West Indies 1723-35 in which he wrote "I am persuaded the black and white Race have, ab origine, sprung from different-coloured first Parents" (p.39).

    1737 In Carolina, John Wesley published A Collection of Psalms and Hymns

    1739

    11.11.1739 John Wesley preached for the first time in his new London headquarters, the Foundery Chapel. Hymns and Sacred Poems published, including reference to Shecinah.

    1740 David Hume's Treatise of Human Nature. Hume attempted to be the Newton of Social Science.

    See Social Science History, chapter three:
    What is science?:
    The Ideas of Locke, Hume and Wollstonecraft

    Extracts from Hume: on the origin of our ideas and on virtue and vice

    31.5.1740 to 17.8.1786 Reign of Friedrich 2nd of Prussia (Frederick the Great), who modernized the state bureaucracy and promoted religious tolerance

    1744 Oranges and Lemons - bells of London

    1745

    1745: First edition of John Mason's Self-knowledge, a treatise shewing the nature and benefit of that important science and the way to attain it. (Google books) "One of the most popular works of moral advice and self-help of its time... By 1836 it had gone through more than twenty editions... in Britain and America, and had been translated into Welsh and several European languages". (Alan Ruston, DNB)

    16.8.1745 Charles Edward Stuart landed in Scotland beginning the Jacobite rising against the Hanovarians. March south ended at Derby on 4.12.1745, where the decision was made to retreat to Scotland. London was preparing for an invasion and even the Quakers assisted in preparations for defence.

    1746

    "The old order ends"
    16.4.1746 Defeat of the Stuart army, under Charles Edward, by the Hanovarian army at the Battle of Culloden Moor. "No individual soldier in the Stuart Army has a grave... grey tombstones have written upon them that here is the grave of the MacDonalds, here is the grave of the Mackintoshes, and so forth". (Cole and Postgate 1949, chapter one) [The photograph below was taken by Kirsty Smith 15.10.2004]
    Time and space
    "The confict between this very ancient society and the modern society which was challenging it" was settled after Cullloden. "In the language of Marxian economistss", Charles Edward had marched "with a feudal army into into a bourgeois society" (Cole and Postgate 1949, chapter one). See also George Carnegie

    1746 Abury [Avebury], a Temple of the British Druids: and some others described; wherein is a more particular account of the first and patriarchal religion; and of the peopling the British Islands ... By William Stukeley. His Stonehenge, a temple restored to the British Druids was published in 1740 - External link to Earth Mysteries website archive

    1746 Champion's Brass Works established at Warmley, near Bristol, by the Quaker industrialist, William Champion (1709-1789). It closed in 1768, and in 1769 an inventory of what was in the factory was made. This shows that everything produced was for the African trade - probably to be exchanged for slaves. (Dalrymple and Horton 14.12.2003)

    See John P. Birchall - Bristol museums - Paul Townsend

    1747

    September 1747 Engraving "The Engine to Raise Water by Fire" The Universal Magazine, volume 1, August 1747 (London, John Hinton), pp 163-165. [An engraving of Newcomen's Atmospheric Engine] (external link)

    1748

    In The Spirit of the Laws, Charles Secondat "Baron de Montesquieu" (l689-l755) explored natural and human laws in a way that enabled people to analyse society as a whole, in relation to its parts, in relation to its history and in relation to its environment. [Montesquieu's satirical Lettres persanes (Persian Letters) was written in 1721]

    Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-1751) published L'homme machine. Translated into English as Man a Machine (external link) in 1749 - See Foucault

    Eulogy on La Mettrie by Frederick 2nd (the "Great"), King of Prussia (external link)


    Jeremy Bentham, (author of A Fragment on Government ) born
    Olympe de Gouges (author of Declaration of the Rights of Woman) born Marie Gouze

    1750s "Until the 1750s the Polyanthus, due to the dominance of the red gene, consisted only of red, and dull muddy or sepia flowers. At this date a new variation occurred, one which sparked off the interest of the workers in the industrial towns and became one of the most popular of flowers. Today this flower, the 'Gold-Laced Polyanthus' has almost disappeared, though due to the tenacity of an American hybridist a new strain has been introduced. The interest in the Gold Lace Polyanthus was immense, and remained so for almost a century, however by the early 1870s they had been discarded and virtually died out." John S. Harrison 1976, who speaks of "an immense following especially in the industrial areas of Lancashire, Yorkshire and the Midlands" and suggests "the anomic workers drawn into the infant conurbations by the necessity of work, gained solace from their abject misery either by indulging in gin drinking, or by creating tiny gardens of plants which represented the freshness, freedom and beauty they had forsaken in search of a living."


    1750
    Jean Jacques Rousseau's Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts.

    16.1.1750 A vivid red arch of light in the night sky, sending up wavering streams, visible throughout Britain. The "remarkable Aurora Borealis" "seems to have drawn as much attention, as that in 1716". 23.1.1750 Fiery clouds seen over Dublin and Oxford. 1.2.1750 "A prodigious tempest of thunder and lightning, with wind, rain and hail" on Bristol "overwhelming the inhabitants with consternation". 8.2.1750 London earthquake, felt in Bristol also. 8.3.1750 another, more violent, earthquake, which, being a month after the first, led to predictions (not fulfilled) of third on 8.4.1750.
    "Little philosophers, who see a little, and but very little into natural causes, may think they see enough to account for what happens, without calling in the aid and assistance of a special providence; not considering, that God who made all things, never put any thing out of his own power, but has all nature under command to serve his purposes in the government of the world." (Thomas Sherlock. A Letter from the Lord Bishop of London, to the Clergy and People of London and Westminster; On Occasion of the Late Earthquakes)

    See also See Methodist Hymns

    British Act of 1750 "for Regulating the Commencement of the Year; and for Correcting the Calendar now in Use" Time and space

    In England and Wales the day after 24.3.1750 was 25.3.1751 because, until the Act of 1750 changed this, the new year began on 25 March (Lady Day). Under the Act of 1750, the day after 31.12.1751 was 1.1.1752. So 1751 was a short year - 25 March to 31 December. See 1752

    1751 Experiments and observations on electricity: made at Philadelphia in America, by Mr. Benjamin Franklin, and communicated in several letters to Mr. P. [Peter] Collinson of London, F.R.S.. Peter Collinson was a merchant, born a Quaker, who traded with Philadelphia. America

    1751 First volume of Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, par une société de gens de lettres. Encyclopaedia or a systematic Dictionary of the sciences, arts and trades, by a society of men of letters. Put in order and published by M Diderot. The mathematical part by M. d'Alembert,

    The full set (17 volumes of text and 11 volumes of plates) was published between 1751 and 1772. It contained 74,000 articles written by more than 130 authors

    1752

    September 1752 Under the Act of 1750, Britain and her dominions "in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America" switched from the Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar. Eleven days were omitted from the calendar and the day after 2.9.1752 was 14.9.1752.

    1753 The Ruins of Palmyra, otherwise Tedmor, in the Desart by Robert Wood

    1755

    Micromégas by Voltaire, a short novel telling the story of inhabitants of the star Sirius (the brightest star in the night sky) and the planet Saturn to earth.

    Rousseau's A Discourse on the Origin of Inequality.
    Published in Amsterdam
    The cover engraving associates liberty with equality. Liberty - Equality
    lower than the brutes

    15.4.1755 First edition of A Dictionary of the English Language: in which the words are deduced from their originals, and illustrated in their different significations by examples from the best writers. To which are prefixed, a history of the language, and an English grammar. by Samuel Johnson

    Saturday 1.11.1755 The Lisbon earthquake. See Wikipedia

    1756

    William Godwin born. He was to develop a political philosophy to formalise and show the foundations of radical ones like Rousseau's preceding his.

    29.1.1756 Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia elected a Fellow of the Royal Society as the one "who first suggested the experiments to prove the analogy between lightning and electricity". Peter Collinson was one of those who proposed him America

    18.5.1756 Declaration or war between Britain and France. Official start of the global "seven years war"

    1757

    14.3.1757 Execution of Admiral John Byng

    1758

    Tenth edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturae - See Wikipedia

    A comet that was sighted late in 1758 and, passed perihelion (closest distance to the Sun) on 13.3.1759 was named in Edmund Halley's honour. [Astronomers took considerable effort to find the comet's predicted return. The comet was eventually found by the German amateur astronomer Johann Georg Palitzsch on the night of 26.12.1758-27.12.1758. It was traced by a number of astronomers up to June 1759.

    1759

    Voltaire's Candide, ou l'Optimisme; traduit de l'Allemand de M. le Docteur Ralph Candide's optimism was qualified by (amongst other things) the Lisbon earthquake - the seven year's war - and the execution of Admiral Byng

    Adam Smith's The Theory of Moral Sentiments

    15.1.1759 The, new, "British Museum" opened to the public, complete with reading room, manuscripts, natural history specimens, old coins and medals, prints and drawings, and exhibits of strange objects from other cultures. museum history

    1759 Hymns on the expected invasion 1759. Published by Strahan in London. Anonymous. Written by Charles Wesley . 12 pages. With: Wesley, C. "Hymns to be used on the Thanksgiving-Day, Nov. 29, 1759 and after it": 36 pages.

    1760

    The General Subscription Library at Warrington established "without any distinction of sects or parties". See Leeds Library.

    1761

    6.6.1761 Transit of Venus -

    "Despite the fact that this transit took place during the latter half of the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), a worldwide conflict involving the major powers of the time and their colonies, it was observed by many astronomers from around sixty locations ranging from China to England and from South Africa to Norway as part of the world's first multinational scientific collaboration" (external link)

    1761 Bridgewater Canal opened to transport coal from Worsley to Manchester. See Bridgewater Foundry

    1762 Rousseau's The Social Contract and Emile. The controversial content of Emile made life in France uncomfortable for him. In 1766 and 1767 he lived in England as the guest of David Hume. He died in France in 1778. In 1794 the remains of Rousseau and Voltaire were moved to the Pantheon in Paris.

    Engraving for Epinglier (pin) article in 1762 volume of Diderot's Encyclopédie

    1762 "The New Method of Fortification as Practised by Monsieur de Vauban, Engineer-General of France. Together with a New Treatise of Geometry. The sixth edition, Carefully revised and corrected by the Original. To which are now added, A Treatise of Military Orders, and The Art of Gunnery, or Throwing of Bombs, Balls, etc to hit any Object assigned. The whole work illustrated with thirty-two Copper Plates Published London by C. Hitch and L. Hawes, in Paternoster Row [and others] 213 pages. This is a translation by Abel Swall of late seventeenth century texts. The main part, on Geometry and Fortificatiosn, having been published in English in 1691. My copy belonged to William Fergusone who was an Ensign in the 24th Regiment.

    Economic cycles Jevons calculated that, between 1763 and 1878, commerical crises went in cycles with about 10.4. years between each. The crises were 1763 - 1772-1773 - 1783 - 1793 - 1804-1805 - 1815 - 1825 - 1836-1839 - 1847 - 1857 - 1866 - 1878
    Industrial revolution
    Steam Steam came to power the machines that were developing fast (particularly in textile industries of England and Scotland), creating factories where people worked to the rhythm of the machine. Piston steam engines had been used to pump water since the end of the 17th century. In 1763 James Watt repaired a model of a steam engine designed by Thomas Newcombe. In the 1760s, Watt created more powerful engines by condensing the steam in a vessel separate from the cylinder. These made steam engines an alternative to water wheels, and moved industry from the side of highland streams to lowland coal-fields. In 1780s America and Britain, steam was first used to power paddle boats. The first rail- running steam carriages appeared in the first years of the 19th century. The revolutionary impact of steam became clear to everyone in Britain in the 1830s and 1840s as a network of railways was constructed, affecting every aspect of people's lives. Tennyson explained it to masses of English speaking readers six years before Marx and Engels explained it to small groups of revolutionaries in Europe.

    23.12.1763 "An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances. By the late Rev. Mr. Bayes, communicated by Mr. Price, in a letter to John Canton, M. A. and F. R. S." read to the Royal Society.

    10.2.1763 Treaty of Paris concluding the seven year war

    1764

    Beccaria's Essay on Crimes and Punishment

    About 1765 Leonhard Euler's Elements of Algebra

    1768

    Joseph Priestley's Essay on the First Principles of Government

    "The good and happiness of the members, that is, the majority of the members of any state, is the great standard by which everything relating to that state must finally be determined".

    1768 Leeds Library was founded.

    August 1768 Start of the scientific expedition of the Endeavour, commanded by James Cook, around the world via Polynesia and Australia.

    10.6.1768 Royal Academy of Arts founded by King George 3rd. It excluded engravers. Raymond Williams relates this to the development of a distinction between artist and artisan.

    1769

    3.6.1769 Transit of Venus (external link)

    1770 Georg Friedrich Hegel born

    The phrase sciences morales et politiques was introduced into France about 1770. It is a term representing what we might now call the social sciences. See 1795 (Porter and Ross 9.2003)

    1771 Robert Owen born

    Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs (Journey through various provinces of the Russian Empire), by the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas, was published in three volumes between 1771 and 1776.

    Pallas found mammoth and rhinoceros preserved in the Siberian ice, including ones with their hairy hides preserved. These beasts became known as "woolly".

    Bones of rhinos, hippos and elephants had been found in Germany and other parts of Europe. In Russia, Pallas was also shown such bones. He was inclined to explain these as remains of tropical animals washed north by Noah's flood. The ice finds were actual carcasses and their overcoat suggested they were natives of the cold. (See John J. McKay)

    1772 David Ricardo born

    1772? Pageant: James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw's life narrative
    A Narrative of the Most Remarkable Particulars In the Life of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, An African Prince, As related by Himself. Bath. Price Six-Pence. (Born about 1705 - died 1775).

    "It is a generally received opinion, in England, that the natives of Africa go entirely unclothed; but this supposition is very unjust: they have a kind of dress so as to appear decent, though it is very slight and thin."

    1773 James Mill born

    1774 Louis 16th king of France.

    Medical inspection of London madhouses introduced

    Joseph Priestley isolated oxygen - dephlogisticated air
    from which everything except its
    life giving properties has been removed.

    1775

    1.1.1775 "An Account of Further Discoveries in Air. By the Rev. Joseph Priestley, LL.D. F. R. S. in Letters to Sir John Pringle, Bart. P. R. S. and the Rev. Dr. Price, F. R. S." published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. This announced the discovery of a "dephlogiscated air" (later called oxygen) which was five or six times better than common air for breathing or burning.

    28.9.1775 Death and burial in Chester of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw "a blackman" - aged 70.

    1775 The thesis of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840) De Generis Humani Varietati Nativa (Göttingen) divided the human species into five races, the American, Caucasian, Ethiopian, Malay, and Mongolian, on the basis of skin colour and conformation of the head. (Oxford English Dictionary). It was published as a book (still in Latin) in 1795 - See Wikipedia.

    1776 Britain's American colonies declared themselves independent.

    David Hume died

    Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations and Jeremy Bentham's A Fragment on Government were both published in 1776

    Lecture notes on Smith
    Extracts from Wealth of Nations
    Smith weblinks
    Adam Smith revival (late 20th century)
    Lecture notes on Bentham
    Extracts from Bentham
    Brief note on Bentham - Dictionary on Utilitarianism
    Radicals, Socialists and Early Feminists
    Bentham weblinks
    crime and
deviancy
timeline Bentham's
Panopticon
plans
    Surveillance
    See Social Science History, chapter five on
    the theories that Smith, Bentham, Malthus and Owen made and
    chapter one John Stuart Mill and his problems with Francis Bacon

    "Adam Smith is supposed to have brought to light the process of the increasing division of labour, Ricardo the role played by capital, and J-B. Say some of the fundamental laws of the market economy. From this moment on, political economy is supposed to have begun to exist with its own proper object and its own inner coherence." (Foucault The Order of Things)

    1778 France, Britain's traditional enemy, entered the war of independence on America's side. America
    Death of
    Rousseau.

    1780

    Luigi Galvani observed electrical current passing from a generator to a frog's leg. See Wikipedia on Luigi Galvani   Galvanic cell   Galvanism . See Frankenstein introduction

    1781 Immanuel Kant's The Critique of Pure Reason attempted to salvage the philosophy of science by arguing that whilst reason alone cannot establish the truth of what is, categories provided by the mind are needed for us to order our experiences. In The Critique of Practical Reason (1788) he argued that pure reason is practical when it comes to morality. Reason alone establishes what ought to be, as distinct from what is. His third major book, Critique of Judgement (1790) argued that beauty is the perfect compatibility of the forms with which we perceive with what we perceive.

    May and August 1783 "Great Fogg", a dust and ash haze from volcanic eruptions in Iceland (Eldeyjar) and Japan (Asama Yama) produced unusual skies in the northern hemisphere. A fiery meteor flashed across western European skies during the early evening of 18.8.1783. These events stirred the imagination of eleven year old Luke Howard. Convinced, later, that God had given form to everything, he classified the forms of clouds.

    3.9.1783 The American war of Independence was concluded by the Treaty of Versailles America

    1784 Immanuel Kant's What is Enlightenment? - See Social Science History and dictionary and listen to Guy Watson in the cabbage field: "pre-enlightenment, our inability to explain natural phenomenon led to mysticism"

    Robert Alun Jones' Timeline on Durkheim (archive) begins with the appointment of Emile Durkheim's great-grandfather, Simon Simon Durkheim, as rabbi in Mutzig (Alsace) in 1784

    18.5.1784 Edict of the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph (Giuseppe) 2nd attempting to replace Latin with German as the administrative language of the empire (cancelled 28.1.1790). In this, Joseph points to the example of France, England and Russia and says the use of "Latin in public business" is prohibited among all enlightened peoples" except Hungary, [Croatia and Slavonia], the Grand Duchy of Transylvania and Poland. The reform triggered linguistic and ethnic strife in Hungary and Galicia. (See Votruba, M. 2010?)

    Bristol 10.9.1784 Letter from John Wesley, addressed "To Dr. Coke, Mr. Asbury, and our Brethren in North America", appointing Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury "joint superintendents over our brethren in North America". According to Leslie Griffiths (10.4.2016) "Nothing got Wesley into deeper trouble than these ordinations ".

    28.7.1785 Jeremy Bentham left Brighton to visit his younger brother, Samuel, in Russia

    1786 An essay on the slavery and commerce of the human species, particularly the African, translated from a Latin Dissertation, which was honoured with the first prize in the University of Cambridge, for the year 1785, by Thomas Clarkson, published in London

    1787: Early one morning

    22.5.1787 Society for the Abolition of the British Slave Trade formed in London.
    17.9.1787 The Constitution of the United States adopted. America

    The Federalist Papers, by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, established an independent tradition of political analysis in the USA.

    1788 The cost of the American war overstrained the resources of the French King (Louis 16th) and was a reason for his calling the States General together in August 1788. This was the French representative body (like Parliament in England). But it had not met since 1614. The King hoped that it would enable him to raise new taxes.

    Cowper's
    The Morning Dream, A Ballad was composed and used in the campaign against slavery in 1788.

    February 1788 A society called the Friends of the Negro formed in Paris to campaign for the abolition of the French slave trade. Its members included people (like Brissot, Mirabeau, Petion, Condorcet and Abbe Gregoire) who were to become leading figures in the early years of the French revolution.

    *********

    click on Stanley Morse's
Copper to visit Crimtim: The
timeline for crime and deviancy

    click on Stanley Morse's Copper to visit Crimtim: The timeline for crime and deviancy


    FRENCH REVOLUTION
    End of the ancient regime in France

    1789: Year of the Revolution. The States General met in May 1789. It had three parts: the first estate (clergy), second estate (nobles) and third estate (others). When it last met, 175 years before, the third estate had been overshadowed by the other two. Now the feelings of the representatives were very different. In February a pamphlet by Abbe Sieyes called What is the Third Estate? argued it was the whole nation. In other words, members of the Third Estate were claiming to represent the whole of France. The three estates sat apart, but the third estate argued that there should be only one assembly. On June 17th they took the law into their own hands and renamed themselves the National Assembly. On June 20th they resolved to go on meeting (even if the king dissolved them) "until the constitution of the realm is established" (tennis court oath). On June 27th they won: the king ordered the first and second estates to join the third.

    Karl Marx argued that in the French revolution of 1789. "the bourgeoisie was allied with the people against the monarchy, the aristocracy and the established church." [See revolution]

    14.7.1789 Fall of the Bastille. The Paris masses captured the state prison: an event that remains the symbol of the revolution and the date of the national holiday. [See Breton festivities 1909]

    17.7.1789 The beginning of the Peasants' revolt. In the countryside people began burning the records on which their lords based their claims for "feudal" dues.

    July 1789 White people from Haiti asked for representation in the French Assembly proportional to the population of Haiti, which consisted mostly of slaves. Issue of race, slavery and rights of man began to be linked in the debates of the French Assembly. America

    4.8.1789: Begining of a series of decrees abolishing feudal rights and privileges. 11.8.1789: "The National Assembly totally abolishes the feudal system"

    26.8.1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    "As the archaeology of our thought easily shows, man is an invention of recent date. And one perhaps nearing its end." (Foucault, 1970)

    5.10.1789 The Insurrection of the Women. Women marched from Paris to the King's palace at Versailles to complain about the lack of bread. On the 6th October they marched back to Paris - bringing the King and Queen with them. - [This event offends Burke]

    22.10.1789 People of mixed race from Haiti (not slaves) came to the French Assembly to ask it to recognise their rights as men.

    November 1789 Widespread persecution of people of mixed race began in Haiti.

    4.11.1789 In London, Richard Price delivered a Discourse on the Love of our Country to the "Revolution Society" (formed to commemorate 1688). The society sent a congratulatory letter to the National Assembly. In January 1790 Edmund Burke read a pamphlet containing the discourse, the letter and a reply from the president of the Assembly. This stimulated Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France (November 1790). Mary Wollstonecraft published a reply, A Vindication of the Rights of Man, in December 1790. Tom Paine's two part reply, The Rights of Man, was published in 1791 and 1792.

    FRENCH CONSTITUTION OF 22.12.1789: This gave the vote on the basis of taxation. Citoyens actifs were involved in direct and indirect elections to local councils and the National Assembly. Citoyens passifs had civic rights (freedom of expression etc), but no political rights. The Assembly had 745 deputies for France (colonial deputies were added later) and these represented départements according to area, population and revenue.

    December 1789
    In Paris, a play by Olympe de Gouges that attacked slavery was hissed off the stage after three performances.

    14.12.1789 Count Charles de Lameth told the National Assembly of France that although he owned many slaves in Haiti, I would prefer to lose all I possess there rather than violate the principles that justice and humanity have consecrated. I declare myself both for the admission of half- castes into the administrative assemblies and for the liberty of the blacks!


    1791 In Scotland, John Sinclair sent questionnaires to parishes about their geography and natural history - population - production, - plus some miscellaneous questions. In 1796 he sent "statistical missionaries" to follow up the completion of the questionnaires. Between 1791 and 1799 he published The Statistical Account of Scotland.: Drawn up from the communications of the ministers of the different parishes. By Sir John Sinclair bart. Edinburgh : W. Creech in 21 volumes.

    He thought this would form an account of "the quantum of happiness" of the communities of Scotland and also be a "means of future improvement".

    Sinclair's questions (queries) - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 -


    14.7.1790 William Wordsworth arrived in France
    "Among sequestered villages we walked
    And found benevolence and blessedness
    Spread like a fragrance everywhere...
    Unhoused beneath the evening star we saw
    Dances of liberty

    21.10.1790 Vincent Oge led an unsuccessful insurrection on Haiti. News of his brutal execution drew the attention of French people to the island.

    Bentham's
    Panopticon
    plans
    Bentham's
Panopticon
plans

    Spring 1791 Debates on a proposed Constitution for the French colonies. The Assembly heard evidence from people of mixed race.

    15.5.1791 Resolved by the Assembly that every mulatto whose parents were both free should have a vote.

    21.6.1791 Louis 16 attempted to leave France. He was stopped at Varennes and brought back to Paris. The king's flight led to popular protests calling for a new head to the executive.

    16.7.1791 Massacre of Champ de Mars: a meeting in Paris calling, in effect, for the king's abdication, was dispersed by the National Guard. About 60 petitioners were killed and 200 arrested.

    22.8.1791 Uprising of the slaves in Haiti. Toussaint L'Ouverture joined the uprising after about a month. As a result of the slave uprising the supply of sugar to France was cut off, leading to food riots in Paris in January 1792.

    Some historians wish to make 23rd August "Slavery Remembrance Day" - See weblinks Wilberforce No Way! - UNESCO - Petition

    24.9.1791 The decree of 15.5.1791, which gave a vote to some people of colour, was rescinded by the Constituent Assembly.


    FRENCH CONSTITUTION OF 1791
    Social Science History links: pars
    76; 81; 83;

    September 1791: French Constitution of 1791 adopted. This gave a vote to men with a minimum of income/property.

    Olympe de Gouges published her Declaration of the Rights of Woman, dated 14.9.1791   in French   in English   Social Science History   (weblinks)

    Talleyrand proposed a system of state education in France that would be confined to boys. This appears to have been the spur for Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman, written in three months and published January 1792.   See Social Science History   (weblinks). The first chapter is about being human and how we know what is right and true. See Social Science History - What is science?

    25.9.1791 French Penal Code

    October 1791 Meeting of Legislative Assembly. Brissot agitated for war.

    November 1791 Commissioners arrived in Haiti to restore order. Slave leaders tried to bargain their freedom for the re-enslavement of their followers. When the white colonial government refused the bargain, Toussaint L'Ouverture resolved to fight for complete liberty for all.

    January 1792
    Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman published. On 14.1.1792 Talleyrand arrived in London on an unsuccessful diplomatic mission. Whilst in London he called on Mary Wollstonecraft.

    March 1792 The Paris Commune opened its galleries to the public, which made it more exposed to popular pressure.

    20.3.1792 to 23.3.1792 Formation of a new French ministry led by Brissot. On 24.3.1792 the Legislative Assembly, by a large majority, passed a decree giving full political rights to free men of colour in the colonies. This became law on 4.4.1792.

    FRANCE AT WAR

    20.4.1792 France declared war on Austria. This led to war with Prussia as well. Once France was at war, the influence of the streets on government became more powerful because of popular fear of traitors within the country.

    10.8.1792 Paris masses stormed Tuileries and imprisoned the royal family.

    Early September 1792 The election of the Convention, by almost universal male suffrage, took place at the same time as the defeat of the French army at Verdun and at the same time that crowds massacred over 1,000 prisoners in Paris.

    18.9.1792 Three commissioners from France arrived in Haiti to enforce the decree of 4.4.1792

    21.9.1792 Meeting of Convention which (on 22.9.1792) abolished the monarchy and established the Republic. The Republican calendar started Year One here.

    Early October 1792 News of the imprisonment of the king reached Haiti, where the French fell out over it. On 12.10.1792 the Commissioners dissolved the Colonial Assembly and assumed full control over the colony. Haiti was becoming increasingly split by internal war and, secretly, the British government began to consider taking it over.

    December 1792. Mary Wollstonecraft moved to France to experience for herself the revolutionary civilisation. At the time she went political forces in France were moving against the people she sympathised with (The "Girondins") many of whom went to the guillotine whilst she was there. She returned to England in 1795.

    19.11.1792 A decree of the Convention offered help to all peoples wishing to recover their liberties.

    FRENCH KING GUILLOTINED

    21.1.1793 Execution of Louis 16th.

    1.2.1793 France declared war on Great Britain. War with Spain followed in March and also civil war (the revolt of the Vendee from March to December 1793). Spain invaded Haiti early in the war. At first, Toussaint L'Ouverture and other black leaders fought for Spain against the French Republicans and in defence of the kings.

    Spring 1793 to summer 1794 Period known as the reign of terror in France. The Oxford English Dictionary dates it from March 1793 to July 1794. It is in relation to this that the word "terrorism" was formed. In a 1900 Dictionary "terrorism" is still defined as "A system of government by terror".

    May/June 1793 Paris insurrection and downfall of the Girondins. Rule of the Jacobins.

    FRENCH CONSTITUTION OF 1793

    June 1793 French Constitution of 1793 adopted. This gave the vote to every adult male, apart from domestic servants, but it was never put into practice. [Social Science History link: par. 93]

    19.6.1793-20.6.1793 In Haiti the Republican French Commissioners quashed a revolt of the poor whites by sending armed free coloureds and slaves into the capital, Le Cap, which was destroyed in the fighting. For many colonists the destruction of Le Cap symbolised the end of white supremacy, and a mass migration followed. The main slave armies, however, were still fighting for the Spanish in defence of the kings.

    30.7.1793 A French Commissioner reported from Haiti that The slaves remaining in the party of kings march in company with a great number of white emigres

    29.8.1793 To secure some support from the slave armies, Sonthonax, a French Commissioner, declared the abolition of slavery in Haiti, but the slave armies continued to fight against him.

    3.9.1793 White Royalists in Haiti asked for British intervention. An army left Jamaica (a British slave colony) and landed in Haiti on 19.9.1793.

    16.10.1793 Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, guillotined in Paris

    31.10.1793 Brissot and twenty other Girondins guillotined in Paris

    3.11.1793 Olympe de Gouges guillotined in Paris

    8.11.1793 Madame Roland guillotined in Paris

    December 1793 In the cause of the kings, Toussaint's slave army occupied central Haiti after a series of victories.

    1794

    4.2.1794 Slavery abolished in French colonies.

    30.2.1794 French celebrated the emancipation of slaves in the Temple of Reason.

    Early May 1794 News of the abolition of slavery by France reached Toussaint in Haiti and on 6.5.1794 he and his army deserted the Spanish to join the French.

    July 27/28 1794: Fall of Robespierre and Jacobins. End of the reign of terror in France.

    1794 École normale supérieure established in Paris. "it was intended to provide the Republic with a new body of teachers, trained in the critical spirit and secular values of the Enlightenment" (Wikipedia)

    1794 The École centrale des travaux publics [Central school of public works] founded in Paris. Renamed "École polytechnique" [School of many arts] in 1794. In London, the Royal Polytechnic opened in Regent Street in 1838


    SPEENHAMLAND

    1795 In England the parish of Speenhamland, in Berkshire, adopted a system of paying workers an allowance from public funds, on top of their wages, graduated according to the price of bread. Similar schemes were adopted by many other parishes. One of the consequences of welfare policies like these was that the money paid out on Poor Law soared.

    7.4.1795 Metric system of measurement adopted in France
    External link: Important dates in the history of the modern metric system

    25.10.1795 The Convention adopted a resolution establishing the Institut National des Sciences et Arts, which became the Institut de France in 1995. (website). This had three parts (classes), the second of which was the Classe des Sciences Morales et Politiques (see above). This covered the analysis of sensations and thoughts, ethics, social science and legislation, political economy, history and geography. The first class was the Classe des Sciences Mathématiques et Physiques and the third the Classe de Littérature et Beaux-Arts (External links: 1 - 2 - 3

    The Classe des Sciences Mathématiques et Physiques ceased to exist in a reorganisation of 1803, but was revived as l'Académie Royale des Sciences Morales et Politiques in 1832. It ceased to be Royal between 1848 and 1850

    20.3.1796 Mulattoes in Haiti, led by Vilate, revolted against the French General Laveaux. Toussaint rescued Laveaux and crushed the rebels.

    1.4.1796 Toussaint was proclaimed Lieutenant Governor

    1797 Napoleon Bonaparte given command of the French army against England.

    1797 English Bank Restriction Act suspended the convertibility of Bank of England banknotes into gold, to halt a flight of capital due to the war. Originally for six weeks, suspension lasted twenty four years. (French Wikipedia)

    1797 Baron Hume's Criminal Law of Scotland first published in which he wrote "the husband... cannot himself commit a rape on his own wife, who has surrendered her person to him" [See domestic violence]

    10.9.1797 Mary Wollstonecraft died.

    1798 Thomas Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population contained the law that population increases much faster than subsistence unless checked by famine, war or vice (birth control). This was Malthus's refutation of the idea of people like Wollstonecraft and her husband, William Godwin that an unlimited improvement in the human condition was possible. It became very popular as a refutation of the philosophy behind the French Revolution.

    9-10 November 1799 Coup d'etat of 18 Brumaire. Napoleon Bonaparte, hitherto a military leader, became, by conspiracy and a "wiff of grapeshot" fired to disperse a crowd, the political and military leader of France. Under a new constitution he was First Consul of France. See 1804, 1806, 1815,

           

    *********


       
    19TH CENTURY

    1800-1828 Robert Owen ran a model factory community at New Lanark in Scotland, demonstrating, he thought, that people respond to good treatment by becoming good people. This was a refutation in practice of Malthusian pessimism.

    Extracts from Owen   Radicals, Socialists and Early Feminists discusses Owen and Bentham in relation to Thompson and Wheeler. Social Science History, chapter five on the theories that Smith, Bentham, Malthus and Owen made discusses Owen in relation to the poor law.   Lecture notes   Owen weblinks

    Possibly at the turn of the century that this house was built by Quakers to guard the new entrance to their main London graveyard. It became known as the "caretaker's cottage"

    A hipped roof, oriel sash windows and symetrical proportion show the Queen Anne style as a standard of restrained middle-class domestic architecture.

    Monday 10.3.1801: First British Census
    The 1801 census recorded the number of people in each parish, the inhabited and uninhabited houses, and classified occupations into agriculture, manufacturing, commerce and handicrafts.
    Population of England and Wales: 8,893,000; Scotland: 1,608,000

    The censuses of 1801, 1811, 1821 and 1831 were purely numerical. Names were first recorded in 1841. See 1851 - 1861 - 1871 - 1881 - 1891 - 1901 - 1911 - 1921 - 1931 - [There was no census in 1941] - See 1951 - 1961 - 1971 - 1981 - 1991 - 2001 - 2011 -

    See index history of statistics - Vision of Britain - Karen Berry's history

    " London had nearly 900,000 inhabitants, more than ten times the population of its nearest rival in England, Manchester-Salford. Already there were were 123,000 people living in the five outer parishes of Kensington, Chelses, St Marylebone, Paddington and St Pancras, which a hundred before had been semi-rural villages with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants between them. By the year of the Great Exhibition, the population of the present area of the County of London had risen to 2,363,341." (R.S.R. Fitter 1945 p.63)

    October 1801 Having established the preliminaries of peace with the British, Bonaparte began preparation for a military expedition to Haiti to restore white rule. War between French forces and Toussaint.

    March 1802 to April 1803 Peace of Amiens

    1.5.1802 Toussaint surrendered to the French and retired to private life on his estates.

    About 7.6.1802 Toussaint arrested and taken on board a frigate waiting in harbour at Le Cap to go to France.

    July 1802 News arrived in Haiti that the French had restored slavery in Guadeloupe. Bonaparte formally restored all the mulatto discriminations of the Old Regime.

    24.8.1802 Toussaint imprisoned in Fort-de-Joux in the Jura mountains

    October 1802 Armies of Mulattos and ex-slaves rebelled against the French in Haiti

    1803

    Second edition of Malthus on population

    April 1803 Resumed war between Britain and France



    Autumn 1803 French forced to evacuate Haiti by the black led armies

    1804
    Immanuel Kant died

    1.1.1804 First ever black republic established. Called Haiti as it had been before European conquest.

    7.3.1804 The British and Foreign Bible Society formed in London at a meeting of members of both the Church of England and dissenting denominations. It sought to make cheap (1611) bibles available in Britain and other countries "without note or comment". The society was concerned about "recent attempts which have been made on the part of Infidelity to discredit the evidence, vilify the character, and destroy the influence of Christianity".

    21.3.1804 The French civil code promulgated. Became the Napoleon Code in 1807.

    "My true glory will not result from the forty battles that I have won. These will fade away because of Waterloo. My true glory will reside in my Civil Code, which will never be forgotten. It is my Civil Code, which will live eternally" (Bonaparte on Sainte-Hélène. See Catherine Delplanque)

    May 1804 Napoleon became Emperor.

    8.10.1804 The black leader of Haiti, Dessalines, crowned himself emperor as Jean Jacques 1st.

    1805 Thomas Malthus became the first Professor of Political Economy

    The Little Woman and the Pedlar In 1805 Mary Jane Godwin and William Godwin opened M.J. Godwin & Co. Juvenile Library, a bookshop and publisher of mainly children's books. They were joining a growing market. Their significant contribution, along with Mary and Charles Lamb, was to publish books that fed children's delight in fiction and imagination.

    1805 Collection at Lund University (Sweden) divided into natural things, which became the foundation for the Zoological and Botanical Museums; and ethnographic and archaeological artefacts, which became the foundation of the Historical Museum. Lund was "the centre of gravity in scientific archaeology in Sweden" until the middle of the 19th century. (Gräslund, p.14). See Bror Emil Hildebrand

    1806

    1806 A portraiture of Quakerism : as taken from a view of the moral education, discipline, peculiar customs, religious principles, political and civil oeconomy and character of the Society of Friends by Thomas Clarkson published in London.

    20.5.1806 John Stuart Mill, co-author of the future of the labouring classes, born. (early life) Harriet Taylor was born 10.10.1807 (life and ideas).

    Napoleon enters Berlin October 1806, Napoleon won the battle of Jena against the Prussians. Hegel described him as "the soul of the world"

    The picture (1810) by French artist Charles Meynier of Napoleon's entry in Berlin is described by Rene Girard as the symbolic beginning of the Franco-German enmity - See symbolic end

    20.11.1806 Humphry Davy's Bakerian lecture to the Royal Society in which he described the decomposition of matter into its elements by electricity. The Institut de France awarded him a prize of 3000 francs for the most important research in electricity that year.

    1807

    22.5.1807 Oldsagskommissionen (The Antiquities Commission) established in Denmark. Members of the (University) library commission were begining to organise a collection of antiquities in the roof of Trinitatis Church, Copenhagen. They were allowed to start a collection rune stones at the Round Tower. These were steps towards a future "Nazionalmuseum". (See Thomsen). Det Kongelige Museum for Nordiske Oldsager opened to the public in 1817.
    In 1832 the museum moved to Christiansborg Palace and later moved it to the Prince's Palace. The Nationalmuseet, incorporating the collections, was established by Royal Decree of 28.12.1892.

    25.3.1807 British Parliament prohibited slave trade. (1807 Abolition of the Slave Trade Act became law) - National Archives weblink - Wikipedia

    4.6.1807 Demonstration of gas light in Pall Mall.
    In Thomas Rowlandson's cartoon (from which the pictures are taken), a gentleman explains that coal is steamed, producing tar or paint for the outside of houses, and then the smoke is passed through, removing its substance and then burns "as you see".
    A Quaker comments that it is all vanity: "what is this to the inward light?" and a lady of the night (possibly a brothel keeper) and her male colleague complain that lighting streets will put them out of business. "Not a dark corner to be got for love or money."

    1808: John Dalton (another Quaker) published A New System of Chemical Philosophy argued that all matter consists of a range of elemental atoms (indivisible particles) each of which has a distinct atomic weight.

    The chemical combination of different atoms in different proportions producing substances qualitatively different from each other - although the constituent atoms remain the same. The experimental power of this theory (related to the calculation of weights) laid the foundations of modern chemistry - And put an end to any idea that qualities can only be explained as a result of the merging of constituent qualities. (external link)   a precise and beautiful theory

    1808 Charles Fourier Théorie des quatre mouvements et des destinées générales - (Theory of the Four Movements and General Destinies) "As a general thesis: Social progress and historic changes occur by virtue of the progress of women toward liberty, and decadence of the social order occurs as the result of a decrease in the liberty of women." (external source - See Engels and Marx 1845 - Compare with John Stuart Mill)

    1809 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's Philosophie zoologique, ou exposition des considérations relatives à l'histoire naturelle des animaux. (Zoological Philosophy. An Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals) - One of the books in which Lamarck set out his theory of evolution. - External link to extracts in English

    1810

    12.2.1810 French Code pénal de 1810

    9.6.1810 [London and Westminster Chartered] Gas Light and Coke Company established to supply gas to the Cities of London and Westminster, the Borough of Southwark, and the adjacent precincts and suburbs. On 31.12.1813 Westminster Bridge was lit by gas; the old oil-lamps were removed from St. Margaret's parish, Westminster and gas lanterns substituted. General lighting of London with gas began on Christmas-day, 1814. By 1815 30 miles of gas main had been laid in London. (See Grace's guide)

    March 1811: Percy Byshee Shelley, a young aristocrat, expelled from Oxford University for publishing a pamphlet on The Necessity of Atheism and challenging the clergy to debate it with him. In the following years he distributed pamphlets to the working class calling for revolution in the cause of liberty, equality and justice.

    Monday 27.5.1811: Second British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 10,165,000; Scotland: 1,806,000
    Owen in 1815 notes proportions employed in trade and agriculture

    The first two volumes of Barthold Georg Niebuhr's Römische Geschichte (Roman History) were published in Berlin in 1811-1812. The full three volume set was published in Berlin between 1811 and 1832. They were translated into English from 1827 onwards.

    1811 Antiqvitetskommissionen (Antiquities Commission) for Norway established. This was the origin of the Oldsaksamlingen (Antiquities Collection) at the University of Oslo. (Norweigan Wikipedia)

    1812


    1812 to 1814 Robert Owen wrote his four Essays on the Formation of Human Character

    1812 Étienne-Géry Lenglet's Introduction à l'histoire, ou Recherches sur les dernières révolutions du globe et sur les plus anciens peuples connus (Google books   offline) - (Introduction to History, or Research on the recent revolutions in the globe and the oldest known peoples). Révolutions du globe (upheavals of the world?) referred to cataclysmic events that may have structured the earth's geology. These might include Noah's flood, but the theorising is much broader.

    1813

    1813 Humphry Davy engaged Michael Farady as his assistant at the Royal Institution and entrusted him with performing the experiments which led to the condensation of gases into liquids by pressure.
    First edition of James Cowles Prichard's Researches into the Physical History of Man

    End of the Napoleonic Wars

    April 1814: Napoleon abdicated

    Restoration of monarchies throughout continental Europe. Louis 18th King of France.

    18.6.1814 The Czar of Russia and King of Prussia, Britain's allies against Napoleon, were received at the Guildhall in London. A reenactment, called 'End of the Great War', concluded the history of London and Empire in the 1911 Pageant of London. "The world believed that the war had come to an end". [See 1910 and First World War]

    July 1814 Mary Shelley elopes: She journeys through France, Switzerland, Germany and Holland

    Humphry Davy patented the miners' safety lamp

    1815 Napoleon returned, but was defeated at Waterloo (18.6.1815).

    See:
    Marco d'Eramo After Waterloo - offline
    notes on Wellington's surgeon, John Hume
    Honeymoon trips and lakeland bonfire

    The journey from London to Paris was calculated (Observer, 18.8.1816) to take 73 hours, consisting of 12 hours to Dover, an average of seven hours waiting at Dover, six hours crossing the channel and then 48 hours to Paris.

    Marx identified the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1815 with the class victory of landed capital.

    1815 Corn Law. During the Napoleonic Wars farmers flourished because corn from abroad could not undercut their prices. Once the war was over foreign corn could come in and bring down the price of corn. To protect the rents of the landed aristocracy Parliament passed the Corn Law (repealed 1846) which put taxes on imported corn. This rise in the price of the people's staple food coincided with a period of widespread poverty and unemployment, following the end of the war. The cost of poor relief soared, leading to a movement to reform the Poor Laws

    1815 William Smith's map A Delineation of the Strata of England and Wales with part of Scotland was the first geological map to identify the layers of rock based on the fossil they contained rather than on their composition. (external link) - See Zhu Xi

    18.8.1816 The Observer reported a project in which a balloon the shape of a dolphin, powered by steam and with wings that would act as rudders would "carry the nobility and gentry to Paris, and subsequently elsewhere" in ten hours or less. [I do not know what happened]. Balloons for flight, carrying humans, had been demonstrated in France in 1783, and used by Napoleon as military observation platforms.

    1816 Christian Jürgensen Thomsen (29.12.1788 - 21.5.1865) appointed head of the antiquarian collections which developed into the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen. He classified exhibits by the three age system: stone age - bronze age - iron age. (See 1824-1825). Work developed in Sweden by Bror Emil Hildebrand and Oscar Montelius. From written sources it was long clear that ancient Rome belonged to the iron age. From classical sources, Thomsen concluded that the iron age in Scandinavian countries began about the time of the birth of Christ. See 1849

    1817 Ricardo's Principles of Political Economy and Taxation published. People, like Malthus and Ricardo, who wanted to abolish any form of poor relief were known as the Abolitionists. They argued that poor relief perverted the market, undermined incentive, reduced the mobility of labour and encouraged overpopulation. Such arguments were at the strongest about 1817. Between 1817 and 1834, when the Poor Law Amendment Act was passed, they were modified considerably.

    Wealth and Poverty: Malthus and Ricardo

    Major writings of Saint Simon L'Industrie (1817), L'Organisateur (1819), Du Systeme Industriel (1821), Catechisme des Industriels (1823), and Nouveau Christianisme (1825).


    1818

    Karl Marx, joint author of The Communist Manifesto was born in Germany in 1818; Friedrich Engels in 1820.

    1819 Our Village sketches by Mary Mitford in The Lady's Magazine. Idyllic pictures of an English village, its cottages and gardens and village green. Book form 1824 - 1826 - 1828 - 1830 - 1832. John Clare's Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery was published in 1820 and his The Village Minstrel, and Other Poems in 1821.

    16.8.1819 Peterloo. Troops fired on demonstrators in Manchester. (External Link- Spartacus schoolnet)

    The Times, 10.10.1819 page 4.

    1819 Act for the Resumption of Cash Payments led to bank notes being convertible to gold from 1.5.1821. Convertibility had been suspended in 1797. It was fully resumed over a period of three years (1821- 1824)

    JAMES MILL'S ESSAY ON GOVERNMENT

    1820
    James Mill's Essay on Government first published in the supplement to the Encyclopedia Brittanica. See 1825

    1820 Trial and acquital of Saint Simon

    the owl of Minerva 25.6.1820 The owl of Minerva does not fly until the evening - Hegel argues that we only understand history after it has happened.

    Monday 28.5.1821: Third British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 12,000,000; Scotland: 2,092,000

    1822 John Stuart Mill and his friends formed a Utilitarian Society (broken up 1826). Utilitarianism was the dominant theory of Social Science in nineteenth century Britain. It was challenged by the French Sociologist, Emile Durkheim, in the 1890s.

    1823

    David Ricardo died

    About 1823 John Stuart Mill allegedly arrested distributing birth control leaflets to working class women. [I heard he was dropping them into the "areas" of rich people's houses, where the servant girls would pick them up.] See 1886 - 1934 - 1950s - 1957 - 1961 - 1964 - 1987 - 2008

    1824

    German historian Franz Leopold Ranke (21.12.1795 -23.5.1886) wrote that rather than "judging the past" would seek "only to show what actually happened" (wie es eigentlich gewesen)

    1824 Comte and Saint-Simon fell out over the way Comte's Systeme de Politique Positive was to be presented in Saint- Simon's Catechism Des Industriels

    Finance capital, insurance, statistics and economic cycles Early in 1824 the Alliance British and Foreign Life and Fire Assurance Company was founded with four banker presidents: Moses Montefiore, Nathan Rothschild, Samuel Gurney and Francis Baring (link to another member of the family) and one MP: John Irving. In part, formed to take advantage of the mathematical abilities and knowledge of probability theory of Benjamin Gompertz (1779-1865), the company's actuary. Thomas Fowell Buxton, M.P. was one of the auditors. On 24.6.1824 the company secured an Act of Parliament breaking a monopoly on marine assurance and allowing the Alliance Marine Insurance Company to be formed with Gompertz as chief manager. The formation of the Alliance has been described as "an initial event in a speculative mania as exciting as the South Sea Bubble" - leading to the crash in December 1825. The work of Benjamin Gompertz was important in the development of statistics - See also external link and Wikipedia

    Charles Babbage (1791-1871) thought of the idea of a machine considerably more complex than an abacus to calculate and print mathematical tables in 1812. He wanted to eliminate the inaccuracies of hand calculations by large numbers of human "computers". Cogs would be more reliable. He began his first machine in 1824 and it was put together in 1832 by Joseph Clement, a skilled toolmaker and draughtsman. It was a decimal digital machine - the value of a number represented by the positions of toothed wheels marked with decimal numbers.

    about 1824-1825 Organisation of Antiquities in Copenhagen on his three-age- system, by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen completed. The system was described in 1836

    1825

    1825 Michael Faraday isolated and identified benzene from the oily residue derived from the production of illuminating gas. He called it bicarburet of hydrogen. In 1836, the French chemist Auguste Laurent named it phéne. This is the word root of phenol and phenyl. [See phenothiazine]. Phenol is also known as carbolic acid.

    1825 James Mill's Essay on Government (1820) distributed in a free edition with other essays. William Thompson's Appeal on Behalf of Women written in collaboration with Anna Wheeler criticised this essay. . Thompson and Wheeler were Irish Owenites who developed socialist theories from Benthamism. See Radicals, Socialists and Early Feminists and Thompson and Wheeler weblinks

    December 1825: Two Lombard Street (London) banks failed with consequent failures of country banks. Over one hundred banks failed in a few weeks. The bank crisis was stabilised by greater reliance on gold, but this was the start of the first world wide economic depression.
    "From the time of the resumption of cash payments by the Act of 1819, and especially since the commercial crisis of 1825, the favourite explanation of every rise or fall of prices has been 'the currency;'" (Mill, J.S. 1848 book three, chapter 8 "Of the value of money, as dependent on demand and supply".

    1826 Benjamin Disraeli's Vivian Grey explored the relation of birth, wealth and intellect to power, stating that "to enter into high society, a man must either have blood, a million, or a genius". Vivian Grey regrets that he is not the "son of a millionaire, or a noble". The word millionaire had entered English from French in the late 18th century. Here it is associated with the new rich finacial and industrial classes. See also Marx and Engels 1848 paragraph 1.9 and cotton millionaires in 1850.

    Sometime in 1826: "Breast-feeding mother" by Willem Bartel van der Kooi (1768-1836), a Dutch artist famous for pictures of family and childhood. The mother is a Frisian woman from the countryside.

    23.1.1826 "The Last Man by the author of Frankenstein published

    John Stuart Mill's melancholy winter of 1826/1827. Autobiography paragraphs 5.2c - 5.6

    9.4.1827 was the end of the Liverpool Tory Government (The only English government to last longer than Mrs Thatcher's).

    30.4.1827 A foundation stone laid in Gower Street of what became London University, the first "godless" university in England. Although many who supported it were very religious, the University was founded on the principle that religious tests would not be required of staff or students. For the first time, dissenters and jews (in particular) could study for a degree without travelling to Scotland or continental Europe. (external link) - The first academic sessions started in October 1828 - On 28.11.1836 the university, renamed University College, was united with King's College as the University of London. King's College was a rival university founded by the established church. The North London Hospital was opened opposite the university in 1834. It became University College Hospital in 1837. See 1840s - 1846 - 1869 - 1871 - 1878

    Michael Farady succeeded Humphry Davy in the chair of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. He published the first edition of Chemical Manipulation


    1828 John Stuart Mill established contacts with Saint-Simonians at the London Debating Society.

    1829

    1829 Thomas Babington Macaulay's review of James Mill's Essay on Government criticised it for using deduction rather than induction.

    1829 John Stuart Mill read Comte for the first time.

    1829 Robert Owen returned to England to find he is a guru of the labour movement.

    May 1829: The British Association for Promoting Cooperative Knowledge founded in London.

    1830

    July 1830: Revolution in France - Marx identified the revolution of 1830 with the class victory of finance capital. [See revolution]

    Eugène Delacroix's painting "Liberty leading the people" shows her bare-breasted, possibly symbolising that she breast feeds the people.

    1830-1842: Auguste Comte's Cours de Philosophie Positive (six volumes), published. The first volume is believed to have only been published (1830) in Brussels, probably due to the revolution. It was re- published in Paris later. Volume two was published in 1835 - volume three in 1838 - volume four in 1839, volume five in 1841, volume six in 1842.

    1830 Volume one of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, Being an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth's surface, by reference to causes now in operation with plates, illustrations and maps. Volume two in 1832. Volume three in 1833

    5.7.1830 Start of French invasion of Algiers. "The invasion marked the end of several centuries of Ottoman rule in Algeria and the beginning of French Algeria" (Wikipedia). This is considered te beginning of the second French Empire. The occupation of French Indo-China took place under Napoleon 3rd. See Roland Barthes the signification.

    9.8.1830 Louise Philippe proclaimed king of France. On 16.8.1830 ex-king Charles 10th left for exile in England.

    what about the workers? 28.8.1830 First threshing machine destroyed in the "Swing Riots" in England.

    15.9.1830 Railway opened between the port of Liverpool and the cotton town of Manchester.

    George Stephenson (9.6.1781 - 12.8.1848) constructed the line and his son Robert Stephenson (16.10.1803 - 12.10.1859) designed and built the steam locomotives.

    The painting (a detail) of open carriages on the first day was painted by A.B. Clayton in 1830 (Wikimedia Commons)

    Charles Tayleur and Company at Newton Le Willows opened in 1832 to produce girders for bridges, switches and crossings, and other ironwork following the opening of the railway. Robert Stephenson was a partner for a few years. Became The Vulcan Foundry Company in (or by) 1847. [See mythology Vulcan]

    See 1854 - 1899 - and Festivalof Britain 1951 and Vulcan 1951.

    15.11.1830 was the end of the Wellington Tory Government in the United Kingdom. 17.11.1830 was the start or Grey's Whig Government.

    1830: Royal Geographic Society founded. It incorporated the African Society (founded in 1788), in 1831. From 1830 to 1840 it met in the rooms of the Horticultural Society. [external link to history]. The National Geographic Society of the United States was founded in 1888.

    1830 At Lund, Bror Emil Hildebrand arranged exhibits according to Christian Jürgensen Thomsen's three age system. He did the same at Stockholm between 1831 and 1837. Rudolf Keyser applied the system in Christiania (Oslo), Norway, between 1833 and 1836. So, by the time Thomsen published his guide to the system in 1836, it was already known and accepted in Scandinavia. (Gräslund, p.20).

    what about the workers? 1831

    James Clark Ross reached the magnetic north pole in 1831
    1831 to 1836 Charles Darwin's voyage on the Beagle
    In 1831, Patrick Matthew (1790-1874) published a book on On Naval Timber and Arboriculture (Edinburgh and London) the appendix to which outlined the idea of evolution by natural selection.
    1831 to 1834: Eduard Rüppell travelled to Ethiopia where he encountered the gelada monkeys and from which he brought back precious manuscripts of Ethiopian Christianity.
    Monday 30.5.1831: Fourth British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 13,897,000; Scotland: 2,364,000

    See the formation of statistical societies in 1833

    September 1831 British Association for the Advancement of Science founded. A brief (pdf) history on the British Association's website implied that an objective was to make science more open, and less elitist. The focus of the Association's activities was its Annual Meeting "which was an important forum for major scientific announcements and debate". - There is now a web brief history. (archive)

    Major scientific announcements the brief history lists are "Joule's experiments on the mechanical equivalent of heat in the 1840s, Bessemer's steel process (1856), the discovery of the first of the inert gases, argon, by Rayleigh and Ramsay (1894), the first public demonstration of wireless transmission over a few hundred yards by Sir Oliver Lodge (1894), and J. J. Thomson's discovery of the electron (1899)." It also mentions the debate on Darwin's theory in 1860. As can be seen, the emphasis is on the natural sciences, and the new statistical section (1835) was told not to be political.

    The Spirit of the Age

    Georg Friedrich Hegel, the philosopher of history as the development of ideas, died in Germany in 1831.

    German "idealism" and French "positivism" provided English speakers with alternative approaches to social science to utilitarianism.

    John Stuart Mill's articles on the Spirit of the Age (1831) showed the influence of Saint-Simon in his explanation of the way different ideas fit different periods of history. Mill was a utilitarian arguing that there is a cultural difference in what gives pleasure. He adapted utilitarianism to the philosophy of history.

    Thomas Carlyle argued against utilitarianism in a fiction called Sartor Resartus (Latin for "clothes maker repaired"), which he wrote in 1831 (published later). This argued for a social science based on the analysis of symbols. Clothes are typical social symbols. We are naturally naked, but in society we use clothes to convey meaning to one another. Although the movement of planets may be described on the model of a machine, Carlyle said social science requires the analysis of meanings. Religion had provided this, but, like old clothes, it no longer fits. The times require new clothes. Utilitarianism will not do, because it removes the significance of symbolic meanings, reducing them all to degrees of pain and pleasure in an effort to imitate the machine model used by physics.

    what about the workers? 1832

    1832 Michael Faraday (England) Joseph Henry (USA) reported their separate conversion of electricity into magnetism and back into electricity.
    Faraday sent a current through a coil of wires, creating a magnetic field which induced a momentary current in a second coil.
    This discovery of electromagnetic induction led to the development of electric motors, generators and dynamos.

    1.2.1832 Royal Commission on the Poor Laws appointed. It reported in 1834

    14.4.1832 Robert Owen's penny paper The Crisis began publication. "It is now evident to every one who observes passing events .., that a momentous Crisis is at hand".

    June 1832 Insurrection républicaine à Paris en juin 1832 - Wikipedia

    6.6.1832 Jeremy Bentham died. He left his body to medical science and you can still visit his corpse at the University of London.

    In 1832 a Whig Government passed a Parliamentary Reform Act (Royal Assent 7.6.1832). This did not add many voters, but it spread the vote more evenly over the country. There was a marked shift in the balance of power from the landed aristocracy to the urban middle classes.

    what about the workers? 1833

    Emancipation of Slaves: In August 1833, the British Parliament passed an Act prohibiting slavery in British colonies. This Act came into force on Friday 1.8.1834, which was treated as a day of celebration by the people of Britain. As in France in 1794, the common people of the slave-owning country identified with the freedom of the slaves. This is how the novel John Halifax, Gentleman (D.M. Craik, 1856) described the celebrations:

      "what a soft, gray, summer morning it was, and how it broke out into brightness; how everywhere bells were ringing, club fraternities walking with bands and banners, school-children having feasts and work-people holidays."

    Slave owners and compensation (examples): see Dr Thomas Turner and Robert Gordon

    1833 A Topographical Dictionary of Great Britain and Ireland: ..., Volume 1 Compiled by John Gorton. "Bristol, until eclipsed by Liverpool, was the principal port on the western coast of England. Its lead-branch of foreign commerce is with West Indies, which it supplies with every sort of article necessary to the black and white population; and receives back vast quantities of rum, cotton, sugar, and other West India produce in return. Sugar is the most important article,"

    Franz Bopp's Comparative Grammar was published in Berlin in six part in 1833, 1835, 1842, 1847, 1849 and 1852. The full title being Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen, Lateinischen, Litauischen, Gotischen und Deutschen (Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Gothic and German). It is the comparative study of languages that is thought of as the origin of scientific as distinct from literary philology and linguistics.

    May 1833 "Joseph Whitworth, Tool-Maker from London" established in Manchester. Whitworth produced the machine tools which made the development of railways and steamships possible. "He is best remembered for his promotion of true plane surfaces and the Whitworth screw thread. His promotion of standard measures and interchangeability brought about an engineering revolution". (Whitworth Society)

    Statistical Societies formed

    Members of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, meeting at Cambridge in the summer of 1833, formed a statistical section. - See history on website of the Royal Statistical Society). The Belgian mathematician Quetelet was invited and presented a paper on the relationship between the statistics of crime and age in France and Belgium to a small private meeting which included Thomas Malthus and Charles Babbage. Crime statistics were figures that European states had only recently begun to generate. State generated numbers opened a bright new window through which society could be looked at scientifically. Babbage proposed a statistical section of the British Association (section F) and this was agreed on the condition that it was non-political.

    Manchester Statistical Society was established before the end of 1833.

    1833 In volume three of Principles of Geology, Charles Lyell compared the fossil record in succesive strata of rocks to the records in a succesion of registers left by census officials:

    "Let the mortality of the population of a large country represent the successive extinction of species, and the births of new individuals the introduction of new species. While these fluctuations are gradually taking place everywhere, suppose commissioners to be appointed to visit each province of the country in succession, taking an exact account of the number, names, and individual peculiarities of all the inhabitants, and leaving in each district a register containing a record of this information. If, after the completion of one census, another is immediately made after the same plan, and then another, there will, at last, be a series of statistical documents in each province. When these are arranged in chronological order, the contents of those which stand next to each other will differ according to the length of the intervals of time between the taking of each census." (Lyell, C. 1833, p.32)

    what about the workers? 1834

    The Statistical Society of London, which had been projected at
    Cambridge, was established in the spring of 1834, and

    "since that time the pursuit of this science has extended very rapidly". Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol.1, no.1 May 1838 p.4

    The decision to found was made at a meeting at Babbage's house on 21.2.1834 and the society held its first meeting within two weeks, setting down its aims as 'the collection and classification of all facts illustrative of the present condition and prospects of society, especially as it exists in the British Dominions'. The Council was elected at a meeting on 3.5.1834. (Archive)


    9.4.1834 Start of the second revolt of the canuts and la semaine sanglante (week of blood) in France. (external link)



    1834 POOR LAW

    1834 Poor Law Amendment Act. By this Act a Poor Law Commission was created to regulate the poor law centrally. Under its influence local authorities were encourage to build workhouses and to refuse poor people any welfare payments unless they left their home and lived in the workhouse. The Act was hated by the working class who called workhouses the English "Bastilles". To erect some workhouses the government had to provide an army guard. Malthusianism was blamed for the New Poor Law. So evil were its motives thought to be that many thought they would be poisoned in the workhouse to control population.

    See Social Science History, chapter five:
    Social Science and the 1834 Poor Law
    The Theories that Smith, Bentham, Malthus and Owen made

    England's Poor Law Commissioners and the Trade in Pauper Lunacy 1834-1847
    and
    Mental Health, for the effect of the Act on the growth of asylums.

    what about the workers? 1835

    The first volume of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America published in French. The second volume was published in 1840. John Stuart Mill wrote a review in The Edinburgh Review, vol 72, 1840. Tocqueville's Recollections were written in 1850/1851. His The Ancien Regime and the French Revolution was published in 1856. He died in 1859

    1835 Adolphe Quetelet published his conception of the qualities of an average person as the central values of measurements grouped in "curve of possibility" - which we now call a "normal curve".
    This bell shaped picture drawn by Quetelet illustrates a distribution according to laws of probability. Quetelet showed that the distribution of naturally occurring features, such as the heights of adult men, approximated to the same shape. So, there would be very few very short men (left), large numbers of medium height men (around the central axis) and very few very tall men. Hidden in this picture was the possibility of measuring normality and abnormality (deviance) "scientifically". This external link illustrates the relation between the normal curve and probability - archive

    Farr in "Mortality of lunatics" has the idea of a natural death rate as something distinct from the (statistically) normal death rate - without using these words

    1835 Roderick Impey Murchison and Adam Sedgwick's "On the Silurian and Cambrian Systems, Exhibiting the Order in which the Older Sedimentary Strata Succeed each other in England and Wales" since described as the germ of the modern geological time scale.

    what about the workers? 1836

    James Mill died

    1836 The post of Registrar General (births, deaths and marriages) for England and Wales created by the Births, Deaths and Marriages Registration Act. Registration began in 1837. William Farr was appointed (first) Superintendent of the Statistical Department in 1838. The Registrar General was responsible the census in England and Wales from 1841,

    1836 Contrasts by Augustus Welby Pugin published. Asserted that only a Roman Catholic Society could produce a truly Gothic style.

    Bridgewater Foundry built beside the Bridgewater Canal and the Liverpool to Manchester Railway. The foundry had a railway running through it which moved the heavy engineering goods it made from one point to another as they were worked on.

    1836 Edouard Biot (1803-1850) [in French] "The Population of China and its Variations since the year 2400 BC, until the thirteenth century AD"

    1836 Christian Jürgensen Thomsen's Ledetraad til nordisch Oldkyndighed. Published in English as Guide to Northern Archaeology in 1848

    what about the workers? 1837

    1837 A Descriptive and Statistical Account of the British Empire: Exhibiting its extent, physical capacities, population, industry, and civil and religious institutions by John Ramsay McCulloch assisted by numerous contributors, published in two volumes under the superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. (Read online). The chapter on "Vital statistics, or, The statistics of health, sickness, diseases, and death" was written by Wiliam Farr. ["Vital Statistics" means "life statistics"]

    1837 to 1839 Thomas Carlyle's two volume The French Revolution established him amongst the chief writers of the day.

    May 1837 William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented their electric telegraph which used a battery to send an electric current down five wires to five needles which pointed to letters and numbers on a panel. It was first used by the Great Western Railway. [See drum telegraph]

    1.7.1837 Registration of births, deaths and marriages in England and Wales required by law. - External link to General Register Office

    Poor Law Commission decide to extend the law to the north. Opposition spread faster than the Commissioners. An Anti-Poor law campaign and a campaign to control factory working hours merged with the campaign for the Charter. The Charter called for a vote for every adult male. Chartists believed that if the working class could gain control of Parliament they would gain control of the welfare system and of the economy. Tied to the Charter was a plan to bring it about. A large demonstration would present a monster petition to Parliament asking that all men should have a vote. They would wait outside Parliament and when the petition was rejected they would declare themselves a National Convention -a kind of People's Parliament which would take over from the official Parliament - To enforce their will they would call a sacred month or national strike of the working classes. The use of the word "Convention" was seen as deliberate reference to the French Revolution. The idea of the "sacred month" was common amongst the Owenites.

    Aborigines' Protection Society (London) founded in the aftermath of British emancipation of slaves. The Ethnological Society of London was founded in 1843

    20.6.1837 Victoria became Queeen on the death of her uncle, William 4th.

    French Wikipedia (in English) The Victorian era (L'époque victorienne) in the United Kingdom marks the height of the British industrial revolution and the British Empire. Queen Victoria reigned for 1837 to 1901, but some historians prefer to start the Victorian period at the Reform Act of 1832. The Victorian era is preceded by the Georgian and followed by the Edwardian era. - See also German Wikipedia - Victorian America - 1865

    A young portrait of Victoria was used from her first coins of 1838 until 1887 for gold and silver coins, but continued in use until as late as 1895 on some bronze coins.

    Victorian (and subsequent) pennies were legal currency in the United Kingdom until 1971. The early Victorian ones were worn very thin by over a century of use.


    Isambard Kingdom Brunel (9.4.1806 - 15.9.1859) designed the first steamship purpose-built for regularly scheduled trans-Atlantic crossings. The ship was part of a project that would link London, England to New York in the USA. This was completed on 30.6.1841 when the Great Western Railway from Paddington to Bristol opened.
    The Falmouth Art Gallery has this wood engraving by W. Serjent

    "The Great Western Steam Ship of Bristol"

    19.7.1837:
    Listen to the news on the day the Great Western Steamship (archive - new) was launched at Bristol. It left on its first voyage for America in 1838. There is also a feature on the lunacy commission described in the news bulletin.

    Hegel died in 1831.

    The Doktorklub, later renamed Die Freien of Young Hegelians met in Berlin in the late 1830s and early 1840s

    This cartoon of Die Freien is by Engels. I do not have a date.

    what about the workers? 1838

    Charles Lyell The Elements of Geology - Originally planned as volume four of Principles

    Objective statistics In an 1820 paper to the Royal Society, Benjamin Gompertz criticised life assurance societies for selecting mortality tables that they hoped would be favourable to them, rather than seeking objectivity. In 1838 he was a member of a committee formed by seventeen assurance offices to pool information in the search for reliable statistics.

    1838 William Ewart Gladstone The State in its Relations with the Church "We have no fear for the Church of England in her competition with the denominational bodies around her."

    One spring morning 1838 A mirror image of Boulevard du Temple, Paris at "huit heure du matin" (8 a.m.) captured by Louis-Jaques-Mandé Daguerre using a light-sensitised silver plate. The plate was exposed in a camera for about ten minutes to take the picture. Moving objects were not recorded but a shoe-shiner and his customer were still enough to be immortalised. See photograph

    September 1838 The London to Birmingham Railway opened. The first main line in the world. [See steam and commerce] the train from
London

    In October 1838, Charles Darwin read Malthus on Population. This eventually led to his theory of evolution by natural selection.

    23.11.1838 A "Natural-History Society" established in Warrington, which "is already in possession of a Phrenological Society".

    what about the workers? 1839
    In volume four of Cours de Philosophie Positive, Auguste Comte coined the word Sociologie. In 1843, this entered English as Sociology.

    The speed of the train may annihilate distance: The first volume of The Quarterly Review (January-March) for 1839 started with an article in which the author suggested the current speed of possibly 30 miles per hour might increase to sixty or even a hundred.

    "It will be evident that the first effect of this increasing series is the gradual annihilation, approaching almost to the final extinction, of that space and of those distances which have hitherto been supposed unalterably to separate the various nations of the globe; and that in proportion as this shall be effected, the centralisation, whether for weal or woe, of the human family, must be accomplished. For instance, supposing that railroads, even at our present simmering rate of travelling, were to be suddenly established all over England, the whole population of the country would, speaking metaphorically, at once advance en masse, and place their chairs nearer to the fireside of their metropolis by two-thirds of the time which now separates them from it; they would also sit nearer to one another by two-thirds of the time which now respectively alienates them. If the rate were to be again sufficiently accelerated, this process would be repeated ; our harbours, our dock-yards, our towns, the whole of our rural population, would again not only draw nearer to each other by twothirds, but all would proportionally approach the national hearth. As distances were thus annihilated, the surface of our country would, as it were, shrivel in size until it became not much bigger than one immense city, and yet by a sort of miracle every man's field would be found not only where it always was, but as large as ever it was!"

    7.5.1839 First presentation of the Charter to Parliament.

    12.5.1839 La Société des saisons launched an usuccesful republican revolt against the July monarchy (French Wikipedia)

    9.7.1839 Completion of thirteen miles of electric telegraph between the Paddington and West Drayton stations of the Great Western Railway.

    10.9.1839: John Frederick William Herschel to William Henry Fox Talbot: I have not tried Daguerre's process - But I yesterday succeeded in producing a photograph on glass ... The process ... consists in depositing on the glass a perfectly uniform film of Muriate of Silver - dry (by subsidence from water) - drying it - then washing it with Nitrate to render it sensitive... When placed glass foremost in the focus of a Camera This takes the image with much greater sharpness than paper."

    what about the workers? Hungry Forties
    The Hungry Forties; life under the Bread Tax was the title chosen by Jane Unwin, in 1904, for a collection of documents from the 1840s. The term caught on as the British labour movement of the early twentieth century recounted to itself the struggles of its predecessors, and British communists studied the Communist Manifesto and tried to relate it to the decade that gave birth to it.

    The "hungry forties", when a large part of the Irish peasantry starved to death and the condition of the English workers was also miserable, had a strong effect on the ideas about society of people of many different political persuasions.

    But the date 1840 is artificial, the period really begins in the 1830s. The 1830s and 1840s were a period of rapid industrial development, social distress and the emergence of open class conflict. A period when Britain came nearer to revolution than at any other time in recent history.

    It was also a period when people were thinking about how society is structured and how society changes. There was a great deal of political and theoretical discussion, not only about class, but also about how we should think about men, women and children and their position in society.

    what about the workers? 1840

    1840: "In all ages woman may lament the ungallant silence of the historian" . The art of needle-work from the earliest ages : including some notices of the ancient historical tapestries by Mrs Elizabeth Stone, edited by Mary Margaret Stanley Egerton, Countess of Wilton. London: Henry Colburn 1840. ix and 405 pages. 1841 edition available at Project Gutenberg

    12.6.1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention opened in London. Its decision not to recognise women delegates (from America) sparked the women's rights movement. America

    December 1840 An article by Lord Ashley in the Tory Quarterly Review, discussed the employment of children in factories, and argued that society and the family in Britain were being destroyed by the industrial revolution. The way to restore a healthy society was for the rich to concern themselves with the welfare of the poor.

    Brief note on Ashley
    Ashley's writings
    Ashley in the 1830s and 1840s
    Ashley as a Lunacy Commissioner

    what about the workers? 1841

    1841 Ludwig Feuerbach, in The Essence of Christianity argued that Christianity is a necessary phase of human culture whose essence is to understand human potenial in a heavenly rather than an earthly form.

    Feuerbach's earth-centred (rather than heaven-centred) view of religion has been described as anthropological and as humanist

    1841 A Huntley and a Palmer (both Quakers) became partners in biscuit making in Reading. This advertisement is before 1846. (See Reading Museum). Huntley had sold biscuits to travellers on (horse drawn) coaches since 1822. Tins to preserve them were manufactured by one of his sons from 1832. The square shape of the tins had to be modified when they were sent by the new trains. More about biscuits

    1841 Statistical Society resolves to collect lunatic asylum statistics. 15.4.1841 William Farr's "Report on the Mortality of Lunatics". (See also Mental Health History timeline for 1841). William Far also produced an English life table predicting the life spans of 100,000 people born alive in 1841. The longest lived women was predicted to die in 1945 - when I was one year old.

    15.4.1841 Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain founded by leading London chemists and druggists "for the protection of their general interests and the advancement of the art and science of Pharmacy." Proposed by William Allen, who became its first President.

    Sunday 6.6.1841/Monday 7.6.1841: Fifth British Census
    This recorded names for the first time. People over 15 years old had their age recorded to the lowest term of five. The place a person was born in was partially recorded: Y for born in the same county, N for not. S for Scotland, I for Irelend. For the first time, householders could complete their own forms if they were able to. (Census layout - external)
    Population of England and Wales: 15,914,000; Scotland: 2,620,000

    Suicide statistics: Emile Durkheim's table of "Stability of suicide in the principal European countries (absolute figures)" has time series starting in 1841 for France, Prussia, Saxony and Denmark, in 1844 Bavaria, and in 1857 for England.

    Chesnais (2003) says that "some countries have time series stretching back to the 18th century and in some cases, point observations dating as far back as the 13th century". However, to "To ensure coverage of a sufficient range of countries" he uses data starting between 1845 and 1855.

    July 1841 Following on the Crocodilia, Richard Owen introduced the Dinosaurians (fearfully great lizards) in his "Report on British fossil reptiles" to the British Association in Plymouth. There were, he said, similarities in the "gigantic Dinosaur to the crocodilian structure". "Owen used three genera to define the dinosaurs: the carnivorous Megalosaurus, the herviborous Iguanodon and armoured Hylaeosaurus" (Wikipedia).

    what about the workers? 1842 No gloomier year


    Poems by Alfred Tennyson published. One that was soon popular (Locksley Hall), celebrates science and the march of mind and industry as the spirit of the age in Europe and contrasts it with the savagery of dusky races. (The words are Tennyson's, not mine).
      "Here about the beach I wander'd, nourishing a youth sublime
      With the fairy tales of science, and the long result of Time;

      When I dipt into the future far as human eye could see;
      Saw the Vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be -

      In the steamship, in the railway, in the thoughts that shake mankind.

    Tennyson dreams of having children with a "savage woman" so that they are supple-sinewed, leaping brooks rather than poring over books, but recoils. "I the heir of all the ages, in the foremost files of time - Let the people spin for ever down the ringing grooves of change. Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay."

    Compare with Barry Cornwall

    The poet recognises mind in women as well as men: "Women is the lesser man, and all thy passions, match'd with mine are as moonlight unto sunlight, and as water unto wine". In 1847 Tennyson published a poem in which a royal princess founds a women's university. She falls from the chastity of thought when she falls in love, but the dominant image is that European men and women are both to be engaged in the adventures of science and thought.

    But the march of mind and the march of hunger are in competition. In the immediate present "all things here are out of joint, science moves, but slowly slowly, creeping on from point to point: Slowly comes a hungry people, as a lion, creeping nigher". (Quotations all from Locksley Hall)



    May 1842 Second presentation of the Charter to Parliament.

    7.6.1842
    Lord Ashley introduced a bill intended to ban women and children from working in coal mines.

    10.8.1842 Coal Mines Act became law.

    Summer 1842 Plug riots. English workers, striking for the Charter, roamed the Midlands and North of England setting light to rich men's houses and pulling out the plugs of factory boilers. Parliament thought that the revolution was upon them.

    what about the workers? 1843

    Blackwood's Magazine volume 53, p.397 "These are to constitute a new science, to be called Social Ethics, or Sociology" - First use recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary.

    1843 The Zoologist - A popular miscellany of natural history a monthly magazine edited by Edward Newman founded. Newman was editor in chief until his death in 1876.

    February 1843

    Ethnological Society of London founded by members of the Aborigines' Protection Society. To be "a centre and depository for the collection and systematisation of all observations made on human races". Divided over racialist issues from early days, it split into an Ethnological Society and an Anthropological Society in 1863. Merging in 1870, it became The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland in 1871. (Royal from 1907). Now The Royal Anthropological Institute (Link goes directly to its website)

    Spring 1843 A System of Logic, by John Stuart Mill, published. Mill defended deductive theory against induction, and induction against deduction, arguing that science needs both. He suggested how psychology (the study of mind) could become a science of experiment and observation, and discussed the foundations of a science of society (sociology). The argumant of the book is outlined under John Stuart Mill defends deductive theory in Social Science History, chapter one:
    John Stuart Mill and his problems with Francis Bacon

    Autumn 1843 Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert established the Broadbalk experiment on Lawes' Rothamsted Estate in Berkshire. This was the first of the long- term "classic experiments", and it still exists today. A winter-wheat crop was first sown in the autumn of 1843. A control strip has received no fertiliser or manure since 1843. Other strips have received farmyard manure or inorganic fertiliser. Lawes was the pioneer of artificial fertilisers having established the manufacture of superphosphate at his factory in Deptford, England in 1842. See 1919

    Rothamsted Experimental Station
    1986 Institute of Arable Crops Resarch: See Long Ashton Research Station
    1999 Rothamsted Research

    Christmas 1843 The Song of the Shirt

    Surrounded by comic characters, a poem about the misery of a dressmaker appeared in the Christmas number of Punch, or the London Charivari on 16.12.1843.

    21.12.1844 The Rochdale Equitable Pioneers Society opened a shop "selling pure food at fair prices and honest weights and measures". (Link to museum)

    what about the workers? 1844

    1845 Fossils thought to be caprolites (fossilised dung) discovered on the Suffolk coast leading to the development of extraction for phosphatic fertiliser. See 1861 - 1872.

    1845 The Claims of Labour. An Essay on the Duties of the Employers to the Employed, published anonymously, argues for a new order of society based on benevolence of employers towards the employed.

    1845 Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (external link - archive)

    " Fifty years ago, science possessed no facts regarding the origin of organic creatures upon earth ... all was a blank antecedent to the first chapters of what we usually call ancient history". [Since then] "researches in the crust of the earth" [have shown that]... "strata of various thickness were deposited in seas... The remains and traces of plants and animals found in the succession of strata, show that, while these operations were going on, the earth gradually became the theatre of organic being, simple forms appearing first, and more complicated afterwards. A time when there was no life is first seen. We then see life begin, and go on ; but whole ages elapsed before man came to crown the work of nature. "

    what about the workers? 1845

    John Stuart Mill's review of The Claims of Labour in the Edinburgh Review argues that a new moral order based on benevolence would undermine the independence and self- determination of working class people

    Summer 1845 Engels: The Condition of the Working Class in England

    October 1845 Beginning of the Great Famine in Ireland. Potato blight destroyed three-quarters of the crop.

    what about the workers? 1846

    26.6.1846 Repeal of the Corn Law

    In Dickens' 1838 satire on the Poor Law, Oliver Twist caused a sensation by asking for more food. In 1846 it seemed the satire had come true. It was revealed that in Andover Workhouse the residents were so hungry that they fought over rotten bones. The scandal of Andover led to the replacement of the Poor Law Commissioners, in 1847, by a Poor Law Board responsible directly to Parliament and, under new management, the poor law became the centre of a remarkably extensive pauper welfare state. Poor law hospitals laid the foundations for the National Health Service - and many are still in use.

    12.8.1846 Term "folklore" suggested for the culture and traditions of ordinary people

    Winter 1846/1847: John Stuart Mill laid aside work on the Principles of Political Economy to campaign for land reform in Ireland.

    what about the workers? 1847

    27.1.1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers founded at a meeting at the Queen's Hotel, Birmingham. George Stephenson elected first President. The 70 founder members included representatives of nine different railways. The Vulcan Foundry was represented by Edward Tayleur and Henry Dubbs. (Vulcan Magazine Volume 2, Number 4, Winter 1951-1952, p.18)

    9.6.1847 Warrington Council met for the first time. [See rail]. Its first Mayor, William Beamont (1797-1889), became the first chairman of the Museum and Library Committee in 1848.

    July 1847 Poem Song of the Famine in Dublin University Magazine

    November 1847 origins of the Communist Manifesto - In November/December, Marx said that achieving the Charter would make the English working class the "saviour of the whole human race"

    1847 Ridderstolp House

    1847 Tancred; or, The New Crusade, a novel by Benjamin Disraeli, in which Sidonia says that "All is race; there is no other truth". England

    "A Saxon race, protected by an insular position, has stamped its diligent and methodic character on the century. And when a superior race, with a superior idea to work and order, advances, its state will be progressive, and we shall, perhaps, follow the example of the desolate countries... The decay of a race is an inevitable necessity, unless it lives in deserts and never mixes its blood." (Chapter 20)

    1847 Jacques Boucher de Perthes, a French customs official and member of the Société Royale d'Emulation d'Abbeville published Antiquités celtiques et antédiluviennes. Mémoire sur l'industrie primitive et les arts à leur origine.. Paris: Treuttel et Wurtz, fuelling the debate over the antiquity of humans. From the late 1830s he had collected Roman and Celtic atrtefacs from alluvial deposits on the Somme, near Abbeville. In very deep deposits he found crude stone artefacts from stratigraphic layers that also contained extinct animal bones. He believed these were proof that humans had lived in France at a time when mammoths and rhinoceros still roamed the region, and thus humanity was far older than traditional history and biblical chronology allowed. (From The Study of Prehistoric Artefacts in National Context by Mathew Goodrum 2013). See also Linda Hall Library and Dons maps. Boucher de Perthes; sa vie, ses ouvres, sa correspondance by Alcius Ledieu 1885. (Internet archive - offline)

    1847-1852 (Three volumes): Studien über die innern Zustände, das Volksleben und insbesondere die ländlichen Einrichtungen Russlands by Baron August von Haxthausen (1792-1866) published in Hanover. Described by Frederick Starr (1968) as "the first attempt to bring the Russian commune into the sphere of European social thought". - See Engels footnote

    Mrs Alexander's Hymns for Little Children, first published in 1848, launched All Things Bright and Beautiful, in which the natural and social orders are praised as the creation of God: The rich man in his castle, The poor man at his gate, He made them, high or lowly, And ordered their estate. This was written in Ireland.
    See also the speech of Shaftesbury to the Social Science Congress in 1858.

    1848: John Stuart Mill's Principles of Political Economy published with a chapter drafted by Harriet Taylor on the self- determination of the labouring classes - and women

    1848: Elizabeth Gaskell's Mary Barton

    February 1848 The Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels published in German, in London

    Saint-Simon had argued that history is moved between different stages by the rise of new classes. Marx and Engels argued that all history is class conflict. The 1848 manifesto was a redraft by Marx of an 1847 draft by Engels called the Principles of Communism,

    See also   1806   1822   1828   1829   1835   1843   1845
    1859 On Liberty
    1861 Representative Government
    1869 Subjection of Women
    1880 Freud and J.S. Mill
    Mill and Taylor on the future of the labouring classes
    Mill and Taylor on Freedom as Self Development
    Mill and Taylor weblinks
    See also
    1845: Engels on England
    1846: German Ideology
    1859: Marx explains how his political economic theories developed.
    1884 Engels' Origin

    The Communist Manifesto
    Principles of Communism
    Marx and Engels: scientific socialism
    Marx and Engels weblinks

    what about the workers? 1848 REVOLUTIONS
    1848 was a year of revolutions in Europe. In
    France the monarchy collapsed and the Second Republic was established. In the German Confederation there were many revolts for constitutional government and a national parliament.
    The Communist Manifesto said that "of all the classes that stand face to face with the bourgeoisie today, the proletariat alone is a really revolutionary class". [See revolution]

    In England, Wales and France the workers were a significant fraction of radical activity, but no more.

    In Germany, the Manifesto anticipated a radical bourgeoise revolution followed by a proletarian revolution. The proletarian revolution did not happen.

    24.2.1848 Louis Philippe driven out of Paris and the French Republic proclaimed.

    25.2.1848 Armed workers occupied the French Assembly demanding the right to work.

    4.3.1848 Marx arrested by the police (in Brussels) and escorted to the French frontier. Continued to Paris

    13.3.1848 People of Vienna broke the power of Prince Metternich. He fled the country.

    18.3.1848 People of Berlin took arms. King surrendered to them after 18 hours.

    10.4.1848 Chartists gathered on Kennington Common to prepare for a march to Parliament. The marchers were fewer than expected and the presentation of the third, and final, petition ended peacefully.

    April 1848 to May/June 1849: Marx and Engels worked for the Neue Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne

    May or June 1848. First copies of The Communist Manifesto circulating in Germany.

    3.6.1848 Warrington Museum and Library opened, making Warrington one of the first towns in England to support a public library from the rates. A library established in 1760 united with the museum of the local Natural History Society, which had been founded in 1838. This was achieved under the 1845 Museums Act. The museum and library were first housed in rented premises in Friars Green House. See 1855.

    what about the workers? 1849

    August 1849 Marx settled in London as a political refugee.

    November 1849 Engels arrived in London. From 1849 Engels worked in his father's business in Manchester and supported Marx financially. Between December 1849 and November 1850, a series of articles, by Marx, in the Neue Rheinische Zeitung analysed political events in France from 1848 to 1850 in terms of class struggles.

    A Ladies College opened in Bedford Square,
    close to the British Museum and London University

    1849 Christian Jürgensen Thomsen opened Det Kongelige Etnografiske Museum (the Royal Ethnographical Museum), which became part of the Nationalmuseet (National Museum) in 1892.


    *********


    Germany 1850 Geschichte der sozialen Bewegung in Frankreich von 1789 bis auf unsre Tage (History of the social movement in France from 1789 to the present) by Lorenz von Stein published in Leipzig in three volumes.

    5.3.1850 Opening of the Britannia Bridge, providing a rail crossing that linked Chester to Holyhead, and thus England to the boats for Dublin, Ireland.

    December 1850 Napoleon 3rd (President) dissolved the French Assembly and restored universal male suffrage. His total power was then approved by plebiscite. See Neumann's dictatorship types



    1851

    Lord Ashley became the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury

    Natural Sciences and Moral Sciences Triposes established at Cambridge University. The question paper for Natural Sciences (8.3.1851) included comparative anatomy, physiology, chemistry, botany, mineralogy, and geology, but not physics [See Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal 19.3.1851 and 2.4.1851.
    Physics see Cavendish Laboratory 1874

    The moral sciences included politics, philosophy and economics.
    See Mary Paley 1874

    Sunday 30.3.1851/Monday 31.3.1851: Sixth British Census
    From 1851 the exact ages and birthplaces were given, together with marital status and relationship to the householder. The number of blind, deaf and dumb was noted. (Census layout - external) In 1851 there was also a special census of church congregations and accommodation.
    Population of England and Wales: 17,928,000; Scotland: 2,889,000

    1.5.1851 to 15.10.1851 The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations held in Hyde Park, London.

    After the exhibition, the Crystal Palace in which it was held was moved to south London.

    30.5.1851: Meeting to establish the Central Co-operative Agency, 76 Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square. Founder Edward Vansittart Neale and Thomas Hughes one of the contributors

    21.4.1851 Marriage of John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor
    July 1851 Harriet Taylor's article The Enfranchisement of Women in The Westminster Review America

    May 1852 Museum of Manufactures opened at Marlborough House, transferring to Somerset House in September. Funded from the profits of the Great Exhibition, it covered both applied art and science. Exhibits from the Exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection. The museum became the Victoria and Albert Museum, which was opened on its present site in South Kensington on 22.6.1857. See 1873

    Also funded from the profits of the Great Exhibition was The Science and Art Department, a government body (1853 to 1899) promoting education in art, science, technology and design in Britain and Ireland.

    1853 Karl Knies's Political Economy from the Historical Point of View published in German and Harriet Martineau's English translation of Auguste Comte , published.

    Geoff Bunn's A Chronology of Psychology in Britain 1853-1987 begins with J.D. Morrell's (1816-1891) Elements of Psychology as "the first book published in England to be called psychology. (Hearnshaw, 1964: 21)". The first part of the chronology builds up to the founding of The Psychological Society in 1901. - offline rtf - offline pdf

    1853 First International Statistical Congress held in Brussels. Organisers included L. A. J. Quételet and E. Engel. [2nd 1855 - 3rd 1857 - 4th 1860 - 5th 1862 - 6th 1867 - 7th 1869 - 8th 1872 - 9th and last 1875

    1854 to 1856 Crimean War (Concluded by the Treaty of Paris signed on 30.3.1856, which made the Black Sea neutral territory,)

    27.3.1854 and 28.3.1854 France and Britain declare war on Russia

    A pie chart to make statistics palatable

    Florence Nightingale's polar area graph showing graphically that contagious diseases, such as cholera and typhus (the blue wedges), were the major cause of death in the war. The deaths from wounds are represented by the red inner wedges and the black wedges are deaths from other causes.

    The illustration is misleading in that the wedge shapes give a larger area to the outer part than the inner - over-emphasising deaths from contagious diseases.

    1854 "Report on the Organisation of the Permanent Civil Service, Together with a Letter from the Rev. B. Jowett." by Stafford Northcote and Charles Trevelyan. See Civil Service History

    1854 Einleitung zur Geschichte der Mark-, Hof-, Dorf-, und Stadtverfassung und der offentlichen Gewalt was the first of a series of books on the early institutions of the Germans by Georg Ludwig von Maurer (1790 - 1872) - Source Wikipedia - See Engels footnote

    June 1854 The Sydenham Crystal Palace opened by Queen Victoria. (history)

    July? 1854 John Lawson began work at the Vulcan Foundry. He retired 8.12.1927 after 73 years and 5 months service. (Vulcan Magazine Volume 2, Number 4, Winter 1951-1952, p.32)

    1854 The following passage in the announced that Marcel Jérôme Rigollot had discovered flint axes near Saint-Acheul that seemed to establsih the existence of human beings before recent geological upheavals. "Il nous lisait un mémoire sur une découverte de haches en silex faite tout récemment dans le terrains diluviens des environs de Saint-Acheul, pour établir, par cette preuve matérialle, le fait de l'existence de l'homme avant les dernières revolutions du globe. Peut-être aura-t-il eu la glorie de dévoiler le premier ce mystère jusqu'à présent demeuré impénétrable." This was seven years after Boucher de Perthes - (Bulletin de la Société des antiquairies de Picardie correspondence offline)

    1855

    Herbert Spencer's Social Statics and the first edition of his Principles of Psychology published

    1855 Second International Statistical Congress held in Paris

    February 1855 Charles Kingsley's dedication to his historical novel Westward Hoe! in which a character anguishes that a woman may be "living in sin".

    Thursday 20.9.1855 More than 2,000 peole gathered, in top hats and bonnets, to see the foundation stone of the new Warrington Museum and Art Gallery laid in Bold Street by William Beamont

    22.12.1855 First meeting of the Metropolitan Board of Works (London, England) which took over the responisbilities of the Metropolitan Buildings Office and Metropolitan Commission of Sewers,

    1856

    March 1856 William Henry Perkin (1838-1907) discovered the first aniline dyestuff while working in his home laboratory in Stepney. The Stepney Historical Trust says he "went on to found science-based industry"

    6.5.1856 Sigmund Freud (author of Interpretation of Dreams) born

    You need to be very still for a long time to have your photograph taken. Allen Hastings Fry was about nine years old when he took this photograph of his mother and her school class in Brighton about 1856. Photography was a new and exciting way for those who could afford it to look at themselves and society.

    1857

    1857 Third International Statistical Congress held in Vienna

    1857 National Association for the Promotion of Social Science founded. This held annual Congresses to discuss issues of social reform and published its proceedings. Isa Craig, a working Scottish poet from Scotland was the secretary until her marriage in 1866. Henry (Lord) Brougham and Ashley Cooper, the Earl of Shaftesbury, were frequent leaders of the Congresses. Robert Owen contributed five papers to the first Congress and spoke at the second. In 1866, with Shaftesbury presiding, its topics included the best means of preventing infanticide, education of various groups of working class children and control of their work, public health and housing. The last congress was held in Birmingham in 1884. The Association dissolved itself in 1886

    1857 First edition of History of Civilisation in England by Henry Thomas Buckle (1821-1862), in which he argued that the regularity of social statistics demonstrates that human behaviour is as predictable as natural phenomena and determined rather than free.

    1857 Mary Seacole's Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands (1857)

    5.9.1857 Auguste Comte died

    1858

    1858 Article by Hermann Schaaffhausen, "Zur Kenntnis der ältesten Rasseschädel" (Note on the oldest race head or scull?) published, reporting on a fossilised scull discovered in 1856. Schaaffhausen argued that features like prominent bony ridges over the eyes and a sloping forehead meant it belonged to a race of humans that lived in Europe before modern Europeans. In 1864 William King, an Irish professor, named this Homo neanderthalensis.

    1.7.1858 Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: Three Papers on the Tendency to form Varieties.: 1. Extract from an unpublished work on Species by C. Darwin; 2. Abstract of a Letter from Darwin to Asa Gray; 3. On the Tendency of Varieties to depart indefinitely from the Original Type. by Alfred Russel Wallace. First printed in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London Zoology 3 on 20.8.1858 pages 45-50 and then reprinted (pages 6293-6308) in The Zoologist

    9.4.1858 Charter that enabled London University to offer external degrees.

    15.4.1858 Emile Durkheim born in Épinal in Lorraine, north-east France. His older sister (born 1848) had a son, Marcel Mauss, born 1872, who became Durkheim's colleague.

    July 1858 "The Great Stink" in London, England. The Metropolis Management Amendment Act was passed to permit work on a London sewerage scheme by the Metropolitan Board of Works. (source: Cholera and the Thames by Westminster Archives)

    3.11.1858 Death of Harriet Taylor - buried in Avignon
    17.11.1858 Death of Robert Owen

    1859

    1859 John Stuart Mill's On Liberty published   (extracts)

    what about the lunatics?

    1859 Karl Marx's A contribution to the critique of political economy written. It was intended as the first volume of his work on Economics. (extracts)

    1859 Self-Help; with Illustrations of Character and Conduct (first edition) by Samuel Smiles.

    27.2.1859 Albert Midlane wrote "Above the Bright Blue Sky"

    See 1611 - 1809 - 1831 - 1844 - 1838

    November 1859 Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life published. The theory that species develop from another through a long process of evolution became credible when Darwin showed how it could happen. He argued that there was a natural selection of naturally occurring variations through the survival of those best adapted to their circumstances. Social theorists drew different conclusions for society from Darwin's biological ideas. Marx and Engels welcomed the theory because it had a material base and provided a developmental theory for the natural world to match theirs for society. Herbert Spencer, who had developed evolutionary theory independently of Darwin, saw competition as the mechanism through which the fittest members of society are selected. The theory that the fittest should be selected through struggle is known as "Social Darwinism". It has been used by Spencer and his followers to support an unregulated market. Benjamin Kidd, however, argued that the struggle is between societies, and that the strength of a society depends largely on the collective support its members give one another. Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf argued human history is a struggle for survival between biological races of human beings. By the early 20th century, social darwinist theories had become a common "scientific" analysis of society. The joint shocks of the second world war and the revelation of attempted race extermination were followed by a reconstruction of European culture that marginalised such theories. See 1871 - 1872 - 1894 - 1903 - 1913 - 1925 - 1930 - 1933 - 1939 -

    1860

    Herbert Spencer's First Principles published in six parts, between 1860 and 1862. It was about "those highest generalisations now being disclosed by science which are severally true not of one class of phenomena but of all classes of phenomena; and which are thus the keys to all classes of phenomena". Published as one volume in 1862, there were revised editions in 1867, 1875, 1880, 1884, 1900.

    The Anglo-French [Cobden-Chevalier] commercial treaty of 1860 stimulated a series of commercial treaties "binding Europe into the nearest it got to a common market before the late twentieth century" (external link). Durkheim speaks of a "commercial revolution" caused by these treaties.

    9.7.1860 Garibaldi occupied Naples and proclaimed Victor Emmanuel king of a united Italy. Dated 2.9.1868, a marble statue of Italia Turrita, by Rocco Larussa, in the square of Reggio Calabria commemorates the unification. It appears to be the basis of this 1929 stamp designed by Paolo Paschetto. See Lombroso

    16.7.1860 First day of the 4th International Statistical Congress: held in London over six days. (Report from Economist preserved in a New Zealand library) - Proceedings edited by William Farr - Letter from Florence Nightingale read by the Earl of Shaftesbury

    1861

    John Stuart Mill's Considerations on Representative Government published

    Das Mutterrecht: eine Untersuchung über die Gynaikokratie der alten Welt nach ihrer religiösen und rechtlichen Natur by Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815 - 1887) of Switzerland. Later translaated into English as "Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World"

    March 1861 Third edition of Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species. This and three other books were reviewed in a 38 page article in The Zoologist written by its editor, Edward Newman. The other three were: Species not Transmutable, nor the Result of Secondary Causes; being a Critical Examination of Mr Darwin's book... by Charles Robert Bree (September 1860). Henry Freke On the Origin of Species by means of Organic Affinity (1861) and Asa Gray's Natural Selection not inconsistent with Natural Theology. Quoting Darwin on the pre- silurian origin of all life, Newman said "these passages pain us". "Darwin leads us by inference to conclude that he considers the human species is genealogically allied to brute life". His theory "makes a kind of sentimental theology do duty for Revelation, which his theory so unequivocally opposes". Does he "consider his theory of the origin of species consistent with the Scriptures?". (Annual edition pages 7609-7610)

    Sunday 7.4.1861/Monday 8.4.1861: Seventh British Census (Census layout - external)
    Population of England and Wales: 20,066,000; Scotland: 3,062,000

    April-June 1861 Max Müller gave nine lectures on "the science of language" at Royal Institution. - In these he referred to Aryans as a "race" - A fuller text than that delivered was published in 1862. (Available on Google Books). - See 1870 - 1888

    1.8.1861

    Robert FitzRoy's first public weather forecast appeared on page 10 of The Times. (source). Daily forecasts were discontinued in May 1866. Storm warnings resumed in 1867, public forecasts in 1879. (source)

    1862

    1862 Fifth International Statistical Congress held in Berlin

    1862 Les Misérables by Victor Hugo published in Paris.

    1863

    1863 The British Treasury agreed to pay for work filling in the detail of a five feet to the mile skeleton [ordnance] survey of London. This led to the large scale maps of 1870-1873 and 1893-1896.

    1863 Oscar Montelius (9.9.1843 - 4.11.1921) was attached to the Museum of National Antiquities, Stockholm, from 3.2.1863. He was appointed professor in 1888 and served as the museum's director from 1907 to 1913. [The collection of Kungliga Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien - The Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities. Collections on Riddarholmen?] See Christian Jürgensen Thomsen and Montelius 1885.

    9.1.1863 First journey on the Paddington to Farringdon underground railway. (Significance article)

    24.2.1863 James Hunt "Introductory Address on the Study of Anthropology", delivered before the newly formed Anthropological Society of London. One of the first actions of the Society (at the end of 1863) was to publish a translation (from German into English) of Theodore Waitz's Anthropologie der Naturvölker [Anthropolgy of natural or primitive people] of 1858 as Introduction to Anthropology - Available from Google Books

    James Hunt: On the Negro's Place in Nature Anthropological Society Available from Google Books

    1864 Herbert Spencer's Principles of Biology published. The sections on plant morphology and physiology in the 1899 revised edition were overseen by Arthur Tansley.

    1864 First International Workingmen's Association established by French and English Labour leaders in London (dissolved 1876). Marx drew up its Inaugural Address - a much more moderate document than the Communist Manifesto

    7.4.1864 Louis Pasteur lectures on germs as the origin of disease

    21.4.1864 Max Weber born

    28.8.1864 The founder of the General German Workers' Association (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein), Ferdinand Lassalle fought, a duel in Switzerland over his love for Helene von Donniges. He had no hope of reclaiming her, but fought it to defend his honour as a jew, a socialist and a lover. He was wounded, and died on 31.8.1864. He is buried in Poland.

    1865 Trevelyan begins the second half of the Victorian Era. See also La Belle Epoque

    The London street scene of 1865 is actually Quakers gathered in front of their headquarters in Bishopsgate. Head to foot clothing and women's billowing dresses are typical of all classes and even the men's top hats do not have the class implications they acquired.

    1865 August Kekulé published his succesful speculation about the ring structure of benzene (C6H6). Picture from a 1979 East German stamp.

    8.2.1865 and 8.3.1865 Gregor Mendel's Experiments in Plant Hybridisation read at meetings of the Brünn Natural History Society. They were published, in German, in the proceedings of the society in 1866, but received little attention until 1900. They were translated into English in 1902. See Genetics.

    March 1865 The London sewerage system designed by Joseph Bazalgette was considered complete (although not fully so for another ten years). It was formally opened by Edward, Prince of Wales sometime in 1865. See Grace's Guide

    17.5.1865 International Telegraph Union founded in Paris. It became the International Telecommunication Union in 1934, and in 1947 became a specialised agency of the United Nations. (history)

    August 1865 Joseph Lister, a surgeon at Glasgow Royal Informary, used lint dipped in carbolic acid (phenol) solution to cover a wound. After four days he discovered that no infection had developed. He published his results in The Lancet between March and July 1867.

    The picture shows a modern bottle of phenol from Poland.

    September 1865 At la Sapienzia, a Congrès paléoethnologique international was created at a meeting of the Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali. The prime movers were Giovanni Capellini of Italy and Gabriel de Mortillet of France. The name was changed to Congrès international d'Anthropologie et d'Archéologie préhistoriques in 1867. (Une Breve Histoire de L'union Internationale des Sciences Préhistoriques et Protohistoriques) - See Mortillet's classes - 1869 - 1872 - 1881 - 1883 - 1897 - death and obituary - 1903 -

    1865 Pre-historic Times, as illustrated by ancient remains, and the manners and customs of modern savages (with illustrations), a collection of essays, by John Lubbock (1834-1913) published London. xxiii and 512 pages. [Preface dated February 1865]. Chapter one suggests dividing prehistoric archaeology into four great epochs: paleolithic (old stone), neolithic (new stone - polished stone), bronze and iron. (1872 copy offline)

    1865 John Stuart Mill's Auguste Comte and Positivism published

    from 1865 to 1868 John Stuart Mill was Liberal Member of Parliament for Westminster.

    1866 Prussia's "Seven Weeks War" with Austria and other German states cut old German ties. In 1867, the North German Federation was formed.

    Museum of National Antiquities in Stockholm. Now the Statens historiska museum (National Historical Museum). See Oscar Montelius

    In 1867, John Stuart Mill made a speech in Parliament on: "The Admission of Women to the Electoral Franchise".

    1867:  1.2.1867 J.S.Mill gave his Inaugural Address as Rector of St. Andrews University, Scotland, in which he reviewed the whole scope of education, discussing the value of what we now call the Humanities, Mathematics, Natural Science and Social Science. He spoke in favour of psychology as a discipline and drew attention to the role of Scottish thinkers in this area.

    March 1867 George Cruikshank published his "The British Beehive" cartoon.


    Marx completed the manuscript of Das Kapital on 27.3.1867. At 2am in the morning of 16.8.1867 he wrote to Engels the he had "just finished correcting the last sheet (49th) of the book" and thanked Engels for enabling him to complete the "immense labour" of the book. In the third week of September 1867: Volume I of Das Kapital was published in a print run of 1,000 in Hamburg. It was not translated into English until 1887

    29.9.1867 to 5.10.1867 Sixth International Statistical Congress held in Florence

    1868

    The first edition of Alexander von Oettingen's work on moral statistics and social ethics

    1868 Ernst Haeckel's Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte (Natural History of Creation) published in Berlin. Translated into English as The History of Creation in 1876. Haeckel said human evolution had 22 phases. The 21st was a "missing link" halfway between apes and humans, which he named Pithecanthropus alalus (ape man without speech).

    1.1.1868 "On the Probability of a Bone Age" by Gilbert Malcolm Sproat. Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, Volume 6. speculated on "bone" sub-division of the older stone age with "general use of bones and shells" for "fish-hooks, gimlets, arrow-heads, and other instruments".


    1869 The twelfth thousand of The Reason Why; domestic science, affording intelligible reasons for the various duties which a housewife has to perform. By the author of "Enquire Within upon Everything" [Robert Kemp Philp] published in London. The first may have been in 1867. One of the first uses of the concept Domestic Science.

    1869 Mortillet proposed a scheme of paleontological and prehistoric classification which was completed at the congress held in Brussels in 1872. 1897

    1869: John Stuart Mill's The Subjection of Women published. (Written in 1861)

    6.9.1869 to 11.9.1869 Seventh International Statistical Congress held in The Hague.


    2000: Nature Reviews. 2001: Human Genome
    4.11.1869 Journal Nature founded

    A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

    "To the solid ground Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye." -- WORDSWORTH

    2003: Open access challenge - website

    In 1869 the "Eisenach Party" (SAP) [South German Party] was founded by Marx's German followers.

    1870-1871 Franco-Prussian war. The leaders of the Eisenach Party were imprisoned for opposing the war.

    German Unification On 18.1.1871 a German Empire was proclaimed at Versailles with the Prussian king, Wilhelm 1st as Emperor, and Bismarck as Imperial Chancellor. Most German speaking countries of Europe were united in one modern state.

    From 1871 to after 1878 was the period of Kulturkampf - "Conflict of Beliefs" - between Bismarck and the Catholic Church. Prussian Falk Laws of May 1873 completely subordinated the church to state regimentation. From 1878 to 1887, negotiations between Germany and a new pope restored most Catholic rights.

    what about the workers? 18.3.1871 to 28.5.1871 Paris Commune (Short lived proletarian republic). Marx described this as "the first revolution in which the working class was openly acknowledged as the only class capable of social initiative". [See revolution]

    Late Victorian and La Belle Époque partly correspond to the extended period of peace between 1870 and 1914. In the United States, The Gilded Age was the period roughly from the 1870s to the turn of the twentieth century.

    19.2.1870 Max Müller's Lectures on the Science of Religion began at the Royal Institution.

    1870- In England, a series of Acts between 1870 and 1918 made education free and compulsory for children from five years old to ten, then to eleven, then to fourteen

    1871 Charles Darwin's The Descent of Man: and selection in relation to sex published

    Edward Burnet Tylor's Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Art, and Custom

    8.6.1871 Edward Burnet Tylor, author of "various memoirs on savages and their customs" was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on the proposal of (amongst others) Charles Darwin - Francis Galton - Charles Lyell

    Sunday 2.4.1871/Monday 3.4.1871: Eighth British Census
    From 1871 the census for England and Wales was taken separately from that for Scotland, but on the same date.
    Population of England and Wales: 22,712,000; Scotland: 3,360,000

    The 1871 to 1911 censuses asked if the person was blind, deaf or dumb, "imbecile or idiot" or "lunatic". (See 1870 Act). (Census layout - external)

    1872

    1872: Caprolite extraction for fertiliser in north Cambridgeshire. As a by-product of the industry, fossils and human archaeological remains were recovered by the "fossil-digger" Frederick Pond and supplied to museums.

    1872: Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals published. Darwin's study of body language provided a starting point for symbolic interaction sociology. Whist Darwin focused on the expression of emotions, George Herbert Mead interpreted body language as a system of communication (the conversation of gestures) that preceded and allowed the development of symbols and conscious reflection.   (weblink to illustrated copy)

    1872 Eighth International Statistical Congress held in St. Petersburg

    10.5.1872 Marcel Mauss born. See 1925

    22.8.1872 to 30.8.1872 Sixth Congrès international d'anthropologie et d'archéologie préhistoriques held in Brussels. At this, Gabriel de Mortillet presented his "Classification des diverses périodes de l'âge de la pierre" (A good copy at Bodleian Libraries (offline) - just article at europeana) (offline)

    November 1872 Giuseppe Villella died in an Italian prison, Cesare Lombroso performed an autopsy on his body and discovered an abonormality in his skull. He wrote later:

    crime and
deviancy
timeline biological
    positivism
    "The sight of that fossette suddenly appeared to me like a broad plain beneath an infinite horizon, the nature of the criminal was illuminated, he must have reproduced in our day the traits of primitive man going back as far as the carnivores." source

    1873 John Stuart Mill died in Avignon and buried with Harriet. His Autobiography was published after his death.

    5.9.1873 Times page 6. "At the Congress of Bologna a cotery of Marxists had tried to impede all progress, but in vain." First example of "marxists" in Oxford English Dictionary. The earlist example of "marxism" is in 1883.

    Herbert Spencer's The Study of Sociology America

    1873 Architectural Courts, now called the Casts Courts, built at South Kensington

    1874

    Mary Paley passed the Cambridge University "Moral Science Tripos" with distinction. She took over, from Alfred Marshall, the lectures to women students on economics, and was then asked to write a textbook on economics. In 1876 she became engaged to marry Alfred Marshall and they worked on the book together. It was published as The Economics of Industry by Alfred and Mary Paley Marshall in 1879. It was from this book that Alfred Marshall eventually developed his Principles of Economics (External source: Valerie Muir 1995)

    1874 The Cavendish Laboratory opened at Cambridge University under James Clerk Maxwell, the first Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics. Physics at Cambridge had meant theoretical physics and been regarded as the province of the mathematicians. The foundation of the Natural Sciences Tripos in 1851 set the scene for the need to build dedicated experimental physics laboratories. (history)

    1874 John Stuart Mill's Autobiography published

    The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland published the first edition of its Notes and Queries on Anthropology for the Use of Travellers and Residents of Uncivilised Lands in 1874. Edward Burnet Tylor contributed the largest number of sections (18).

    5.10.1874 Popular Science Monthly Volume "The Fossil Man of Mentone" By Theodore Gill. Available on Wikisource

    1875 German social democrats (ADAV and SAP) merged on the basis of The Gotha Programme. This was more Lassallean than Marxist. Marx sent a private criticism and said that he would have to dissociate himself, but he did not - because the press perceived the Gotha Programme as "communist". The party became the SDP in 1890. From 1878 to 1890 the Anti-socialist law prohibited socialist societies, assemblies and pamphlets. But the party was still able to take part in Reichstag elections - where it increased its representation in the (powerless) German national parliament.

    1875 Ninth (last) International Statistical Congress held in Budapest

    The ninth edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica was published between 1875 and 1889 (finished writing 1888?) in 24 volumes. "It embodied as no other publication of the day the transformation of scholarship wrought by scientific discovery and new critical methods" (Encyclopedia Britannica website). The article on "Evolution in Biology" was written by Thomas Huxley and the article on Anthropology by Edward Burnet Tylor. The editor was Thomas Spencer Baynes (born 24.3.1823, died 31.5.1887), assisted from late 1881 by William Robertson Smith, who had lost his professorship as a result of his articles on the Bible. Robertson Smith had the major responsibility for the concluding twelve volumes of the Encyclopedia (Beginning with "L"?).

    1876

    First edition of Volume One of Herbert Spencer's
    The Principles of Sociology
    "While permanent monogamy was being evolved, the union by law (originally the act of purchase) was regarded as the essential part of marriage and the union by affection as nonessential; and whereas at present the union by law is thought the more important and the union by affection the less important; there will come a time when the union by affection will be held of primary moment." (Quoted Burgess and Locke (1945) p.29
    America

    "Founding [Paris], by Jules Guesde, of the first sociology journal - L'Egalite" (external link) - See Wikipedia Jules Guesde

    1876 Cesare Lombroso's L'uomo delinquente studiato in rapporto alla antropologia, alla medecina legale, ed alle discipline carcerarie published in Milan. crime and
deviancy
timeline biological
    positivism

    By the Royal Titles Act 1876 c. 10, Queen Victoria became Empress of India. She was proclaimed so at a "Delhi Durbar" in 1877. The first (and last) monarch to actually attend his Durbar was George 5th

    1877

    Morgan's Ancient Society published

    America

    1877: Georg Cantor (1845-1918) became Professor of Mathematics at Halle. He laid the foundations of modern set theory, leading to the heady possibility that all rational human thought can be rationally understood by human thought - A possibility that Bertrand Russell, to his own annoyance, proved unproven. (external link).   In his autobiography, Russell reproduces a letter to him from Cantor saying "dear Colleague... I am a Baconian...and am quite an adversary of Old Kant..."   See discussion of relevance to positivism

    5th, 12th and 19th April 1877 Francis Galton 's three part article "Typical Laws of Hereditary" in Nature (External link to pdf) In this (12.4.1877 page 513, column 2) he says the produce of peas of the same class "deviated normally on either side of their own mean weight". This is an early example of the use of normal as in "normal curve" (See Quetelet above and Math Word at York).

    22.3.1877 Inaugural meeting of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings in Queen Square, Bloomsbury. Called by William Morris and other "Pre-Raphaelites". Opposes destruction of the historic fabric of old buildings by architects engaged in 'restorations'. (History website)

    1878

    It was about 1878 that William Stanley Jevons statistically related economic cycles to sunspot activity.

    1878 Jardin Zoologique d'Aclimatation, (opened 1860 in the northern part of the Bois de Boulogne) converted to "l'Acclimatation Anthropologique", a zoo that exhibited humans. Albert Geoffroy Saint- Hilaire (1835-19019), the zoo's director from 1865 to 1893, first organised two ethnological spectacles, one of Nubians and the other of Inuit(Esquimaux). By 1878, a million (non-exhibited) people had visited. Between 1877 and 1912 (when this human zoo closed), approximately thirty ethnological exhibitions were presented at the Jardin zoologique d'acclimatation

    1.5.1878 - 10.11.1878 Exposition Universelle held in Paris to celebrate the recovery of France after the 1870 Franco-Prussian War. The temporary (glass) building on the left was the main exhibition in the Champs de Mars, where the Eifel Tower now stands. On the other (north) side of the river Seine is Palais du Trocadéro, where meetings of international organizations could be held during the fair). One popular feature was a human zoo, called a "negro village", composed of 400 "indigenous people".

    The Muséum ethnographique des missions scientifiques (Ethnographic Museum of Scientific Expeditions) (The Musée d'Ethnographie du Trocadéro) was established in a wing of Palais du Trocadéro in 1878. It became the Musée de l'Homme in 1937.

    1878 Mastodon, Mammoth, and Man by John Patterson MacLean (Internet Archive - offline)

    1879 In Leipzig, Wilhelm Wundt set up the world's first laboratory of experimental psychology.

    Enrico Morselli's work on suicide was published in Italy in 1879. It was translated into English in 1881 as Suicide. An Essay On Comparative Moral Statistics

    14.3.1879 Albert Einstein born

    During the 1880s hundreds of young men the British Civil Service as "Temporary Boy Copyists", replacing the men copyists who had previously copied letters by hand. Typewriters and carbon paper (operated mainly by women) eventually replaced the boy copyists.

    1880

    The young Freud translated works by John Stuart Mill into German. In later comments, Freud argued that there are fundamental differences between men and women that Mill had not recognised. This contrast between Mill and Freud is reflected in late 20th century feminist thought in the contrast between those feminists who (like Wollstonecraft and Mill) perceive mind as genderless, and those who believe the male and female minds are different.

    1880: Emile Zola in his essay Le Roman Experimental explains how he applies the experimental method of science to his naturalistic novels. [External links to 1890 text and the Zola pages - See Park (1925) and urban life

    1880 First edition of Henri François Marion's De la Solidarite Morale. See Durkheim 1893

    March 1880-April 1880 UK General Election

    Electric light and energy
    Anglo-American Brush Electric Light Corporation was formed in Lambeth, London to exploit the dynamo invented by Charles Francis Brush in the USA. The dynamos supplied power to arch lamps in the streets. Finance was organised by Joseph Bevan Braithwaite

    29.10.1880 Joseph Swan's development of the incandescent lamp reported in Engineering, which quoted him saying "Electric lighting by incandescence is just as simple as arc lighting is difficult, all that is required is a material which is not a very good conductor of electricity, highly infusible and which can be formed into a wire or lamina, and is neither combustible in air, or if combustible, does not undergo changes in a vacuum". 1886 Ediswan factory at Ponders End

    1881

    1881 Musée préhistorique by Gabriel de Mortillet and his son Adrien de Mortillet made the prehistoric content of the world's museums available in a lavishly illustrated (and therefore expensive) book arranged systematically according to his system of classification. A cheaper edition was issued in 1903. (offline - doc)

    Sunday 3.4.1881/Monday 4.4.1881: Ninth British Census
    This is available online - (Census layout - external)
    Population of England and Wales: 25,974,000; Scotland: 3,736,000

    10.5.1881 to 15.5.1881 International Exhibition of Flour Mill Machinery at the Royal Agricultural Hall, London. "Flour mill machinery, bread making and biscuit making machinery and all kinds of Machinery connected with cereals and farinaceous products" - "From this exhibition can be dated the beginning of mechanical baking in the United Kingdom".

    10.10.1881 The Formation of Vegetable Mould, Through the action of worms by Charles Darwin. Worms = soil = plants = herbivores = life as we know it.
    See Ulrich Beck on grass and earthworms.

    1882

    Society for Psychical Research founded in London for the scientific investigation of psychic phenomena. These included much more than what we might regard as spritual and ghostly phenomena, and the work included theoretical development as well as attempted empirical tests. Frederic Myers, for example, developed the concept of the subliminal self.

    1882 Walther Flemming's book Zellsubstanz, Kern und Zelltheilung. A coloured dye made the threads in this cell show up, so he called them chromatin (coloured). He watched them duplicate themselves when the cell divided so that each new cell had the same set of threads. So he called such cell-division mitosis from thread. In 1888, Wilhelm von Waldeyer-Hartz called each thread a chromosom. This was translated into English in 1889 as chromosome.

    1883

    1883 August Bernthsen synthesised phenothiazine in a reaction of sulphur with diphenylamine in the course of his studies of the structure of dyes like Lauth's violet and methylene blue. Bernthsen's major achievements are listed as uncovering the constitution of methylene blue as phenothiazine derivative and developing a variety of exciting colours with a phenazine and acridine base. (source - see also)   methylene blue

    methylene blue

    The word entered English with
    M'Gowan's Bernthsen of 1894.

    1883 Einleitung in die Geisteswissenschaften (Introduction to the Social Sciences) by Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911)

    "The practice of regarding" [the "human sciences"] "as a unity distinct from the natural sciences is rooted in the depth and totality of human selfconsciousness... man finds within his self-consciousness a sovereignty of the will, a responsibility for actions, a capacity for subjecting everything to thought and for resisting, from within the stronghold of his personal freedom, any and every encroachment"
    See dictionary Verstehen, to understand.

    1883 How the Poor Live by George R. Sims - with 60 illustrations by Frederick Barnard (who illustrated Dickens) Chatto & Windus, Piccadilly - External link to text

    14.3.1883 Karl Marx died. At his death, a virtually unknown author in the English speaking world.

    16.10.1883 Pamphlet The Bitter Cry of Outcast London: an inquiry into the condition of the abject poor (Congregational Union) given much publicity by The Pall Mall Gazette External link to editorial and condensed version

    1883-1891 Nietzsche's Also sprach Zarathustra

    "And what doeth the saint in the forest?" asked Zarathustra. The saint answered:

    "I make hymns and sing them; and in making hymns I laugh and weep and mumble: thus do I praise God. With singing, weeping, laughing, and mumbling do I praise the God who is my God."
    When Zarathustra was alone, however, he said to his heart:

    "Could it be possible! This old saint in the forest hath not yet heard of it, that God is dead!"

    1883 Bibliothèque des Sciences Contemporaines series (Paris) published Le Préhistorique - Antiquité de L'Homme by Gabriel de Mortillet, Professor of prehistoric anthropology at l'Ecole d'anthropologie de Paris. (Internet Archive - offline)

    Mentone. See also 1874

    Between 1883 and 1895, Louis Alexandre Jullien discovered fifteen figurines at the Balzi Rossi. (Canadian Museum of History)

    The Prehistoric Museum of Balzi Rossi was founded in 1898 on the initiative of Sir Thomas Hanbury, who financed the construction of the said building and the arrangement of the Barma Grande, in order to expose to the public the exceptional Paleolithic remains

    Museo Preistorico dei Balzi Rossi

    A 1934 Encyclopedia relates cromagnon humans to "cave drawing on the walls of the caves at Mentone". "Beside animals are representations of the human female form".

    Upper Paleolithic sites in Italy are mostly in the West and bordering France, including the complex of Balzi Rossi (Grimaldi di Ventimiglia, Imperia), the Arene Candide (Finale Ligure, Savona), the cave of Basura (Savona), (Genovagando)



    1884

    Engels: The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State developed by Engels from notes by Marx. The Origin provides an overview of their historical materialism as they left it. Working on the theories of Morgan, they incorporate "Reproduction" into the material base, alongside "Production"

    See also
    1848 Communist Manifesto

    Extracts from Engel's Origin
    Summary of Historical Materialism
    Chart of Engels' overview of history
    Marx and Engels: scientific socialism
    Marx and Engels web links

    At the final meeting of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, Edward Vansittart Neale, a cooperator, read a paper "What is the social condition of the working classes in 1884 as compared with 1857, when the first meeting of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science was held in Birmingham; and in what way can the working classes best utilise their savings?"

    8.5.1884 Opening of the International Health Exhibition, London. It was planned to continue for about six months. (Catalogue). Exhibitors included the Rational Dress Society, formed in 1881, which was against any forms of dress that hampered freedom of movement and argued that dress reform was a key element in the emancipation of women (source). In relation to this exhibition, Francis Galton organised a laboratory to measure human statistics.

    1884 Mrs Ewing founded the Parkinson Society to search out and cultivate old garden flowers, to plant waste places with hardy flowers, and to prevent extermination. She was president until her death, when she was succeeded by Professor Daniel Oliver. The society had been disolved by 1900. ( DNB - Mary's Meadow by Juliana Horatia Ewing


    The cartoon is from Die Gartenlaube - Illustrirtes Familienblatt (The Garden Arbor - Illustrated Family Journal). (See Wikipedia. Reproduced here).

    15,11.1884 to 26.2.1885 Berlin Conference of European powers - Kongokonferenz (Congo Conference) - Afrikakonferenz (Africa Conference)

    "The conference sparked a veritable race for colonial possessions". About 10% of Africa was in European hands in 1876. "In 1902 the colonial powers had carved up 90% of the territory of Africa". ( source).

    1885

    "Gottlieb Daimler's invention in 1885 of the internal- combustion motor using petroleum spirit was the first step towards the production of the modern self-propelled road vehicle, the next step being the recognition in 1887 of the advantages of Daimler's system by M. Levassor and his application of that system to the propulsion of a carriage. In the nine years that immediately followed French manufacturers spent large sums of money in experimenting with and developing the motor-car" (1911 Encyclopedia)

    Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury died.

    Raffaele Garofalo (1851-1934) Criminologia: studio sul delitto, sulle sue cause e sui mezzi di repressione, Torino, Fratelli Bocca. A French translation was published in Paris by F. Alcan in 1888.

    1885 The Prehistoric World: or, Vanished Races by Emory Adams Allen (born 1853). Published Nashville, USA. 876 pages. (Internet Archive - offline)

    1885 Oscar Montelius published Om tidsbestämning inom bronsåldern med särskilt avseende på Skandinavien (About the timing of the bronze age with particular regard to Scandinavia), in which he proposed the six part division of the Scandinavian bronze age.

    April? 1885 Postponed jubillee of the Statistical Society of London (founded Spring 1834) established the International Statistical Institute. The first Congress was held in Rome in 1887. The Presidents of the ISI were: From 1885 to 1899 Sir Rawson W. Rawson (U.K.) - From 1899 to 1908 Karl von Inama-Sternegg (Austria) - From 1909 to 1920 Luigi Bodio (Italy) - From 1923 to 1931 Albert Delatour (France) - From 1931 to 1936 Friedrich Zahn (Germany) - From 1936 to 1947 Armand Julin (Belgium) - The next two Presidents were from the USA. (History)

    14.8.1885 Royal Assent to Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 (48 and 49 Victoria c.69): "An Act to make further provision for the Protection of Women and Girls, the suppression of brothels, and other purposes". This raised the age of consent from 13 to 16 and criminalised "gross indecency" between males. See Oscar Wilde 1895. This was the first time that homosexuality as such was made an offence. Anal intercourse of any kind had long been a very serious offence.

    24.11.1885-18.12.1885 UK General Election

    1885-1886 Durkheim in Germany studying German social research and ethical speculation

    EMILE DURKHEIM AND MAX WEBER

    October 1885 to February 1886 Freud in France studying nervous diseases under Charcot, who had developed hypnosis as a treatment for hysteria. His experiences were an important stage in moving from mapping the human brain and nervous system to mapping the human mind. France

    Charcot and Blanche Wittmann
    Asylum despair

    1886

    1886 Rendells contraceptive pessaries made from quinine in cacao-nut butter produced commercially. They may have been distributed free by John Walter Rendell (1844 - 1889?) in Clerkenwell from 1880. See 1934 and 1957

    11.5.1886 Queen Victoria opened the International Exhibition of Navigation, Commerce and Industry in Liverpool (source). In a special feature on 15.5.1886, the Illustrated London News wrote:

    "Liverpool, thanks to modern science and commercial enterprise , to the spirit and intelligence of the townsmen, and to the administration of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, has become a wonder of the world. It is the New York of Europe, a world-city rather than merely British provincial." (See Reviews in History)

    1.7.1886-27.7.1886 UK General Election

    1886 Discovery of human remains in a cave at Spy, reported in 1887 as "La race humaine de Néanderthal ou de Canstadt en Belgique recherches ethnographiques sur des ossements humains, découverts dans des dépôts quaternaires d'une grotte à Spy et détermination de leur âge géologique"

    1886 Mythical Monsters by Charles Gould (4.6.1834 - 15.4.1893) published London. 407 pages. Available in Sacred Texts under "earth mysteries". offline. Argued that "stories ordinarily reputed fabulous" (myths) should be given "consideration due to genuine realities". Chapter four is "The deluge not a myth". Gould suggests that mythological analysis (including Chinese stories) suggests a deluge date similar to the traditional. See 1894.

    1887: In Germany, Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) proved James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)'s theory that electricity can travel through space in waves by generating and detecting electro-magnetic wave across the length of his laboratory. See 1894 - Atlantic 1915 - BBC 1923 - BBC 1926 - BBC 1927 - Reich Broadcasting Corporation - Hitler's radio - mobiles Southbury - mobiles and poverty

    1887: Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft by Ferdinand Tönnies -
    See dictionary

    In 1887 a lectureship of social science was created for Durkheim at the University of Bordeaux.

    1887 First ISI World Statistics Congress held in Rome.

    Karl Marx's Capital (1867). Translated by Samuel Moore & E. Aveling, published by F. Engels, London 1887. Engels edited the translation and wrote a preface. The same year: F. Engels. The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844, translated by F. K. Wischnewetzky, was published in New York and reprinted in London. Engels added an appendix on "The Working Class Movement in America". Samuel Moore's translation of The Communist Manifesto was published early in 1888.

    1888:

    1888: Max Müller's Biographies of words and the home of the Aryas

    15.6.1888 Wilhelm 2nd German Emperor. See Die wilhelminische Zeit (the Wilhelmine period). Wilhelminism refers to the style of the Emperor who delighted in pompous military parades.


    1889

    1889 Charles Booth's Life and Labour of the People of London was published in 17 volumes between 1889 and 1902. in three series, 'Poverty' (1889), 'Industry' and 'Religious Influences' (1902). Charles Booth (1840-1916), a statistician, spent eighteen years preparing this survey. Amongst those who helped him was his cousin, Beatrice Potter Webb. - External link to Charles Booth Online Archive -

    1889 William Robertson Smith's Lectures on the Religion of the Semites applied anthropological theory to the analysis of the Old Testament. His analysis of sacrifice was an important component of the anthropologies of both Dukrhheim and Freud. James Frazer, in 1900, made an anthropological analysis of the crucifixion of Christ.

    1889 [Ein kurzes Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie] A Text-book of Organic Chemistry by August Bernthsen translated by George M'Gowan [MacGowan] London: Blackie and Son 1889. xvii and 544 pages. A second English edition, revised and extended by author and translator, was published in 1894.

    La Galerie des Machines at l' Exposition Universelle in Paris, which ran from 5.5.1889 to 31.10.1889. The Eiffel Tower was the entrance to the whole exhibition.
    Other major attractions included a negro village displaying 40 people which was associated with a colonial pavilion celebrating the French empire, and a palace of war, a topic which Engineering described as "the most absorbing subject now-a-days, unfortunately, to governments if not to individuals".

    Amongst the machines exhibited were Baker's biscuit maker.

    See
    French Wikipedia - English Wikipedia

    The Library Late 1889 First edition of The Library which was the organ of the Library Association of the United Kingdom. In 1920 it became The Library: Transactions of The Bibliographical Society

    1890 Launch of SS Robin: "Dirty British Coaster" - See Masefield's Cargoes and commerce.

    1890 Ivan Pavolv (1849-1936) appointed professor at St Petersburg Military- Medical Academy, Russia, where he established a laboratory observing the digestion of live animals through a hole in the stomach. He won the Nobel Prize for physiology in 1904.

    1890 Les lois de l'imitation by Jean-Gabriel De Tarde (1843- 1904). Translated into English in 1903 The Laws of Imitation.

    Alfred Marshall's Principles of Economics. An introductory volume published. His Economics of Industry (a different book than that published with Mary Paley Marshall in 1879) was published in 1892. Marshall was "Professor of Political Economy" at Cambridge University until 1908. Marshall was one of the four major theorists on whom Talcott Parsons based his The Structure of Social Action

    The Edinburgh College of Cookery and Domestic Science (then in Atholl Crescent) in 1890. Founded in 1875 to improve women's access to higher education and improving the diets of working class families. It Edinburgh College of Domestic Science in 1930. In 1972 it became Queen Margaret College, 1999 Queen Margaret University College, and in January 2007, Queen Margaret University.

    In 1893 National Society's Training School of Cookery was founded in London. It became part of the college of All Saints in 1964, which joined Middlesex Polytechnic in 1978. (Middlesex University from 1992)

    1890 Henry Morton Stanley's In Darkest Africa: or the quest, rescue and retreat of Emin, Governor of Equatoria, in six volumes, published.

    William Booth's Darkest England and the Way Out was published in 1890. William Booth (1829-1912) was the founder of the Salvation Army, an evangelistic Christian organisation with ideas about the redemption of society. He should not be confused with Charles Booth.

    "For years past the Press has been filled with echoes of the 'Bitter Cry of Outcast London', with pictures of 'Horrible Glasgow', and the like. We have had several volumes describing 'How the Poor Live', and I may therefore assume that all my readers are more or less cognizant of the main outlines of 'Darkest England' (Chapter 5 On the Verge of the Abyss) "

    It was William (not Charles) Booth who wrote of the "submerged tenth". This was his heading for chapter two. However, he used Charles Booth's statistics to support his calculation.

    It is unusual for followers of Karl Marx to speculate about what life will be like after a communist revolution. This, however, is what William Morris did in his 1890 dream novel News from Nowhere summary and discussion

    James George Frazer's The Golden Bough. A Study of Magic and Religion appeared in twelve volumes between 1890 and 1915. The second edition in 1900 analysed the crucifixion of Christ. He published an abridgement in 1922 - Without the most controversial material.

    Edwin Chadwick died

    1891 Our Baby - first edition

    The right of a husband to use force against his wife was first denied by the English courts in 1891.

    January 1891 Karl Pearson appointed Gresham Chair of Geometry. He gave 38 "Gresham" lectures, free and open to the public, between February 1891 and November 1893. The substance of his The Grammar of Science, first published in February 1892, was based on the first two lectures. On 20.11.1891 he introduced the term histogram [not used in the Grammar] to designate a "time-diagram" to be used for historical purposes. On 31.1.1893, he introduced the term standard deviation. See 1911

    April 1891 Charles Creighton's article "The Population of Old London" Blackwood's Magazine). See 1199 - 1532 - 1578


    Sunday 5.6.1891/Monday 6.6.1891: Tenth British Census (Census layout - external)
    Asked about the number of rooms and their occupants in all tenements with fewer than five rooms. Distinguished between employers, employees and the self-employed.
    Population of England and Wales: 29,003,000; Scotland: 4,026,000. In England and Wales, 35% were under 15 and 4% per cent 65 or over.

    1891 Weber's doctoral thesis: A Contribution to the History of Medieval Business Organizations
    See also
    1894/1895 Economics Professor at Freiburg
    1896 Professor at Heidelberg
    1897 Father's death
    1904/1905 The Protestant Ethic...
    1910-1914 Economy and Society
    Lecture notes on Weber
    Brief note on Weber
    Extracts from Weber
    Weber web links
    Social Science History

    1891 Edvard Alexander Westermarck's The Origins of Human Marriage published. See 1903 - 1907

    September 1891 In strata of presumed Pleistocene age near a spot called Trinil in Java, Eugène Dubois found an upper molar tooth during the drying-up of a river-bed. In October 1891 he discovered the roof of a large cranium about a yard away. In August 1892, sixteen yards up the stream he discovered a left femur. Nature 24.1.1895

    The thigh bone indicated the animal had walked upright and Dubois called it Anthropopithecus erectus (Man ape erect). In December 1892 Dubois obtained a Chimpanzee's scull to compare with the cranium roof he had discovered. Convinced that the cranium was more like a human than a chimpanzee, he renamed the find (Pithecanthropus erectus (Ape man erect). The comparison photograph is from Dubois 1894. Information from Through Eugène Dubois' Eyes 2010.

    1892 Durkheim's latin thesis on Montesquieu.

    July 1892 British General Election. Gladstone minority Liberal government with Irish Nationalist support. 4 July to 26 July 1892. Dadabhai Naoroji, the Liberal member for Finsbury Central was the first Asian member of the United Kingdom Parliament. He took his oath of office on his own copy of the Khordeh Avesta.

    1893

    July 1893 First meeting of The Institut International de Sociologie (International Sociological Institute), created by René Worms, held in the building of the Society of Anthropology in Paris. "From more than fifty members and more than twenty associates, approximately twenty were present and nine sent papers. The participating group comprised between 50 and 150 people". (Schuerkens, F.U. 1996). External link to its website (archive) - new website
    Annales de l'Institut International de Sociologie/ Annals of the International Institute of Sociology first published in 1895 after the first world congress,

    In Division of Labour in Society (1893), Durkheim tried to show that societies are real and that the reality of societies lies in something that he calls solidarity. (Click here for Extracts). He also said punishing crime is a way a society defines the way it thinks, reinforcing its solidarity
    See also
    1885 Durkheim in Germany
    1895 Sociological Method
    1897 Suicide
    1901 Lectures on Rousseau
    1912 ... Religious Life
    Lecture notes on Durkheim
    Brief note on Durkheim
    Extracts from Durkheim
    Durkheim web links
    Social Science History
    Parsons and Giddens

    1893 Thomas Huxley's lecture on evolution and ethics (an external link)

    1893 The People's Dictionary of the Bible: "Popularly describing the persons, events, places, towns, countries, histories, literature, names, customs, natural history, rites, ceremonies, antiquities, and all other such matters referred to in the Holy Scriptures". Edited by Edwin A. Rice. Published London by Simpkin Marshall (not dated) 396 pages. Admits "no name or word about which nothing is known except the mere mention of it in the Bible" (page 5). For example "There is no fact in history better attested independent of the word of God than the flood; and none more universally acknowledged by all nations, accounts of it being in their legends" (page 153).

    1893 La donna delinquente la prostituta e la donna normale by Cesare Lombroso and Guglielmo Ferrero published Torino. Published in English as The Female Offender in 1895. crime and
deviancy
timeline biological
    positivism

    1894

    The discovery of the first of the inert gases, argon, by Rayleigh and Ramsay and the first public demonstration of wireless transmission over a few hundred yards by Sir Oliver Lodge announced at a meeting of the British Association.

    1894 The second edition of M'Gowan's Bernthsen, page 539 said "Nile Blue springs from naphtho- phenoxazine; and the thionine dyes from phen-thiazine." The index to the USA Chemical Abstracts in 1917 includes Phenothiazine.

    1894 Pithecanthropus erectus, eine menschenaehnliche Uebergangsform aus Java (Pithecanthropus erectus, a human-like form of transition from Java.) by Eugène Dubois, 34 pages, published in Batavia. There is a copy in the British Library and in the Internet Library.

    1894 to 1897 Stratigraphic excavation of the La grotte du Pape at Brassempouy uncovered ivory figurines. La Dame à la capuche was recovered in 1894.

    1894 In Germany, Weber became Professor of Economics at Freiburg University in place of Karl Knies.

    In America George Herbert Mead became a lecturer at Chicago University where, before his death in 1931, he developed theories that showed how social interaction by means of symbols could have developed from the conversation of gestures of animals. From 1894 to 1904, John Dewey also lectured at Chicago, where he developed his version of pragmatism.

    Benjamin Kidd's Social Evolution (See Darwin) This book contained the idea that "irrational" religion is needed by societies to hold them together. Societies require the subordination of individual self interest to the collective welfare, and the motivation for this is provided by religion.

    November 1894 In France: The conviction for treason of Captain Alfred Dreyfus,

    November 1894 The Library said there was no "novelty about the principle of open access". However, in 1934 the Architectural Review said that most "large libraries in this country" did not allow open access to their shelves. On 30.12.1977 The Times Literary Supplement declared the "long-standing fight about open access" won. It spoke of a "deep-seated fear..in some librarians" of users "having the run of the shelves". (Oxford English Dictionary)

    1895
    Recorded sound Painting of Nipper (1884-1895) looking into a wind-up Edison-Bell cylinder phonograph. Picture painted, after Nipper's death, by by Francis Barraud (1856-1924) in 1898.

    A modified version of the painting, with gramophone discs, was used as the logo of the Gramophone Company on its records from shortly after 1900 and this gave rise to the popular name of the company as His Master's Voice. In 1921 the Gramophone Company opened the first HMV shop in London. See 1924. News on 15.1.2013 said HMV music and film chain to appoint administrator

    Engels died.

    Weber's inaugural address at Freiburg, The National State and Economic Policy, - a confession of belief in imperialist realpolitik and the House of Hohenzollern.

    In Rules of Sociological Method, Durkheim argued that if we want to be sociologists we should "treat social facts as things". (Extracts) He also argued that crime is necessary and normal for society.

    Fabians found The London School of Economics and Political Science, which held its first classes in October 1895. In 1900 the School was recognised as a faculty of economics in the newly-constituted University of London and in 1901 the Faculty degrees were announced as the BSc (Econ) and DSc (Econ) - "the first university degrees principally dedicated to the social sciences". It became a major centre for the social sciences in England. By employing staff of diverse political persuasions, it has been as often the centre for conservative as for radical thought. See 1896 - 1903 - 1904 - 1935 - 1951

    25.5.1895 Oscar Wilde and Alfred Taylor found guilty of "gross indecency with men" - an offence created in 1885. See Pearce and Roberts 1973 pp 61-63). They were sentenced to two years hard labour. At the trial a poem "Two Loves" by Lord Alfred Douglas , published in The Chameleon in December 1894 was quoted. It concludes "I am the Love that dare not speak its name."

    July/August 1895 British General Election. Salisbury led a Conservative and Liberal Unionist Government. Mancherjee Merwanjee Bhownagree was elected Conservative MP for Bethnal Green. The second Asian to be a UK MP (1895-1906). He supported British rule in India.

    In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen's discoveries initiated research into X-Rays

    In 1896 Henri Becquerel's discoveries initiated the exploration of radioactivity

    1896

    Weber became Professor at the University of Heidelberg
    Lev Semenovich Vygotsky born

    Durkheim's journal L'Année Sociologique first appeared in 1896 - but the first "volume" was published in 1898. At this time, Chicago and Bordeaux were two of the main centres generating "sociology". See Andrea Nagy. The new London School of Economics became another centre. America

    6.4.1896 First International Olympic Games at Athens.

    See Olympiad - Winter 1936 - 1936 - 1960 - 1968 - 1972 - 7.7.2005 - 2015 -

    1897

    Durkheim's Suicide seeks to show that society is so real that it controls acts as (apparently) individual as suicide. (Extracts)


    Weber's father's death was followed by Weber's mental breakdown.

    Ferdinand Tönnies' Der Nietzsche-Kultus. Eine Kritik. Leipzig. An extremely successful book on Nietzsche that influenced Weber.

    1897 Mortillet "Evolution quaternaire de la pierre" Revue de l'Ecole d'Anthropologie, pages 17-26

    1898

    13.1.1898 Émile Zola alleged that "the conviction of Alfred Dreyfus was based on false accusations of espionage and was a misrepresentation of justice."

    First volume of L'Année Sociologique. It continued until 1913. Then the war stopped it. A short lived revival began in 1923-1924. It was published as Annales Sociologique between 1934 and 1942. The first of a third series of L'Année Sociologique appeared in 1949, and has continued since.

    25.9.1898 Death of Gabriel de Mortillet - February 1899 Popular Science Monthly Volume 54 "Sketch of Gabriel de Mortillet"

    1899

    July 1899 Herbert Payne left school, aged 13, and became a joiner at the Vulcan Foundry. He retired 2.11.1951, aged 65, after 52 years and one month of service. (Vulcan Magazine Volume 2, Number 4, Winter 1951-1952, p.32)

    October 1899 Wiesbaden meeting of European and American Academies planned an international association with sections for natural science and "literary science": meaning the scientific study of language, history, philosophy, antiquities, and other subjects not considered "natural sciences". The Royal Society represented Britain for the natural sciences. The British Academy was formed to represent the others. The International Association of Academies first met in Paris in 1900, without British representation of the non-natural sciences. The Association did not survive the first world war, but was replaced by the International Research Council and the International Association of Academies after the war (main source)

    October 1899 First publication of Helen Bannerman's The Story of Little Black Sambo, the best known of "The Dumpy Books for Children".

    Sometime in 1899 Aids to Scouting for N.-C.Os and men by Robert Baden-Powell in Gale and Polden's military series. A revised and enlarged edition was issued in 1906.

    "The British scout ... has to take on the crafty Afghan in his mountains, or the Zulu in the open South African downs, the Burmese in his forests, the Soudanese on the Egyptian deserts."
    13.10.1899 to 17.5.1900 Siege of Mafeking. "It became clear that the English expected the blacks to starve first" (Wikepedia Edward Cecil

    Edward Cecil (under Robert Baden-Powell) formed a "cadet corps". Baden-Powel called them "boy scouts". These (non-fighting) boy soldiers did tasks like delivering mail (under fire) on bicycles. One of them was shown on the local penny stamp.

    *********


     
    20TH CENTURY

    Some new words in the 1900 Dictionary: -   - x-rays - Victorian - valence and valency - ultra-red - ultra-violet - tuberculine - tuberculosis - telepathy - symbiosis - spirillum - sepsis - saccharin (sweetener made from coal-tar "no nutritive value, but apparently harmless" - rubella - referendum - psychometry - prognosis - poundal - pornography - phylum - photogravure - paludal (marsh) fever - oceanography - occultism - neuropathology - neuromuscular - neurasthenia - micro-organism - metazoa - metabolism - menopause - matriarchy - massage - margarine - magazine-rifle - machine- gun - Listerism (antiseptic surgery) - lanoline - laisser-faire - karma - impressionist - hypnosis - glossic (phonetic spelling) - germicide - felicific - eurhythmy - eugenic - eugenics - endoplasm - endoplast - ectoplasm - demography - coulomb - cordite - colonial - colonize - cephalic index (scull measurement "according to which...races.. are called brachycephalic or dolichocephalic) - cardiograph - burette - brontosaurus - boom (economic) - bacteriology - ampere - aluminium - alienism -

    1900
    Sigmund Freud's Interpretation of Dreams
    books - extracts
    1880 Freud and John Stuart Mill
    1885 Freud and Charcot
    1913 Totem and Taboo
    1938 Outlining Psychoanalysis
    Freud and society
    Mental Health History Timeline
    Extracts from Interpretation of Dreams
    beautiful baby
    Freud weblinks

    26.2.1900-27.2.1900 UK "Labour Representation Committee" formed at a conference in Farringdon aimed at getting MPs into Parliament who would support labour interests. Renamed the Labour Party 15.2.1906.

    15.4.1900 to 12.11.1900, Exposition Universelle held in Paris "to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next" (Wikipedia)

    29.7.1900 Victor Emmanuel (born 11.11.1869) 3rd King of Italy. Italy fought against Germany in the first world war. On 30.10.1922 he appointed Mussolini Prime Minister. Emperor of Ethiopia from 9.5.1936. Italy fought on the side of Germany in the second world war. Victor Emmanuel abdicated on 9.5.1946, and died 28.12.1947. See 1929 stamps

    26.9.1900 to 30.9.1900 Congrès international de l'éducation sociale. Paris. See Durkheim

    September/October 1900 UK General Election

    1901

    "The white population of the empire reached in 1901 a total of over 53,000,000, or something over one-eighth of its entire population, which, including native races, is estimated at about 400,000,000. [...] The population of the empire may therefore be calculated as amounting to something more than one-fourth of the population of the world." (1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

    1901 Publication of Seebohm Rowntree's Poverty, A Study of Town Life. 28% of the population of York (England) calculated as living in "absolute poverty". The main reason for this was low wages. The Legacy of Rowntree - Presentation by Jonathan Bradshaw 2013 - offline

    Tuesday 22.1.1901 Death of Queen Victoria at Osborne House. Monday 4.2.1901 Victoria buried beside Albert in the Frogmore Royal Mausoleum at Windsor Home Park. Her body had been bought, in state, across the Solent and on to Windsor.

    Charlotte Mew expresses a nation's grief - Children are named Victoria.

    Sunday 31.3.1901/Monday 1.4.1901: Eleventh British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 32,612,000; Scotland: 4,479,000

    1901 Enrico Ferri's The Positive School of Criminology

    24.10.1901: The Psychological Society founded at University College London. It was renamed the British Psychological Society in 1906. America
    The ten founder members were: Robert Armstrong-Jones (1859-1943) - William Ralph Boyce Gibson (1869-1935) - Sophie Bryant (1850-1922) - Frank Hales (1878-1952) -
    William McDougall - Frederick Mott - W.H.R. Rivers - Alexander Shand (1858-1936) - W.G. Smith - and James Sully.

    1901 to 1902 Durkheim's last Sociology lectures at Bordeaux were on the history of sociology. All that survives of them is his article on Rousseau's Social Contract. This argued that Rousseau bridges the gap between state of nature theory and sociology

    In 1901 Marcel Mauss and Paul Fauconnet provided the article on Sociology for the Grande Encyclopédie

    10.12.1901 The first Nobel Prizes: Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. (Nobel website) - Prizewinners include Röntgen (X-rays) - Becquerel and the Curies (Radioactivity) - Pavlov (Digestion) - Rutherford - Cockcroft and Walton - Hahn (Nuclear fission) - Wagner Jauregg (malaria innoculations) - Hess (interbrain coordination) - Moniz (leucotomy)

    1902

    Durkheim took over the Science of Education at the Sorbonne.

    La science et l'hypothèse (Science and Hypothesis) by Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) published in Paris.

    William Bateson (1861-1926) Mendel's Principles of Heredity. A defence ... With a translation of Mendel's original papers on hybridisation Cambridge University Press. (external link to English translation of Mendel)

    3.4.1902 Funeral of Cecil Rhodes in Cape Town.

    1902 Rhodes Scholarships, established under the will of Cecil John Rhodes, provided international scholarships at Oxford University for students from the British colonies, the United States, and Germany, because " ... a good understanding between England, Germany and the United States of America will secure the peace of the world ... " No German scholars were chosen from 1914 to 1929, nor from 1940 to 1969.

    "I contend that we are the first race in the world, and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race. I contend that every acre added to our territory means the birth of more of the English race who otherwise would not be brought into existence."

    8.8.1902 Royal Charter granted to incorporate the "British Academy for the Promotion of Historical, Philosophical, and Philological Studies" - now known as the "British Academy" with the present day objects of the "promotion of the humanities and social sciences". - website - See Royal Society - 1899 - Union Académique Internationale - Academy of Social Sciences - Society Counts

    9.8.1902 Coronation of King Edward 8th and Queen Alexandra - Postponed due to the king's illness. "Thine Empire shall be strong... Land of Hope and Glory, Mother of the Free... Wider still and wider shall thy bounds be set"

    October 1902 First commercial publication of Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Peter Rabbit

    Peter Rabbit may have influenced some of the imagery of Julienne Ford, before she graduated to Swallows and Amazons, Catcher in the Rye and then marxism and sociology

    1903

    1903 British Civil Service Typists' Association formed. All typists were (apparently) women. It merged with the Federation of Women Clerks in 1916 to form the Federation of Women Civil Servants.

    1903 An Association to Promote the Higher Education of Working Men founded by Albert Mansbridge and his wife. Renamed the Workers Educational Association in 1905.

    1903 "Despite its high price", the first edition of Musée préhistorique by Mortillet, father and son had sold out, after twenty years. The publishers suggested a new, "slightly shorter", edition at a "much more modest price". Adrien de Mortillet took the opportunity to review the whole book in the light of changing ideas. (Introduction). Despite Guy de Mortillet's influence, none of his work appears to have been translated into English and COPAC lists only one each of the French editions of Musée préhistorique, both at Oxford.

    1903 to 1907, Edvard Alexander Westermarck, first Lecturer in Sociology at London School of Economics. From 1906 to 1918, he was also Professor of Practical Philosophy, University of Helsinki, and from 1907 to 1930, Professor of Sociology, London School of Economics (with Hobhouse).

    May 1903 George Griffith Sidelights on Convict Life

    May 1903 Durkheim and Fauconnet, Révue Philosophique,

    "Sociology exists; it has a history displaying its nature; there is, therefore, no place for efforts to imagine what it is. We can observe it. Though no good purpose is served in disputing in abstracto what the science ought to be, there is on the contrary a real interest in becoming acquainted with the course of its development, in giving an account of the various elements whence it resulted, and of the parts they occupy respectively in the whole structure."


    20.11.1903 Sociological Society formed at the London School of Economics. The original society had an international membership. America
    The society sought to bring together, for debate, all with a scientific approach to society and social issues. Major issues in its early years included selective breeeding, town planning and welfare. Based at the London School of Economics until 1920. See David Evans (1986) and Baudry Rocquin (2006)
    See Francis Galton at the Sociological Society.

    Sociological Papers by F. Galton, E. Westermarck, P. Geddes, E. Durkheim, H.H. Mann and V.V. Branford published by Macmillan (London) for the Sociological Society. (Volume one 1905). There were three volumes covering (I think) sessions October to June 1904-1905, 1905-1906 and 1906- 1907. It then became The Sociological Review It was the "Journal of the Sociological Society" from 1908 to 1930; of the "Institute of Sociology" from 1931 to 1952. From 1953 to 1961 issued by the University College of North Staffordshire; From 1962 to the present by University of Keele.

    10.12.1903 Nobel Prize in Physics awarded to Antoine Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska for Becquerel discovery of spontaneous radioactivity and the Curie's "joint researches on the radiation phenomena" discovered by Becquerel. (citation). In 1911, Marie Curie won the prize for Chemistry

    1903 Edward Step Wayside and Woodland Trees: A pocket guide to the British sylva

    London to become the city of Plane trees

    "The Plane (Platanus orientalis). In spite of the fact that the Plane is an exotic of comparatively recent introduction, it seems in a fair way of being associated in the future with London. It has taken with great kindness to London life, in spite of the drawbacks of smoke, fog, flagstones, and asphalt. Its leaves get thickly coated with soot, which also turns its light-grey bark to black; but as the upper surface of the leaves is smooth and firm, a shower of rain washes them clean, and the rigid outer layer of bark is thrown off by the expansion of the softer bark beneath. This is not thrown off all at once, but in large and small flakes, which leave a smooth yellow patch behind, temporarily free from soot contamination. A variety of trees has been tried for street-planting, but none has stood the trying conditions of London so well as the Plane, and therefore before many years the capital will be the city of Planes."


    1904

    1904 The thermionic valve (See Ambrose Fleming). The valve can only pass an electric signal one way. Consequently, alternating signals from radio waves can be converted into pulsating direct current that can be used to produce sound. Valves can also be used in binary calculations with current flowing counting as one state and not flowing counting as the other state.

    See Transistor

    1904 Gardening for the Million by Alfred Pink (of Dulwich), author of Recipes for the Million published by T. Fisher Unwin, 267 pages in an Art Nouveau Book Design.

    1904 In his Nobel Prize address, Pavlov introduced the idea of the conditioned reflex. (extracts). 20th Century Words records the term in English use from 1906. Pavlov's works appeared in English in 1926

    1904 Charles Spearman suggested a way of measuring a "general intelligence" underlying specific abilities.

    18.7.1904 Patrick Geddes read his first paper on Civics: as Applied Sociology to the Sociological Society. His second paper Civics: as Concrete and Applied Sociology was read on 25.1.1905. The meetings were chaired by Charles Booth and theoretical criticisms received in writing included one from W.I. Thomas of Chicago.

    1904/1905 Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, first published in German. This book by Weber became number 4 in the century's top 10. Economy and Society was number one.


    1904-1905 The first course in