A studymore resource provided by Andrew Roberts as part of ABC Study Links
Recommended web address http://studymore.org.uk/linkssh.htm
Social Science History and Social History Links home page to all of Andrew Roberts' web site

Click for:

authors - chronological below - alphabetical - click

Venus of Willendorf     Plato     Aristotle     1583:  Grotius     1588  Filmer     1588  Hobbes     1632  Locke     1712  Rousseau     1723  Adam Smith     1748  Jeremy Bentham     1724  Immanuel Kant     1780 to 1870     1748  Olympe de Gouges     1759  Mary Wollstonecraft     Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley and Frankentstein     1766 Thomas Malthus     1773  James Mill     1771 Robert Owen     1775 William Thompson     Anna Wheeler     1796 Adolphe Quetelet     1798  August Comte and Positivism     1806/1807  John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor     1815 Johann Jakob Bachofen     1818 Lewis Henry Morgan     1818/1820  Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels     Francis Galton     1832  Wilhelm Max Wundt     1856  Sigmund Freud     1858  Emile Durkheim     1863  George Herbert Mead     1864  Max Weber     1864  Robert E. Park     1878  John Broadus Watson     1901 Jacques Lacan     1902  Talcott Parsons     1902 Karl Popper     1904  Burrhus Frederic Skinner     1907  John Bowlby     1908  Simone de Beauvoir     1908 Claude Lévi Strauss     1910  Robert King Merton     1916  C. Wright Mills     1918  Louis Althusser     Communist theory 1919     Fascist and Nazi theory     Frankfurt School

1920 Thomas Szasz     1921 Mary Douglas     1922  Erving Goffman     1924 Jean-François Lyotard     1925 Zygmunt Bauman     1926  Michel Foucault
1927 Ronald Laing     Thomas Luckmann
1928  Howard Becker
1929 Peter Berger     Thomas Scheff     Jürgen Habermas     Jean Baudrillard     Pierre Bourdieu

1932 Stuart Hall     1938  Anthony Giddens

1940 Juliet Mitchell     1944  Roger Scruton     Frank Pearce

Before History

Timeline and resources on Andrew Roberts' site

Venus of Willendorf, Christopher Witcombe's site

Greek and Roman classics

Perseus Project   (Mirror site in Oxford)

Internet Classics Archive
In February 2002, this site was recovering from a disaster. The texts had been were recovered, but search and other features are missing or faulty. It now seems to have been abandoned - But still useful.

Classics links:   Dulwich College   Oxford etext   Cambridge classics   Edinburgh Arts

Plato books

Timeline and links on this site   Republic index   Meno

Open Directory   Catholic Encyclopedia   Wikipedia (referencing)   Mathematicians  

Bernard Suzanne - Plato and his Dialogues

Exploring Plato's dialogues

watching your baby born through a mirror:
See also Plato on reflections

Aristotle books

Timeline and resources on Andrew Roberts' site

Open Directory   Wikipedia (referencing)   Catholic Encyclopedia Mathematicians  

Aristotle texts

John Kilcullen's lecture on Aristotle's Politics http://www.humanities.mq.edu.au/politics/y6704.html
Lectures at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

Notes from Leo Paul S. de Alvarez's graduate courseo on Aristotle's Politics. Taken by Stanly Oakes. Corrected by C. A. Bates, Jr.

Medieval arabic writer links

Baghdad Rulers - The golden age of arab and islamic culture mentions Hunain ibn Ishaq

Islamic Philosophy Online
the translators page lists Hunain ibn Ishaq with a link.

Christian Arab Tradition mentions Hunain ibn Ishaq




Thomas Aquinas books

The Summa Theologica

Open Directory   Catholic Encyclopedia   Wikipedia (referencing)   reviews  

William Shakespeare (1564-1615)

Shakespeare's England
Schedule and links for
Johann P. Sommerville's course at Wisconsin

Hugo Grotius 1583-1645 books

On the Law of War and Peace

Wikipedia (referencing)


Rousseau disagrees with Grotius

Robert Filmer books

Timeline and Filmer resources on Andrew Roberts' site
Filmer extracts

Full text at constitution.org:

Johann P. Sommerville Filmer and patriarchalism
University of Wisconsin - Madison

mid seventeenth century

Science, thought, religion and culture
On Johann P. Sommerville's website
http://history.wisc.edu/sommerville/361/361- 31.htm

Channel 4 Time Traveller's Guide to Stuart England

Thomas Hobbes books
including e-texts

Timeline and Thomas Hobbes resources on Andrew Roberts' site
Hobbes extracts

J J O'Connor and E F Robertson November 2002 Thomas Hobbes available at
http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Hobbes.html The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. School of Mathematics and Statistics. University of St Andrews Scotland

ABC Internet Referencing
If you reference more than one (O'Connor and Robertson November 2002) you will need to distinguish: (O'Connor and Robertson November 2002a) - (O'Connor and Robertson November 2002b) etc

political philosophy online review - english version

page, with profile and useful links and resources, at The History of Economic Thought Website

on the Luminarium site:
resources list

Rogers, John 1.5.2001 Thomas Hobbes
BBC History, Monarchs and Leaders.

Landry, Peter 1997 - Biographies: Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) available at http://www.blupete.com/Literature/Biographies/Philosophy/Hobbes.htm
Nova Scotia, Canada.

ABC Internet Referencing
If you reference more than one (Landry, P. 1997 -) you will need to distinguish: (Landry, P. 1997a -) - (Landry, P. 1997b -) etc

Duncan Richter's succinct notes for soldiers

Issac Newton is often presented as the model for natural science, which may or may not be a model for social science.

discussion of Bacon, Hobbes and Newton on this site,

Malcom Forster's notes at the University of Wisconsin explain Newton's theory and mention the apple myth

Newton on the history of mathematics site: http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Newton.html

John Locke books

Timeline and John Locke resources on Andrew Roberts' site
Locke extracts

Locke texts on the web
http://weber.ucsd.edu/~dmckiern/locke.htm - archive

Theories of property, liberalism, gender and John Locke
On Johann P. Sommerville's website

Who was John Locke?
An interesting article on the website of an association of retired Kansas physicians who call themselves The John Locke Society.

Richards, James. O, 22.1.2004 The Proper Basis for Society: John Locke (1632 - 1704)   html version - original pdf available at http://www.gdn.edu/PT_Faculty/j_richards/lectures/Hist1122Locke.PDF

Jean Jacques Rousseau books and articles by and about Rousseau - including etexts

Timeline 1750 - Timeline 1762 - reviews - anonymous biography   Wikipedia (referencing)

Petri Liukkonen's biography

Chris Bertram's web resources list
http://info.bris.ac.uk/~plcdib/rousseauwebresources.html   (archive)

The Rousseau Association
Website appears not to have been maintained and many links are now dead

Bibliothèque nationale de France

Rousseau Archive at Harvard

Doyle, Michele Erina and Smith, Mark K. 1997 Jean-Jacques Rousseau on education The encyclopaedia of informal education http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm. Updated 16.3.2004

Harrison, Paul, 1996, Rousseau - the first romantic
Argues that Rousseau was a pantheist

History Guide on Rousseau

Moore, Gary 2004 Jean Jacques Rousseau
Course notes "Leaders of Educational Thought" Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education: North Carolina State University

Rousseau's "General Will" and Well-ordered Society
by Edward W. Younkins
On a website that promotes economic and individual libertarianism. The article interprets Rousseau as offering a choice between lamenting lost innocence in a corrupt society or sacrificing ourselves to the collective good.

David Hume

The Leeds Hume Project

David Hume and Mary Wolstonecraft both argue a connection between passions and reason. In this context, the following link on emotions and cognition is interesting:
Emotion articles
http://cogsci.uwaterloo.ca/Articles/Pages/Emotion- index.html

Adam Smith books

Adam Smith Institute

Timeline and Adam Smith resources on Andrew Roberts' site

Cesare Beccaria books

Wikipedia (referencing)

Cecil Greek's lecture notes

Jeremy Bentham books

Timeline and resources - Wikipedia (referencing)

The Bentham Project

Pablo Stafforini's
Utilitarian Philosophers series
Includes Bentham

David Pearce's
Utilitarian Resources
Includes Bentham

Utilitarianism by Thomas Ash 2003

Peel Web on Bentham:

Swanson, Kim, 1999?. Jeremy Bentham

Immanuel Kant books

Timeline and Immanuel Kant resources on Andrew Roberts' site

Immanuel Kant links. University of Arkansas

Duncan Richter's Kant for beginners . Advance right through to Kant's ethics

History Guide on Kant

Kant - The Enlightener
A biography (12.2.2004) by Manfred Geier, provided on the german Embassy website with other Kant resources

Peace plans of Rousseau, Bentham and Kant
by Sanderson Beck, 2003
http://www.san.beck.org/GPJ15- Rousseau%2CKant.html#4

The Idea of a Democratic Zone of Peace: Origins in the Enlightenment
by Mark E. Pietrzyk, Ph.D.

1780 to 1870

Women's Politics in Britain 1780-1870: Claiming Citizenship
By Jane Rendall
Covers Mary Wollstonecraft, Anna Wheeler, William Thompson, Robert Owen, John Stuart Mill, and many others. Although not now available at the above site without a password, it is available (minus pictures) in the web archive


Social Science History, chapter 4. Can theory redesign society?
Rousseau, the French Revolution, Women and Slaves

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 1789

French Revolution web links
Edited by David Andress at Portsmouth University


The French Revolution
By Raymond F. Betts

Mignet, F. A. M. History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814
Available at http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/9602

Olympe de Gouges books

Timeline and Olympe de Gauges resources on Andrew Roberts' site
Les Droits de la Femme (The Rights of Women) in in French French and in English English with headings, index and links to biography and discussion.

Bibliothèque nationale de France

Introduction to texts at Bibliotheca Augustana
http://www.fh- augsburg.de/~harsch/gallica/Chronologie/18siecle/DeGouges/gou_intr.html

French text at les penelopes femmes informations http://www.mire.net/penelopes/pages/document/memoire/olympe.htm

Published November 2003: in French
Marie-Olympe De Gouges.
Une Humaniste à la fin du 18e Siècle

A new biography by Olivier Blanc
Éditions René Viénet: 25 euros   ISBN 2-84983-000-3
278 pages including 16 pages of illustrations

Clicking on the flags on the above web page will give you a description in the language indicated.
The publishers will supply direct if unobtainable through bookshops.
Olympe de Gouges weblinks

une Quercynoise en route vers le Panthéon

Lorin Virginia Seipp's site on Olympe de Gauges http://www.lwc.edu/staff/jmunson/frevo00/lseipp/HomepageWFR.html
At Lincoln University, USA. In English

Hannelore Schroder's site on Olympe de Gauges
Hannelore Schroder's site at the University of Amsterdam. In French, with an abridged text of Les droits de la femme

Carmen Stadelhofer's page on Olympe de Gauges
University of Ulm, Germany. Includes information in German, English and French. Part of a larger project on women who changed the world.

Olympe de Gauges: Conference on
Hannelore Schroder's site at the University of Amsterdam. In German.

Doris Y. Kadish's website at the University of Georgia includes French texts and English translations.

Reflections on violence
By Alice of Purdue University

English theorists at the time of the French Revolution

William Blake and Catherine Blake books

Literary History Links   Wikipedia (referencing)  

William Blake online at Tate Britain

William Blake archive at the Library of Congress

This is the archive's illustration for referencing a work by Blake in the archive:

Blake, William. The Book of Thel, copy F, pl. 2. The William Blake Archive. Ed. Morris Eaves, Robert N. Essick, and Joseph Viscomi. 13 November 1997 .

William Blake student resources on Longman website

The William Blake Page

William Blake Study Guide
compiled by Ralph Dumain

Leeds University project by
Emma Greensill, Kate Handy and Philip Nixon
On The Grotesque
Has sections on Blake, Mary Shelley, Theodor von Holst and Otto Dix

Edmund Burke

William Godwin 1756-1836 books

William Godwin on Steven Kreis's site

Mary Wollstonecraft books - reviews

Wikipedia (referencing)  

Mary Wollstonecraft on Steven Kreis's site http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/wollstonecraft.html
Old address: http://www.pagesz.net/~stevek/intellect/wollstonecraft.html
This is part of Steven Kreis's Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. Links from the bottom of the page lead to the lectures and to the History Guide, of which it is part.

Student comments:

    "The title page introduces Mary Wollstonecraft with a picture of the lady and a brief history of her life and works. There are links to some of her writings and people that were important in her life. The bottom of the main page gives a link to a lecture titled The language of politics - England and the French revolution. Wollstonecroft was included in this lecture because of her attack on Edmund Burke, who said the revolution was wrong". (Linda Smith 17.10.2001)


Mary Wollstonecraft entries on about.com site

Vindications of the Rights of Women
A searchable copy.

Timeline and Mary Wollstonecraft resources on Andrew Roberts' site

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley and Frankentstein books and articles
including Mary Shelley e-texts.
Publications about her also include some on the web

Pandora's box - The gift of science

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley on the Brandeis University Website http://people.brandeis.edu/~teuber/shelleybio.html

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley Chronology and Resource page
archive copy

Mary Shelley and Frankenstein
Kim Woodbridge's site

Goulding, Christopher 2002 "The Real Doctor Frankenstein" Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Volume 95, May 2002 Read as a web page or download pdf

Last Man hypertext with commentary by Stephen E. Jones
Last Man text at University of Virginia

Bennett. B.T. 1995. Radical Imaginings: Mary Shelley's The Last Man http://www.rc.umd.edu/editions/mws/lastman/bennett.htm

References still being sorted:

Henri Saint Simon 1760-1825


Thomas Malthus 1766-1834 books

Timeline and Thomas Malthus resources on Andrew Roberts' site

Frank Ewell's Malthus HomePage
[See his advice on referencing]

Landry, Peter 2001- Biographies: Thomas Robert Malthus (1766- 1834) available at http://www.blupete.com/Literature/Biographies/Philosophy/Malthus.htm .
Nova Scotia, Canada.

William Wordsworth 1779-1850 books

James Mill 1773-1836

Timeline and James Mill resources on Andrew Roberts' site

Wikipedia: (referencing) on James Mill  

Elements of Political Economy
The third edition (1844).

James Mill chapter from The English Utilitarians Leslie Stephen
The third edition (1844).

Robert Owen books

Timeline and Robert Owen resources on Andrew Roberts' site

Museum - Newtown - Powys - Wales

New Lanark - Scotland
http://www.newlanark.org/   See also http://www.robert-owen.com/

Robert Owen on Steven Kreis's site

Donnachie, Ian 2000, Education in Robert Owen's New Society: the New Lanark Institute and schools http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-owen.htm

New Harmony - Indiana

Robert Owen biography at: Cotton Times   age-of-the-sage.org   Spartacus Schoolnet

William Thompson (1775-1833) and Anna Wheeler

Timeline and resources on Andrew Roberts' site  
indexed extracts from the Appeal

Electronic Irish Records Dataset
At the Princess Grace Irish Library (Monaco)
entry for William Thompson   entry for Anna Wheeler

Biographical notes on Thompson by Michael Tobin
Archive copy

An introduction and short extract: http://irw.rutgers.edu/research/ugresearch/international/wheeler.html
Archive copy

Anna Doyle Wheeler
at the Sunshine for Women Website

Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874) books timeline 1835

J J O'Connor and E F Robertson December 1996
Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet available at
http://www-groups.dcs.st- and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Quetelet.html The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. School of Mathematics and Statistics. University of St Andrews Scotland

ABC Internet Referencing
If you reference more than one (O'Connor and Robertson December 1996) you will need to distinguish: (O'Connor and Robertson December 1996a) - (O'Connor and Robertson December 1996b) etc

Wikipedia article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lambert_Adolphe_Jacques_Quetelet

1911 Encyclopedia

Body Politic site on Quetelet (archive)

August Comte (1798-1857) and Positivism books

timeline   reviews   socio-site links   wikipedia   French Wikipedia


Extracts from Coser, L.A. 1977 at dead sociologists society and copied from there in R. K. Bolender's resources Dead sociologists also includes and extract from Comte

August Comte and Positivism

Bibliothèque nationale de France

Ed Stephan on sociological laws: http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~stephan/Book/chap17/17.html

John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor books

Timeline and Mill and Taylor resources on Andrew Roberts' site

Wikipedia: (referencing) on John Stuart Mill   Harriet Taylor

John Stuart Mill Links

A System of Logic
Extracts at marxists.org:
Large sections of the book (all planned) at University of Texas:

The Principles of Political Economy 1848

The Subjection of Women 1869

A searchable copy

John Stuart Mill, Harriet Taylor and Helen Taylor
at the Sunshine for Women Website

Landry, Peter 1997 - Biographies: John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) available at
Nova Scotia, Canada.

ABC Internet Referencing
If you reference more than one (Landry, P. 1997 -) you will need to distinguish: (Landry, P. 1997a -) - (Landry, P. 1997b -) etc

Not just another token male feminist
An interesting essay by Trista di Genova, a student at Oxford University (archive)

Peter Gaskell born about 1805 - died 1841 - Samuel Gaskell 1807 to 1886 - Elizabeth Gaskell 1810 to 1865 - Charlotte Brontë 1816-1855 - Emily Brontë 1818-1848 - Anne Brontë 1820-1849

The Elizabeth Gaskell Web

Project Gutenberg text of the Brontë poems:
Pleasant presentation at Celebration of Women Writers:

Charlotte Brontë

Elizabeth Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Brontë

Jane Eyre - (Wikipedia on)

"Reader, I shagged him" (The Guardian) and some letters of complaint
Miriam Elizabeth Burstein discusses

Emily Brontë (1818-1848)

Wikipedia - Authors' Calendar

Poems (green buttons) - Wuthering Heights - (Wikipedia on)

Emily Brontë and Immortality by Inga-Stina Ewbank A talk given at the end of the Service of Remembrance for Emily Jane Brontë, 19 December 1998

Anne Brontë (1820-1849)

Biography at Celebration of Women Writers

Agnes Grey - (Wikipedia on)

William Farr 1807-1883 books

Wikipedia (referencing)  

LSE - (archive)
Behind the Frieze

John M. Eyler - Department of History of Medicine, University of Minnesota "The changing assessments of John Snow's and William Farr's cholera studies" Series: History of epidemiology

Johann Jakob Bachofen 1815-1887 books

Wikipedia (referencing)

Lewis Henry Morgan 1818- 1881. books

Wikipedia (referencing)

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels books

Timeline and Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels resources on Andrew Roberts' site

The Marx/Engels Internet Archive
http://www.marxists.org.uk/ - archive


Marxists Internet Archive

Marx on Steven Kreis's site

Extracts from The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State

Christopher Witcombe's discussion of "matriarchy?", related to ancient Egypt.

Charles Darwin (1809-1882) books

Timeline - Darwin and evolution timeline - Wikipedia

The Writings of Charles Darwin on the Web

The expression of the emotions in man and animals


Natural History Museum on Darwin - and on Richard Owen, its founder, who said "most of Mr Darwin's statements elude, by their vagueness and incompleteness, the test of Natural History facts". In the 1890s the Linnean Society carefully distributed its gold medal equally between oponents and supporters of evolution.

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) books


Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

History of Economic Thought

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Francis Galton (1822-1911) books

http://galton.org/ (editor Gavan Tredoux) aims to make everything that Galton wrote available.

J J O'Connor and E F Robertson October 2003 Francis Galton available at http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Galton.html The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. School of Mathematics and Statistics. University of St Andrews Scotland

ABC Internet Referencing
If you reference more than one (O'Connor and Robertson October 2003) you will need to distinguish: (O'Connor and Robertson October 2003a) - (O'Connor and Robertson October 2003b) etc

Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895)

a biography - Wikipedia - BBC -

The Huxley File

Edward Burnett Tylor 1832-1917 books

Wikipedia (referencing)  

Wilhelm Max Wundt (1832-1920)

Timeline   Extracts

psi weblinks - Wikipedia (referencing)

Principles of Physiological Psychology (1874/1902)

Outlines of Psychology (1897)

Elements of Folk Psychology

Wilhelm Dilthey 1833-1911 books

Wikipedia (referencing)  

William Morris (1834-1896) books

Timeline   News from Nowhere

Kinna. R. 03.12.2004. William Morris: From Art to Socialism on the Loughborough University website http://www.psa.ac.uk/cps/1996/kinna.pdf

Louisville. 09.12.2004. William Morris's News from Nowhere on the University of Louisville website (Accessed 09.12.2004)

Morris.W. 1888. Aims of Art: William Morris, Signs of Change

John Hughlings Jackson: (1835-1911) books

dissolution of the nervous system - Daniel Hack Tuke on in 1881

Who Named It?

http://www.thoemmes.com/psych/jackson.htm - (archive)

Cesare Lombroso 1835-1909 books

Wikipedia (referencing)  

Enrico Morselli (1852-1929) - known in English as Henry Morselli books

Morselli medal

http://www.accademiaxl.it/Biblioteca/Virtuale/Ipertesti/neuroscienzeXL/mors elli.htm

James George Frazer 1854-1941 books

Wikipedia (referencing)  

Ferdinand Tönnies 1855-1936 books

Wikipedia (referencing)   Socio-Site Links  

Dead Sociologists Society archive

Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 books

Timeline   Extracts   Wikipedia (referencing)   Reviews  

Petri Liukkonen's biography
http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/freud.htm -
Raymond Fancher's biography

Sigmund Freud: Conflict & Culture
Exhibition at The Library of Congress


Freud Abstracts
Detailed summaries of all the works of Freud, provided on the web by the New York Freudian Society. Includes An Autobiographical Sketch (1925)

Doug Davis "A Glossary of Freudian Terminology"
Used on the Foundations of Psychology course in the Department of Psychology, Haverford College. Usually explains the German used by Freud. Follow links in the text and at the bottom of the page for further material.

Freud archives

Freud Museum, Hampstead, London

Freud Museum, Vienna

The British Psychoanalytic Society

The Centre for Freudian Analysis and Research
The web site of the Lacanians. Hopefully, it will gain more content.

A biography at Age of the Sage: http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/psychology/freud.html

Boeree, C. George Sigmund Freud 1856-1939
at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/freud.html
Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania, USA

Benson, Etienne. SparkNote on Sigmund Freud. 15.5.2005 available at http://www.sparknotes.com/biography/freud.

Freudian Links
Timothy Takemoto's index of Freud and Psychoanalysis related Resources. This Japanese site is in English. You do not need to download Japanese characters. [archive]

The American Psychoanalytic Association

Richards, James, O. Hist1122
Sigmund Freud and the Revolt against Europe
"Freud put the last nail in the coffin of basically good, basically free, basically rational man"

Freud and imagination

Fang. T.H. 2004. Poeticotherapy: Freud, Heidegger, and Laotzu http://www.thomehfang.com/suncrates3/9poetico.htm

Gray. R.T. 2004 Freud, Creative Writers and Day-Dreaming http://courses.washington.edu/freudlit/Writers.Notes.html

Brains in Dreamland on the Science News Online website Science News 11.8.2001

Ferdinand de Saussure 1857 - 1913 books

Wikipedia (referencing)

Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) books

Durkheim extracts
Timeline and Emile Durkheim resources on Andrew Roberts' site  
Durkheim and Weber's contrasting imaginations
Social Science Dictionary with a Durkheim bias

Bibliothèque nationale de France

Robert Alun Jones - The Durkheim Pages (3.8.2000)
Prepared and maintained by Robert Alun Jones at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign. Last updated 3.8.2000. No longer online, but can be used via web archive
Robert Alun Jones - The Durkheim Pages (3.8.2000) now at http://durkheim.uchicago.edu/

Durkheim Bibliography

Durkheim Biography Robert Alun Jones - (archive) - timeline

Wikipedia (referencing)   French Wikipedia   Socio-Site Links   Mcgraw-Hill links   Durkeim and Merton

Tony Fitzgerald's Emile Durkheim bits at Sociology Online
Carefully worded. Notice phrases like "conventionally described as a Functionalist" (See Hewett School below)

Joe Dunman's
The Emile Durkheim Archive
A general reference (as below) could be used:
Dunman, L. Joe (1999, 2003) The Emile Durkheim Archive at http://durkheim.itgo.com/main.html
You may find it useful to compare Joe Dunman's interpretations of Durkheim with the Durkheim extracts. See Community Disintegration Theory for an aspect of Jo Dunman's interpretation that I do not think fits the extracts.

The Thinking Politica site includes essays on Durkheim's politics, and other relevant material.

Hewett School, Norfolk's "Durkheim Page"
See School Sociology
[Notice that material copied from a book by L.A. Coser (1977) is briefly credited at the bottom of pages. The pages commented on below are not from Coser. I take it they are by a tutor at Hewett School]. The Hewett site argues that Durkheim was a functionalist. Click this link for an explanation of functionalism and why I would not call Durkheim a functionalist. The page on Durkheim's anomie says "When societies become more.. organic, work ... becomes more complex. In this society, people are no longer tied to one another and social bonds are impersonal". My article on Community Disintegration Theory directs you to what Durkheim actually said. This seems to me to be that organic solidarity makes society stronger, not weaker. But read him for yourself and see what you think. To simplify Durkheim, the Hewett site speaks of "mechanical society" and "organic society". This may be a justifiable simplification, but follow the link for his actual terms.
Hewett web pages may be difficult to reference - Click for advice
Some other websites have pages that are also on the Hewett site, with or without acknowledgment. I suggest Hewett is referenced.

Extracts from Coser, L.A. 1977 at dead sociologists society and copied from there in R. K. Bolender's resources. Also includes some extracts from Durkheim

anonymous notes on The Division of Labour in Society
at the Department of Sociology, University of Chicago

James D. Orcutt 2002 The Anomie Tradition: Explaining Rates of Deviant Behavior http://deviance.socprobs.net/Unit_3/Theory/Anomie.htm

e-museum on Durkheim
The statement that mechanical and organic solidarity cannot co-exist is in direct contradiction to Durkheim who argues that organic solidarity can only exist because mechanical solidarity does.

Georg Simmel (1858-1918) books

Wikipedia (referencing)  

Simmel on-line

Lloyd Spencer on Simmel

"Georg Simmel on Philosophy and Culture: Postscript to a Collection of Essays by Jürgen Habermas" Translated by Mathieu Deflem. Critical Inquiry Spring 1996, Volume 22, Number 3 (web archive)

John Dewy 1859-1952 books

timeline - wikipedia - Fieser and Dowden (Referencing) - infed (main site)

Columbia celegrates Americans ahead of their time
http://c250.columbia.edu/c250_celebrates/remarkable_columbians/john_dewey.h tml

John Dewey: Experience, Community, and Communication
by Gordon L. Ziniewicz

John Dewey in Hamburg / Deutschland

Eric Howes's The works of John Dewey: A Brief Overview
https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/ehowes/www/gslis/dewey-intro.htm [This appears to have been removed and there is no web archive]

Pamela Brown-Seely 2001 How can I build a list of links devoted to John Dewey, inquiry based learning and alternative education?
http://www.inquiry.uiuc.edu/bin/update_unit.cgi?command=select&xmlfile=u108 12.xml

George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) books

Timeline   Extracts   Books

The Mead Project

Wikipedia (referencing) -

Max Weber 1864-1920 books

Weber extracts
Timeline and Max Weber resources on Andrew Roberts' site  
Durkheim and Weber's contrasting imaginations

Verstehen: Frank Ewell's Weber HomePage

Wikipedia (referencing)   Socio-Site Links  

Charles Horton Cooley 1864 - 1929 books

Wikipedia (referencing) - socio-site links -

Robert E. Park 1864 - 1944 books

Extracts - Wikipedia (referencing) - Chicago biography - Robert Ezra Park collection

Nina Brown 2001: Robert Park and Ernest Burgess: Urban Ecology Studies, 1925

Lewis Coser:

  • Extracts from Coser, L.A. 1977 at dead sociologists society
  • American Trends (1978)

    Park and Burgess on Competition, Conflict, Adaptation, Accomodation, Assimilation.

    Charlotte Mew (1869-1928) books

    History of Mental Health by Henk van Setten

    Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) books

    Bertrand Russell Archives

    Irvine, A. D., 2004 "Bertrand Russell", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2004 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (editor), at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2004/entries/russell/
    Stanford University

    Marcel Mauss (1872-1950) books

    Wikipedia (referencing) - French Wikipedia

    Pitirim Aleksandrovich Sorokin Sorokin (1889-1968) books

    Extracts   American Sociological Association

    Links on conditioning relevant to several authors:

    Booth-Butterfield, Steve, 1996, Classical Conditioning
    West Virginia University 1988

    Huitt W. and Hummel J., 1997
    An Introduction to Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning
    at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/behsys/operant.html,
    Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta State University. Georgia, USA.

    Negative Reinforcement University, 1999, Operant Conditioning Basics, Maricopa Community Colleges
    at http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/proj/nru/opcond.html

    John Broadus Watson (1878-1958) books and articles
    by and about Watson - including etexts

    PBS 1998/Watson:
    People and discoveries article "John Watson 1878 - 1958"
    Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), WGBH, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

    Introduction to Watson (1913) by Christopher D. Green

    Commentary on Watson (1913) by Robert H. Wozniak

    Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown 1881-1955 books

    Wikipedia (referencing)

    Bronislaw Malinowski 1884-1942 books

    Wikipedia (referencing)

    Friedrich Hayek 1889-1992 books

    History of Economic Thought website

    George Peter Murdock 1897-1985 books

    Wikipedia - (referencing)

    Communist - Fascist - Frankfurt

    Communist theory 1919

    Fascist and Nazi theory

    Randall Bytwerk's Nazi and East German Propaganda collection

    Spartacus Schoolnet on Nazi Germany

    Adolph Hitler 1889-1945
    Books including links to electronic texts in German and English

    Grobman Gary, 1990, 'Adolf Hitler'

    Wistrich Robert, 1997, 'Adolf Hitler'

    Jewish Virtual Library

    Frankfurt School: Institute of Social Research [Institut for Sozialforschung] created in 1920s' Germany. Director 1923-1929 Carl Grundberg. Led by Max Horkheimer from 1930. Frankfurt School describes members of the Institute who shared in a broad sense the views of its leading theorists. These include Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno, Friedrich [or Frederich] Pollock, Leo Lowenthal, Walter Benjamin, Erich Fromm and Herbert Marcuse. Jurgen Habermas, who joined the Institute in 1964, is also usually included. - See critical theory

    Wikipedia article on Frankfurt School (referencing)

    Origin Myths in the Social Sciences: Fromm, the Frankfurt School and the Emergence of Critical Theory by Neil McLaughlin, Department of Sociology, McMaster University

    Walter Benjamin 1892-1940

    Herbert Marcuse (1896-1979) books

    Herbert Marcuse archive at Marxists.org

    Franz Neumann 1899?-1954 books


    C. Wright Mills reviews Behemoth

    Erich Fromm 1900-1980 books

    Open Directory   McLaughlin   Wikipedia (referencing)   reviews

    International Erich Fromm Society

    Boeree, C. George Erich Fromm 1900 - 1980
    at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/fromm.html
    Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania, USA
    George Boeree has a special interest in existential psychology. He claims Fromm is "so close to being an existentialist that it almost doesn't matter!"

    Funk, R. 1999 `Erich Fromm's Life and Work' was available at http://www.erichfromm.de/english/life/life_bio2.html. (archive) - See also Personal History of Karen Horney

    Funk, R. 2000 `The Continuing Relevance of Erich Fromm', was available at http://www.erichfromm.de/english/life/life_relevance_funk.html. (archive)

    Michael Maccoby, 1994, "The Two Voices of Erich Fromm: The Prophetic and the Analytic"
    Published in Society July/August [1994?]. Adapted from a lecture at the Erich Fromm International Symposium, Washington, DC, 6.5.1994.
    http://www.maccoby.com/Articles/TwoVoices.html )

    Erich Fromm: freedom and alienation, and loving and being, in education

    Theodor W. (Wiesengrund) Adorno 1903-1969 books

    Theodor Adorno (1903-1969) at theory.org.uk
    By David Gauntlett, University of Bournemouth

    Wikipedia article on Adorno (referencing)


    Jean Piaget 1896-1980 books

    Wikipedia: (referencing) French - English -

    Fondation Jean Piaget

    Anna Freud (1895-1982) books -

    Wikipedia (referencing)  

    Boeree, C. George Anna Freud 1895 - 1982
    at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/annafreud.html
    Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania, USA

    Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957) books

    Wikipedia (referencing)  

    The Wilhelm Reich Museum

    Listen Little Man - A review

    A biography

    Norbert Elias (1897-

    timeline   Wikipedia 15.12.2005 Wikipedia current (referencing)   Socio-Site Links  

    Everett Cherrington Hughes (30.11.1897-1.1983)

    American Sociological Association

    Herbert Blumer (7.3.1900 - 13.4.1987) books

    American Sociological Association (archive): "Herbert Blumer served as the 46th President of the American Sociological Association. His Presidential Address, "Sociological Analysis and the 'Variable'," was delivered on Saturday, September 8, 1956 during the Association's Annual Meeting in Detroit, Michigan (later published in the December 1956 issue of ASR, Vol 21 Number 6, pp 683-690)."

    Wikipedia (referencing)

    Jacques Lacan (1901-) books

    chronology at lacan.com

    an essay by Mary Klages

    Freud, Lacan and the psychoanalytic drive by Matthew James
    http://www.lacan.org/drives.htm at http://www.lacan.org

    Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) books

    timeline   extracts  
    Socio-Site Links   Wikipedia (referencing)   Pa at Marxists.org   American Sociological Association

    Biography: See Lackey - reviews - Barbara S. Heyl - Hamilton

    Notes on Structural Functionalism and Parsons
    Paul Gingrich, 1999, University of Regina

    Functionalism at S- cool
    This focuses on Parsons - But includes no references

    Karl Popper (1902-1994) books

    Thornton, Stephen, 2002 "Karl Popper", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2002 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (editor) at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2002/entries/popper/
    Stanford University

    Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990) books

    Wikipedia (referencing)

    Vargas, Julie S. no date Brief biography of B.F. Skinner
    at http://www.bfskinner.org/bio.asp
    B. F. Skinner Foundation

    From Bill Tietjen's biology class pages:

    Boeree, C. George
    B. F. Skinner 1904 - 1990 Biography

    at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/skinner.html
    Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania, USA

    John Bowlby (1907-1990) books

    Wikipedia (referencing)

    Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) books

    from The Second Sex
    http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/ 2ndsex.htm

    An article by Molly Beverstein (1996)

    Wikipedia (referencing): French - English

    Claude Lévi Strauss (1908- 2009) books

    Biography at marxists.org
    archive of old site

    Wikipedia (referencing)

    Obituaries CNN - Guardian major - Guardian minor - The Economic Times - BBC - Independent

    Robert King Merton (1910- 2003) books and articles
    including e-texts

    Timeline - Wikipedia (referencing) - Frank Ewell's resources
    Extracts. See also the Preface to Parsons 1951   American Sociological Association   Sociosite links   Durkeim and Merton

    Margaret Evans, Biographical overview respecting Anomie
    This article places Merton's theory of anomie in its context, shows how it develops and relates it to other writers. Whilst the article itself is carefully referenced, the web page (published on Cecil Greek's Crime Theory web site) is not. I suggest:
    Evans, Margaret, CCJ 5606 Biographical overview of the life of Robert Merton, with special reference to his theory of anomie published on the web by Cecil, E. Greek (Florida State University) at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/merton.htm

    "Merton's Strain Theory" Outline at Hewett School, Norfolk
    See School Sociology
    Hewett web pages may be difficult to reference - Click for advice

    Strain Theory on Tom O'Connor's site
    http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/301/301lect09.htm - (archive)
    This relates (Merton's) strain theory back to Durkheim and discusses the development of strain theory by other people, following Merton.

    Biography at University of Texas at Austin
    Concentrating on the contribution of Lazerfield and Merton to communication studies

    ABC Internet Referencing
    Rüdiger Ortmann (psychologist) was formerly Rainer Lamp
    Ortmann, Rödiger 1979-1997 On the Anomie Theories of Merton and Durkheim "Analysis, criticism and further development based on the background of empirical studies. Abstract and overview with respect to thought content" Available at
    Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law - Freiburg

    Perdue, William D. 1986 Sociological Theory: Explanation, Paradigm, and Ideology. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company pages 83-89
    http://www.bolender.com/Sociological%20Theory/Merton,%20Robert%20King/merto n,_robert_king.htm

    Hoffman, Bruce 23.1.2002 Robert K. Merton's "Dream Machine". An Explication of Merton's "Social Structure and Anomie" (1938) at http://www.crimetheory.com/Merton/index.html

    Merton uses the term "American Dream" in his description of United States culture

    What is the American Dream?
    A background essay at the USA Library of Congress

    Wikipedia - American Dream

    Madriaga, M. 2005 "Understanding the Symbolic Idea of the American Dream and Its Relationship with the Category of 'Whiteness'" by by Manuel Madriaga, Sheffield Hallam University. Sociological Research Online, Volume 10, Issue 3, available at http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/3/madriaga.html

    American Dreams at Blommes Links

    Roland Barthes (1915- 1980) Books

    timeline - Wikipedia (referencing)  

    Petri Liukkonen's biography

    Roland Barthes web page
    http://got.net/~tuttle/ - archive)

    Literary Encyclopedia

    Charles Wright Mills (1916-1962) books

    Frank Ewell's C. Wright Mills HomePage

    Professional sociology - The case of C. Wright Mills
    By Howard Bekker
    http://home.earthlink.net/~hsbecker/mills.html - archive

    Wikipedia (referencing)   Socio-Site Links  

    Excerpt from The Sociological Imagination

    Harold Garfinkel 1917- books

    timeline - Polity Profile - Wikipedia (referencing) -


    Louis Althusser (1918-1990) books

    a list of works at generation online

    Thomas Szasz (1920- )

    Mental health and Civil Liberties on Andrew Roberts' site

    Thomas Szasz Cybercenter

    Citizens Commission on Human Rights (a Scientology organisation
    This organisation was co-founded by Ron Hubbard and Thomas Szasz in 1969

    Mary Douglas (1921- )

    timeline - Wikipedia (referencing) -


    life outline
    http://courses.missouristate.edu/waw105f/Douglas%20Bio.htm - archive

    grid-group cultural theory website at the University of Amsterdam http://users.fmg.uva.nl/vmamadouh/ggct/welcome.html

    Mary Douglas Fan Page
    By Victoria (Tory) Caplan

    Victoria Caplan's report on Purity and Danger by Mary Douglas

    Anatomy of disgust: Channel 4

    National Portrait Gallery

    e-museum biography

    Erving Goffman (1922-1982) books and articles
    by and about Goffman, including etexts

    timeline   extracts   Wikipedia (referencing)   Socio-Site Links   reviews   American Sociological Association  

    Goffman on the internet

    anonymous notes on The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
    at the Department of Sociology, University of Chicago

    Bios Sociologicus: The Erving Goffman Archives
    Dmitri N. Shalin, ed. (UNLV: CDC Publications, 2009

    Jean-François Lyotard (10.8.1924-21.4.1998) books

    timeline - Wikipedia (referencing)  

    Zygmunt Bauman (1925-) books

    Wikipedia (referencing)  


    At Polish culture:

    Michel Foucault (1926-1984) books and articles
    by and about Foucault, including etexts

    timeline   extracts   reviews   Socio-Site Links   Wikipedia (referencing)  

    Biography on this site

    A Very Non-Foucauldian History of Michel Foucault

    The Foucault Society biography

    Foucault's own biography?

    Michel Foucault: Resources

    Resources on Michel Foucault
    "Outlines for many of his books are available" There are links direct to some of these (and other summaries) in the margin of the Foucault extracts.

    Foucault on You Tube November 1971. Noam Chomsky and Michel Foucault on Dutch television. Program called Human Nature: Justice versus Power. Chomsky believes that there is a foundational 'nature' and that its positive aspects (love, creativity, recognizing and embracing justice) must be realized, while Foucault remains skeptical of any such notion... for him, the issue is not so much whether 'justice' or 'human nature' 'exists,' but how they have historically (and currently) function in society Extracts from debate (not including the clip)


    Edwards, Michael, 4.4.2005 SparkNote on Madness and Civilization available at http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/madnessandciv [For links to other outlines of Foucault's books, see the margin of the Foucault extracts.

    Reader's guide to "What is an author?"

    Readmission and the social construction of mental disturbance
    University of South Africa PhD Thesis, 1999, by Martin Terre Blanche

    Encarta Foucault entry on Ron Turner's site

    Birth of the Clinic at Stanford University
    Designed by Casey Alt
    Includes "A Very Non-Foucauldian History of Michel Foucault"

    Foucault at theory.org.uk
    By David Gauntlett, University of Bournemouth

    McGaha, Scott Michel Foucault

    Snieckute, Marija, 1999 "The concept of punishment in social theory of Michel Foucault" Sociumas October 1999, No.8
    Marija Snieckute, was an MA student in Sociology-Criminology at Vilnius University, Lithuania

    Poster, Mark 1984 Foucault, Marxism, and history: mode of production versus mode of information
    Etext at http://www.hnet.uci.edu/mposter/books/contents.html
    Mark Poster is Professor in the History Department, University of California, Irvine

    Dorothy E. Smith 1926-

    Wikipedia (referencing)

    Ronald Laing 1927- books

    The Society for Laingian Studies

    Thomas Luckmann 1927- and Peter L. Berger 1929- books


    social construction - institutionalisation - habitualisation - types - typifications -

    Howard Becker 1928- books

    Howard Becker's Home Page
    http://home.earthlink.net/~hsbecker/ - archive of present site starts 15.10.2002. My estimate that Becker started his website in 1996 is based on an email from Howard Becker on 21.5.2002: "I consulted my wife, who reminds me that I must have started the web site well before I left the University of Washington in 1998 or so. We put our heads together and our best estimate is 1996. Howie Becker".

    timeline - Wikipedia (referencing) - Socio-Site Links

    Thomas Scheff 1929- books

    Thomas Scheff's website - archive

    Wikipedia (referencing)

    Jürgen Habermas (1929- See Frankfurt School books

    timeline - Wikipedia (referencing) - Socio-Site Links

    Habermas links collected by Antti Kauppinen
    internet archive

    Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007)

    Wikipedia (referencing) - Socio-Site Links  

    Guardian obituary by Steven Poole

    Welcome to the World of Jean Baudrillard by Ben Attias (California State University Norhridge).

    Pierre Bourdieu (1930- 2002) books

    Wikipedia (referencing) - French Wikipedia
    Socio-Site Links  


    Brian Land on field, capital, illusio, capital - archive

    Wikipedia: cultural capital - field - (also) - (théorie des champs) - habitus - (also) - (l'habitus) - (also) -

    Dictionary: distinctions - field - habitus - objectivism - position - social space - subjectivism

    Obituaries: Guardian -
    Nation - speaks of his "key concept of habitus - the formation and expression of self around an internalized and usually accurate sense of social destiny".

    Stuart Hall 1932- books

    Wikipedia (referencing)

    Anthony Giddens (1938 - books

    Anthony Giddens
    http://www.lse.ac.uk/Giddens/ - archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20021212102348/http://www.lse.ac.uk/Giddens/

    Radio 4 Reith lecture archive
    See 1999

    Giddens at theory.org.uk
    By David Gauntlett, University of Bournemouth

    Giddens, Sociology textbook (5th edition)

    Juliet Mitchell (1940 - books

    Her Jesus College website

    Jock Young (1942 - books

    His (old) website

    Douglas Kellner (1943 -

    his websites

    Roger Scruton

    Roger Scruton's models on Andrew Roberts' site

    Roger Scruton's own web site

    Ulrich Beck 1944-


    Ken Plummer 1946- books

    Ken Plummer's website

    Macionis and Plummer's Sociology

    Shulamith Firestone 1945- books

    reviews   Wikipedia (referencing) dialectic of sex publisher link   airless spaces publisher link

    Notes from the First Year (1968)

    Bruno Latour 1947-


    His French/English website:

    Eric Nehrlich on, with special reference to black boxes

    Paris Ville Invisible
    available in French, English, Italian and Spanish

    Full English text of Paris: Invisible City

    Frank Pearce books

    university web page - Was http://qsilver.queensu.ca/sociology/fp.htm - (archive)
    Now http://www.queensu.ca/sociology/people/fulltimefaculty/pearce.html

    Radical Durkheim - The Second Edition (2001)

    Elizabeth Grosz 1952 - books

    Feminist theory website - Wikipedia (referencing)

    Chandra Talpade Mohanty (1955 -

    Feminist theory website - Wikipedia (referencing)

    Judith Butler 1956- books

    Wikipedia (referencing)  

    Dino Felluga's "Modules on Butler: On Gender and Sex."

    Loïc Wacquant. 1960 - books

    Wacquant's own website

    Interview: The Body, the Ghetto and the Penal State

    Wikipedia (referencing)

    Timelines (Chronologies)

    The Open Directory List of Timelines

    Dramaturgy Resources lists and reviews all sorts of timeline http://www.artslynx.org/theatre/drama.htm

    Other collections: George Emery, a librarian at Canisius College, has been collecting timelines on the Internet since 1993. The timeline index is structured and each timeline has a picture.

    Basic British History
    BBC Timelines on Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland give a basic history from prehistoric to present. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/bytime/

    British Library Chronology of Modern Britain

    Society and Science timeline on Andrew Roberts' site

    Ed Stephan's Timeline of Sociology http://www.wwu.edu/~stephan/timeline.html

    Chronology of Money

    Timeline of World Legal History

    London Police from 1829

    Criminology and deviance timeline on Andrew Roberts' site

    British trade union movement timeline

    State Medicine, Public Health, Welfare and Related services in Britain: 1066-1999
    An extensive history created by Michael Warren of Canterbury University.
    There is a Word document copy of the latest version under Publications on the Faculty of Public Health Medicine website. - archive

    Disability Social History Timeline

    Mental Health History timeline on Andrew Roberts' site. This includes links to other mental health history timelines, such as Katherine Darton's Notes of the history of mental health care and Mind's key dates in the history of mental health and community care

    Development of Mental Health Law and Practice (Dave Sheppard)

    Science Fiction Timeline http://www.magicdragon.com/UltimateSF/timeline.html

    A Chronography of Political, Religious & Military Conflict http://www.humanitas-international.org/showcase/chronography/timebase/timel ine.htm

    Timeline of Human Evolution, Culture and Knowledge
    by Tom Schoepen
    This is the advertisement page for a printed timeline.

    Social History check timelines above
    more than a cup of tea Social History Archives on this site History and archives links

    UK Census online: 1881 (free)   1901 (expensive)
    If using the 1881 online census to trace an asylum, notice that asylum inmates are often recorded by initials only. This means that you can often select a location and then enter just sample initials (e.g. A S) in order to find the asylum. The asylums index, on this site, sometimes includes a direct link to the 1881 census entry for the household of the asylum superintendent.
    UK Births, Deaths and Marriages   Free BMD
    Family History Online (Pay to View) - ancestry.co.uk (subscription)

    census history

    for family history
    biography and genealogy links


    Commissions and Inquisitions of Lunacy catalogue 1627-1932. The chronological arrangement (which has names in the catalogue) begins in June 1853 - Presumably as a consequence of the 1853 Chancery Lunatics Act

    Old Bailey Court Records 1674-1834
    "the largest single source of information about non-elite lives ever published" (Bob Shoemaker, University of Sheffield)

    Asylums (Mental Hospitals)
    General links below  
    click here for particular hospitals/areas
    The Asylums Index: England and Wales plus Scotland - Ireland - Europe - America - Pacific being added
    London madhouses (early 19th century)

    Simon Cornwall's asylums and architects list

    live-journal of "Mechanised"

    Urban Exploration: Links and descriptions lifted straight off the livejournal (above) website: Urbex (Simon Cornwell) - by some distance the most useful and accessible online asylum resource   Abandoned Britain - well- photographed accounts of dereliction, focusing primarily upon asylums.   Sub- Urban - impressive site detailing visits to asylums and hospitals in the South East.   Nobody There - exhaustive photographic accounts of a rapidly increasing number of asylums   Heronbone - archive of now-defunct music journal that was punctuated by wonderful descriptions of urban landscapes

    Peter Cracknell's County Asylums
    This is the new, developing, site with asylum photographs (and much more)
    Pete Cracknell's asylum web at
    http://www.isoplexis.co.uk/ has now closed. The archive preserves some of the text.

    Gordon Tozer's UK Hospitals & Asylums - Memoirs, Biography, Recollections ...History, heritage and architecture of former lunatic asylums and mental health care facilities in the UK.

    Rossbret UK Institutions
    Asylums, almshouses, prisons, dispensaries, hospitals, reformatories, orphanages, workhouses, poor law, industrial schools, architecture, genealogy and photographs.
    Rossbret Asylums website
    Rossbret Pictures archive

    Hospital Records Database
    maintained by the Wellcome Trust and Public Record Office

    Medical Heritage of Great Britain

    Irish Medical Directory

    Workhouses and other institutions

    Peter Higginbotham's workhouse site

    or http://users.ox.ac.uk/~peter/workhouse/index.html

    Rossbret workhouse site

    UK-Workhouse-Hospital mailing list WebPages
    http://www.uk-whlist.eu.org/. Now replaced. archive in case anyone needs old link

    Mary Hallett's website

    Victorian and Edwardian photographs

    Hidden lives of children 1882-1918

    The British Schools Museum, Hitchin

    British Deaf History Society
    For information about their printed publications

    Religion and religious history

    Internet Sacred Text Archive

    Faith Initiative Embracing Diversity

    1611 and links to Bible, Common Prayer and Qu'ran texts

    John Humphrys in search of God

    Spartacus Schoolnet: Religion in Britain http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/religion.htm

    Paganism in British Folk Customs
    An article by Bob Trubshaw

    Churches Together in Britain and Ireland

    Catholic history

    Church History Resources at anglicans online

    The Association of Denominational Historical Societies and Cognate Libraries

    Quinta Press - Quinta, Oswestry 1898

    Quaker links

    Digital Quaker Collection - Earlham

    Methodist links
    From The John Rylands, University Library of Manchester, http://rylibweb.man.ac.uk/data1/dg/methodist/methlink.html

    Christian Brethren Archive
    In The John Rylands, University Library of Manchester,
    Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PP
    Telephone 0161 834 5343

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