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Social Science History: Time line for the history of society, science and social science

A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and to other resources, including extracts and works of authors and the timelines for crime - America - mental health - sunrise - earthcore and local London .

But why? The timeline began because social scientists need history. It was a resource for a foundation course in social sciences at Middlesex University.

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Main Chronological Headings

Quick jump to: Begining - Africa - Sumeria - Egypt - China - Greece - Christ - Bible - Islam - 700   900   1000   1100   1200   1300   1400   1500   1600   1700   1800   1900   2000  

In the begining - photosynthesis - worms - Haeckel's links - ichthyostega - coal - one land mass - reptiles - extinctions - dung - Tethys - chalk and flowers - soft rock - beautiful world - fur and skin - eolithic - hominid - 4 million - southern apes - 3 million - glacials - Prehistory (through archeology and myth) - mammoth - who are you calling a savage? - bone - stone tools - 2 million - erectus - naked - Mortillet's classification - first migration - 1 million - team GB - Piltdown fraud - fire - sewing - cave bear - sapiens - world migration - prehistoric imagination in Africa - ochre paint - creeping cold - 100,000 - continuous clothing - religion   music - art in Indonesia and Europe (stone and pigment)   dog - fired clay - pots - reindeer - textiles - clothing remains - who are you calling a barbarian? - Tell es-Sultan - cattle (auroch tamed) - lead - wood - History - gold - copper - mercury - bronze - tin - silver - who are you calling civilised? - Pyramids and maths on tablets - 2500BC Chinese civilisation - law - slavery - cedar - sulphur and salt - 1700BC Scandinavian ships - iron - 1400BC monotheism - Ancient Greece - coins - 368BC Plato's Republic - Birth of Christ - materials of medicine - a map of the heavens - 200: a critical turning - 376: Völkerwanderung

4th Century
5th Century
6th Century
Indian mathematics
571: Birth of Muhammad
Medieval Europe

7th Century
spoken and written

8th Century
751. Empires meet. sugar. paper.
793: Viking ships

9th Century
820: al-jabr - 868: woodblock printing

10th Century
987: books of all nations in Arabic

11th Century
a critical turning
Ibn al-Haytham
1066 and 1086
Omar Khayyám

12th Century
Euclid rediscovered
a Common Law for England - Jews in England
1157: Royal protection for foreign traders
1199 size of London

13th Century
1206: Mongolian Empire - Silk Road
1225: Thomas Aquinas
coal by sea

14th Century
1324: new music
1336: cargo boats
1344: geometrical perspective
1358: Hanseatic League
Geoffrey Chaucer

15th Century
Slavery and social science
1492: Columbus hears about cannibals

16th Century
Paracelsus - alchemy and experiment
new knowledge contrasted with schools
1517: individual judgement: bible over church
1528: map of the universe
1538: weddings, christenings, buryings
1544: map of the world
1557: arithmetical signs and algebra
1577: state of nature theory
1593: God's gift of reason
1597: The music of the spheres and a great herbal
a triangular run

17th Century
1601 - 1603 - 1607 - 1607 - 1609 - 1610: by God called gods
1611 Authorised Bible - 1613 - 1614 - 1618 - 1620 - 1621 - 1623 - 1625 - 1628 - 1629 - 1632 - 1635 - 1637 - 1640 -
1642: English Civil War
1646: King contained - 1649: King beheaded
1651: Hobbes' Leviathan
Louis 14: "l'etat c'est moi"
1660: Restoration and Royal Society
1662: Bills of mortatlity - 1666: Fire
1686: Newton's mathematical physics
Vauban on geometry and war
1688 Bloodless English revolution
Locke's politics and theory of science.
1697: balance of trade figures

18th Century
Coffee houses and newspapers
1713: Probability
1729: English translation of Newton's Mathematical Principles
1734: The Koran for Christians
1740: David Hume's Treatise of Human Nature
1748: Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws
1750: Time changes
1759: British Museum
1761 Transit of Venus
1762: Rousseau's The Social Contract and Emile
Steam and Machine
1764: Beccaria's Essay on Crimes and Punishment
1768: Priestley's principles of government and 1774 dephlogisticated air
1769 Another transit of Venus
Life giving air
1776: Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations and Bentham's A Fragment on Government
1787: Federalist Papers
1789: French Revolution
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
French Constitution of 1789
1790-1799 Scotland's happiness, statistics and improvement
French Constitution of 1791
Rights of woman
France at War
French King Guillotined
French Constitution of 1793
1795 Speenhamland
metric system adopted in France
Institut National des Sciences et Arts
1798: Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population

19th Century
1801: First British census
1805: Children's Books
1806: the decomposition of matter into its elements by electricity
1812: Owen's Essays on the Formation of Human Character
1815: End of war - A new start for geology
1816: A new start for museums and archaeology
1819: Idyllic country villages and a Manchester massacre
1820: James Mill's Essay on Government
1822: Utilitarian Society
1827: London University
1831: The spirit of the age
1833: Statistical Societies formed
1834: New Poor Law
1835: An ordinary guy
1839: Speed annihilates distance as sociology is born
Hungry Forties
Womens' Rights Movement
1841: Feuerbach - anthropology and humanism
1841 British census with names
the steamship and the railway and the thoughts that shake mankind
1842: Women and children in coal mines
1843: The birth of anthropology
1843: Superphosphates and classic field experiments
1844: The Claims of Labour and Vestiges of Creation
1848: All Things Bright and Beautiful - Principles of Political Economy - and The Communist Manifesto
1848 Revolutions
1850: History of "the social movement"
1851: The Enfranchisement of Women and the first of the great exhibitions
1853: Crimean War
1854 Sydenham geology display
1857: Association for the Promotion of Social Science
1859: The Origin of Species
1861: History of the family
1862: Les Misérables
1863: Emancipation of United States slaves
1865: London sewerage system
1869: The Subjection of Women
1869: Nature launched wreathed in poetry
1870: European war and German worker's parties
1871: The Descent of Man
1872: Durkheim's nephew born
1872: The secret of Giuseppe Villella's skull
1874: Mary Paley and economics
1876: L'uomo delinquente
1879: Psychology laboratory
1880: electric light and the experimental method applied to the novel
1883: He has not heard that God is dead
Emile Durkheim and Max Weber
1886: New York and Liverpool: World Cities.
1887: without wires
1887: Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft
1889: Life and Labour of the People of London
1890: Alfred Marshall's Principles of Economics
1891: Our Baby
1893: Evolution and ethics
La donna delinquente
1895: Recorded sound - London School of Economics and Political Science - Radioactivity
1896: Olympics
1899: International association

20th Century   germs   magic blood and science words  
1900: Freud's Interpretation of Dreams
1901: Measuring poverty and Nobel prizes
Psychological and sociological societies
Sociological Review
1904: Conditioned reflexes
1908: Social Psychology
1910: Linguistics proper
1911: Genes, genotypes and genetics
1911: Galton Chair of Eugenics
1913: Behaviourism and Ecology
1913: Measuring class
1914: First World War
1917: Russian revolution
1919: The ABC of Communism
1920: The New Psychology and its Relation to Life and The Outline of History
1922: Stalin
1923: Political Science and Critical Theory
1925: Nazi theory
1925: The City
1928: USA Sociology
1929: Our Baby's discipline and The Science of Life
Wall Street Crash
1931: death of George Herbert Mead
A National Plan for Britain
The scientific treatment of criminals
1932: an atom split
1933: betrayed by evolution - Nazi Germany - Shelf Appeal - Garbo
1935: Turing's meadow computation
1936: Heavy rain
Mass Observation
1937: Symbolic confrontation
Musée de l'Homme founded in Paris.
1938: The Hitler Menace - nuclear fission
Second World War
1941: National Income and Expenditure
1942: Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism, by Franz Neumann
1943: this holocaust
1944: me - Friedrich Hayek's The Road to Serfdom
1945: United Nations
1946: Cold War
1949: Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex
new international sociology - radioactive time
1950s Anthropocene - 1950
1951: Talcott Parsons'The Social System
A new British Sociological Association
1953: The Institute of Community Studies
1954: "The Complementary Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid" (DNA)
1955: Unsupported mothers - child soldiers
1956: Karl Popper's Science, Conjectures and Refutations article
1956: New Scientist magazine launched
1957: International Geophysical Year
1958: a new sort of political mobilisation
1959: Outline of Human Genetics
1960s: a global village    Goffman    Foucault
computers and statistics
1960: wheels of inclusion
1962: New Society magazine launched - the people's university
1963: sex and sexual abuse
1964: times changing
1965: speaking Russian
1966: criminology for criminals - psychology so far
1967: summer of love     Ethnomethodology
1968: anti-everything
A Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
1969: "a crisis in science today".
1970: sexual politics and a crisis looms in USA Sociology.
1971: Ronald Fletcher's The Making of Sociology and the Open University
1972: anti-Oedipus in France as crisis in sociology hits Britain. Evidence based medicine?
1973: women's studies and peace studies
1974: Juliet Mitchell's Psychoanalysis and Feminism
1974-1979: The coming (and going) Corporatism
1975: prison and society
1978: chips with everything
the Adam Smith revival
1979: Postmodern?? Condition: Report on Knowledge??
re-structuring society
1980 Enterprise Culture
1981 Communicative action
1984 Education and race
1985: Glasnost
1986 Big bangs and risk
1988 Diana H. Coole's Women in Political Theory
Dependency Culture
Black film, British cinema
1989 Revolutions
1990 The avalanche of post-modernism and a Soviet summer school
1992: Do your own word processing! - EarthSummit
1993: the world wide web
1994: city lights
1995: Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics - citizen science
1996: Manuel Castells' The Information Age and ... Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity
1997: human domination
1998: Sociology top ten
1999: Globalised: Anthony Giddens' Reith Lectures

2000: A millennium bug in liquid modernity
2000: Human genome - the most wonderous map
2000/ 2001: Free and democratic encyclopedia
11.9.2001: New international relations
2003: full time mother
2004: A prize for humanities and social science
The will to make poverty history?
2005: False findings
2006: Life after Durkheim?
2007 A social science and humanities pin- up list
2008: trending before the crisis - Pope against gender theory
2009: Global age financial crisis
2010 Royal Society claims 350 years
An arab spring
2011 Laurie Taylor interviews Stuart Hall - Recession mapped
Saving Norway from cultural marxism
2012: Happiness counted
2013: International Year of Statistics
2014: Brain rain(e) on Hendon
27.2.2014 Climate Change - Evidence and Causes
2015 Social science predicts its significance.
2016 Europe, the UK, and the world

Predicting a future
2023 The Closing Speech - 2031 my death - 2032 Britain's last Quaker - after 2060: Newton predicts Christ's return - 2073 Mary Shelley's Social Science utopia

Alphabetical index
of names

Theodor Adorno
Cecil Alexander
Louis Althusser
Jane Adams
Stephen Pearl Andrews
Mary Anning
Thomas Aquinas
Hannah Arendt
Mary Astell
Joe Bataan
Babikir Badri
Francis Bacon
Johann Jakob Bachofen
Leo Baekeland
Roland Barthes
Janina Bauman
Zygmunt Bauman
Mary Beard
Cesare Beccaria
Ulrich Beck
Howard Becker
Clifford Beers
Daniel Bell
Ruth Benedict
Jeremy Bentham
Jacques Bernoulli
Peter Berger
Jacob Berzelius
Oto Bihalji-Merin
William Blackstone
Jean Bodin
William Adrian Bonger
Blondie Boopadoop
Charles Booth
William Booth
Pierre Bourdieu
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
William Buckland
Ernest Burgess
Edmund Burke
Cyril Burt
Judith Butler
Sebastian Cabot
Georg Cantor
Thomas Carlyle
Alexander Morris Carr-Saunders
Manuel Castells
George Catlin
Judi Chamberlin
Geoffrey Chaucer
Harriette Chick
Frederic Clements
John Cockcroft
Chistopher Columbus
George Combe
Auguste Comte
William Cooke
Diana Coole
Charles Horton Cooley
Carlton Coon
Henry Cowles
Marie Curie
Louis-Jaques-Mandé Daguerre
Robert Dahl
John Dalton
Charles Darwin
Humphry Davy
Simone De Beauvoir
Daniel Defoe
Gilles Deleuze
Geoff Dench
René Descartes
John Dewey
Bartolomeu Dias
Jan van Dijk
Wilhelm Dilthey
Pedanius Dioscorides
Benjamin Disraeli
Mary Douglas
Francis Drake
Emile Durkheim
École normale supérieure
Enfield College of Technology
Albert Einstein
Friedrich Engels
Norbert Elias
Leonhard Euler
Michael Faraday
William Farr
Paul Fauconnet
Enrico Ferri
Robert Filmer
Jean Finot
Shulamith Firestone
Ronald Fisher
Walther Flemming
Ronald Fletcher
Henry Ford
Julienne Ford
Michel Foucault
Charles Fourier
Frankfurt School
Paulo Freire
Sigmund Freud
Betty Friedan
Erich Fromm
Francis Galton
Raffaele Garofalo
Harold Garfinkel
William Gibson
Anthony Giddens
Morris Ginsberg
David Glass
William Godwin
Erving Goffman
Benjamin Gompertz
Olympe de Gouges
Antonio Gramsci
John Graunt
Robert Greene
Jürgen Habermas
Ernst Haeckel
Stuart Hall
Edmund Halley
Michael Haralambos
David Hartley
David Harvey
Friedrich Hayek
Friedrich Hegel
Heinrich Hertz
Adolf Hitler
Thomas Hobbes
Leonard T. Hobhouse
Richard Hooker
Max Horkheimer
Luke Howard
Joan Hughes
David Hume
ICSU International Council for Science
William James
Inigo Jones
Kathleen Jones
Flavius Josephus
Immanuel Kant
Jomo Kenyatta
John Maynard Keynes
Imam Khomeini
Oskar Kokoschka
Julia Kristeva
Jean Jacques Lacan
Ronald Laing
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Mary Lamb
John Bennet Lawes
Claude Levi-Strauss
Lucien Levy-Bruhl
Carolus Linnaeus
Joseph Lister
London (size)
London Schoool of Economics
London University

Martin Luther
John Locke
Cesare Lombroso
Charles Lyell
Jean-François Lyotard
Thomas B. Macaulay
Niccolò Machiavelli
Bronislaw Malinowski
Thomas Malthus
Henri François Marion
Alfred Marshall
Thomas Marshall
David Martin
Karl Marx
Marcel Mauss
Roderick McKenzie
Marshal McLuhan
George Herbert Mead
Margaret Mead
Gregor Mendel
Charlotte Mew
Juliet Mitchell
Robert King Merton
Ralph Miliband
James Mill
John Stuart Mill
Enid Mills
Oscar Montelius
Charles Montesquieu
Elaine Morgan
Lewis Morgan
William Morris
Max Müller
Franz Carl Müller-Lyer
John Nash
Franz Neumann
Isaac Newton
Barthold Georg Niebuhr
Florence Nightingale
Alexander Ivanovich Oparin
Maureen Orth
George Orwell
Robert Owen
Andrea Palladio
Robert Park
Talcott Parsons
Ivan Pavlov
Karl Pearson
Lionel Penrose
Frank Pearce
Jean Piaget
Pond family
Karl Popper
James Cowles Prichard
Joseph Priestley
Ptolemaic Egypt
Ptolemy (astronomer)
Alfred R. Radcliffe-Brown
Srinivasa Ramanujan
Franz Leopold Ranke
Rosalie Rayner
Robert Recorde
David Ricardo
Sheila Rowbotham
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Bertrand Russell
Ernest Rutherford
Alfred Schütz
Mary Seacole
Henri Saint Simon
Jean Paul Sartre
Ferdinand de Saussure
Jimmy Savile
Roger Scruton
Andrew Scull
William Shakespeare
Mary Shelley
Percy Shelley
Irving E Sigel
Georg Simmel
George Eaton Simpson
George Simpson
John Sinclair
Burrhus Skinner
Adam Smith
William Smith
John Snow
Pitirim Sorokin
Herbert Spencer
Oswald Spengler
Benjamin Spock
Ed Stephan
Thomas Stevenson
Samuel A. Stouffer
William Sumner
Joseph Swan
Arthur and Edith Tansley
Harriet Taylor
Alfred Tennyson
Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
William Thompson
Alexis de Tocqueville
Ferdinand Tönnies
Peter Townsend
Alan Turing
Edward Burnet Tylor
James Usher
Ludwig Von Bertalanffy
Ernest Walton
Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins
James D. Watson
John Watson
Charles Wheatstone
Max Weber
Alfred Wegener
Fay Weldon
H.G. Wells
Betty Westgate
Anna Wheeler
Alfred North Whitehead
Joseph Whitworth
Norbert Wiener
Peter Willmott
Mary Wollstonecraft
Women's Institutes
William Wordsworth
C. Wright Mills
Christopher Wren
Wilhelm Wundt
John Wycliffe
Michael Young
Jock Young

15,000,000,000 (15 billion) years ago The creation of the universe according to Physical Sciences information gateway (psigate) (Launched Manchester September 2001. - last surviving Internet Archive traced is 26.9.2006, but see UK Web Archive)

13,800,000,000 (13.8 billion) years ago The creation of the universe according to present estimates of "big bang" - "Stephen Hawkings and others... estimate between 18 and 11 billion with 13.8 being the closest estimation".

4,540,000,000 (4.54 billion) years ago Formation of planet Earth - Usher's date was 4,004BC - flood geologists have suggested about 8,000BC

4,540,000,000 to 541,000,000 years ago Pre-Cambrian - Before even old Welsh rocks. The earliest 4.06 billion years (4,060,000,000?) of Earth's history. 88% of geologic time. See Wikipedia. Followed by Cambrian - Ordovician - Silurian

Azoic: Having no trace of life or containing no organic remains. (Oxford Engish Dictionary) (Wikipedia)

3,700,000,000 years ago Did life first come into being in a primordial soup of compounds? In 1924 Alexander Ivanovich Oparin argued that it did. (See biological bases - circumstances - primeval swamp).

Archeozoic: end of Azoic to 2,500,000,000 years ago: The era of the earliest living beings on earth.

"More than 3.5 billion years ago, small single-celled organisms acquired the capacity to photosynthesize" "Plants were restricted to the aquatic world until three billion years later, at the end of the Ordovician period" (Miguasha "plant world")

BBC 4 picture cyanobacteria - blue green bacteria - on a stone from a rock pool.
Wikipedia says: Putative fossils are reported from 3,460,000,000 years ago. The reference here is to possible cyanobacteria from the Warrawoona Group in Western Australia. Also dated 3,465,000,000 years ago. (Wikipedia)
about 3,000,000,000 years ago Rock records and fossil evidence of cyanobacteria, photosynthesizing prokaryotic organism. (Wikipedia). - Nature 31.8.2016 "Rapid emergence of life shown by discovery of 3,700-million-year-old microbial structures" - Which the BBC re-wrote as "Wavy Greenland rock features 'are oldest fossils'"
See stromatolites

Hamelin Pool stromatolites in Western Australia: Stromatolites which are found to be up to a metre high are believed to be hundreds to thousands of years old as they grow at a maximum of 0.3mm per year.

Wikipedia says: the first uncontroversial evidence for life is found 2,700,000,000 years ago. The reference relates to sulphate and iron reduction as early forms of microbial respiration. It is suggested that analysis of sedimentary pyrite from the Belingwe sedimentary basin in Zimbabwe may provide evidence for bacterial reduction at this date.

2,500,000,000 to 542,000,000 years ago The Proterozoic Eon: the most recent part of the Precambrian Supereon. (Wikipedia)

Proterozoic: Age of animalculae, jelly fish, green scum and the like. In water "there was probably as rich and abundant and active a life of infusoria and the like as one finds in a drop of ditchwater today". Life in the early paleozoic had a "general resemblance", to ditchwater life on a larger scale. (H.G. Wells)  

starting about 2.500,000,000 years ago, sedimentary rocks affected by higher amounts of oxygen in the atmosphere, appear red, as though rusted.

Mesoproterozoic from 1,600,000,000 to 1,000,000,000 years ago. (Wikipedia). May correspond to Schenk's Upper Pre-Cambrian

Schenk, p.12: Amoeba [Wikipedia], Volvox algae [Wikipedia], Actinotrocha, Sponges [Wikipedia], Radiolarians [Wikipedia].

The amoeba has no hard part, but some single cell organisms produce microscopic skeletons or shells. Foraminifer's calcite creates limestone and chalk. The silica of Radiolaria forms chert. Particular importance attaches to Phytoplankton, such as diatoms, which photosynthesise much of the worlds oxygen and are the microscopic plants at the base of the oceanic food chain.

Schenk, p.12: Seaweed, Algae-colonies, Flagellate algae.
about 1.300,000,000 years ago early seaweed formed. (BBC 4). Molecular clock methods indicate that red and green algae arose around 1,500,000,000 years ago, and the secondary symbiosis that eventually led to the chromists occurred around 1,300,000,000 years ago during the late Mesoproterzoic era, after the earth's transition to a more highly oxygenated atmosphere with an ozone screen. Fossil evidence is consistent with these gene-based estimates. Schiel and Foster 2015, chapter one "Introduction to Giant Kelp forests worldwide"

Wikipedia says: cells with nuclei certainly existed by 1,200,000,000 years ago. The reference relates to Multicellular filaments from arctic Canada identified as a red algae Bangiomorpha pubescens. "In all but detail, this fossil is indistinguishable from modern Bangia" (Butterfield 2000), which consists of hair-like filament of dark red cells which dry as dark skeins flat against inter-tidal rocks. See seaweeds of Alaska

Schenk, p.12: Sponges, Seaweed, Giant seaweed, Coral.

Neoproterozoic from 1,000,000,000 to 541,000,000 years ago. (Wikipedia)

Cryogenian Period from about 720,000,000 to 635,000,000 years ago Cryo (cold) and Genesis (birth). - It was cold. (Wikipedia)

about 700,000,000 years ago Fossils of multicellular organisms. When oxygen levels became high enough, a powerful ozone screen started to form in the upper atmosphere. (Stephen J. Mojzsis). The only fossils from all but the last 100 million years or so of Precambrian time represent single-celled life forms (541,000,000 plus 100,000,000 = 541,000,000 years ago) Summary of the life on earth

Ediacaran Period from about 635,000,000 to 542,000,000 years ago Name reflects Ediacaran biota.   (Wikipedia). Wikipedia says: It took almost 4,000,000,000 years from the formation of the Earth for the Ediacaran fossils to first appear, 655,000,000 years ago.

"The Record of the Rocks... begins in the midst of the game... The curtain rises on a drama in the sea that has already begun, and has been going on for some time". (H.G. Wells)   600,000,000 years ago First traceable fossils dated to this time. (psigate) [Edgeworth David (1928 and before) analysed pre-Cambrian rocks in Australia and found traces of micro- biological material] - See also primordial soup - Cambrian - Old Red Sandstone - seed ferns - hominid - Piltdown geology - Noah - word and theory

Schenk, p.12: Brachiopods [Bivalves Wikipedia]. Various forms of Annelidae [worms. Wikipedia].

Also page 15 "Inhabitants of the pre-Cambrian sea: Algae, flagellate algae, volvox algae, sponges, flat worms, brachiopoda, echinoderms and molluscs. All plant and animal life was present only in the oceans."

The soft bodies of worms would not have been preserved as fossils - See Darwin on worms - but traces of (sea) worms are found in Cambrian rocks.

Giovanni Arduino (1759) divided geologic time into Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary. Jules Desnoyers (1829) added the term Quaternary. GeoWhen Database suggests the Primary and Secondary are rough analogs of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. and these more modern terms have taken their place. By contrast, the term "Tertiary" has survived and is still in common use today.

Paleozoic (ancient life) Era includes the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian. During most of the Paleozoic, continents like Gondwana and Laurentia were coalescing to become Pangea

Rocks (and fossils) of the Welsh periods (Cambrian - Ordovician - Silurian) are similar: hard sandstones, shales, slates, grits and (Ordovician and Silurian) limestones Early Paleozoic: Before the appearance of any vertebrate animals. Age of sea scorpions and trilobites. (H.G. Wells)

Now thought there were early vertebrates (without jaws) in the Cambrian. Jawed vertebrates became common in the Devonian. (Wikipedia)

541,000,000 to 485,400,000 years ago Cambrian (Welsh) Period, including the "Cambrian explosion" of fossil remains. Trilobites. Picture of Paradoxides Bohemicus from the Cambrian period from J. E. Taylor's Geological Stories 1873. Trilobites lived in the sea. All life in Cambrian times seems to have lived in water. The Burgess Shale contains the best record we have of Cambrian animal fossils.

505,000,000 years ago Fossil jellyfish

Roderick Murchison's The Silurian System published in 1839, included a lower Silurian, now called Ordovician. What we now call Silurian was his upper Silurian. It topped the Cambrian and underlay the Old Red Sandstone.
In 1849 one could buy a hand coloured engraving called "The Antidiluvian World. Illustrations of the animals, reptiles, birds, fishes, trees, plants etc which existed in different epochs prior to the creation of man, and whose remains are found entombed in the various strata. From the discoveries of Buckland, Cuvier, Mantell, Lyell etc", Drawn and engraved by John Emslie. London, Published by James Reynolds 174 Strand, 20t.10.1849. This showed life beginning with the Silurian system, which it described as "a marine deposit of vast extent containing abundance of marine organic remains. 1. Encrinites and marine plants 2. Trilobites 3. Marine shells. 4 Lizards" [too early]. In 1835, William Kirby in On Power of God in Creation of Animals 2. xiii. 10 referred to "plant-like animals .. which, from a supposed the blossom of a liliaceous plant have been denominated Encrinites".

485,000,000 to 444,000,000 years ago The Ordovician period. (Ordovices were a Welsh tribe). Nautiloids. Fossils include earliest fish, but of types very different from modern ones.

Deposits that made Westmorland Green slate formed around 450 million years ago. Grains being deposited in water led to patterning. About 50 million years later, the material was altered by heat and pressure (metamorphosed) to slate, during mountain-building. (Kirk and Cook)

470,000,000 years ago mid-Ordovivian

470,000,000 years ago First evidence of plants on land. Cryptospores - possible affinity with today's liverworts. (BBC News 18.9.2003). But see Wikipedia: evolutionary history of plants. "At the end of the Ordovician period... signs of the "tentative presence" of plants on land. After many more millions of years, they resembled patches of moss a few centimeters high. But things changed in the Devonian Period. (Miguasha plants)

Richard Cowen's Chapter Eight: Leaving the Water - images - curent page

470,000,000 to 248,000,000 years ago Eurypterids, otherwise known as sea scorpions. (Wikipedia)

Late Ordovician survivals and extinctions: There were no land animals and extinctions were confined to water life. There were two distinct extinctions roughly a million years apart. The first of these began about 443 million years ago. Together, these extinctions may have removed about 85 percent of species of marine animals. All of the major animal groups of the Ordovician oceans survived, including trilobites, brachiopods, corals, crinoids and graptolites, but each lost important members. Widespread families of trilobites disappeared and graptolites came close to total extinction. (Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History).

A walk to the Ordovician/Silurian boundary in the Southern Highlands of Scotland.

The Ordovician/Silurian boundary was agreed in 1985 at the base of the Parakidograptus acuminatus Biozone (a group of concurrent graptolite species) in a boundary stratotype at Charles Lapworth's [Wikipedia] classic locality of Dob's Linn [Wikipedia] in the Southern Uplands of Scotland. Graptolites (rock writing) are thought to be horny skeletons of small creatures. Some are pictured here from the Observers Book of Geology, Their many different forms have enabled beds of ancient rock to be identified.
The earliest graptolites appear in Cambrian rocks and the last in Carboniferous

443,000,000 to 416,000,000 years ago Silurian period. (Silures a Welsh tribe). Sea Scorpions. Fossils include earliest land animals and forerunners of ammonites. See Pneumodesmus.

"When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the Silurian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled. Judging from the past we may safely infer that not one living species will transmit its unaltered likeness to distant futurity." (Charles Darwin)

Taylor's "Story of a piece of limestone" concerns only Silurian limestone.

Later Paleozoic: Age of fishes, amphibia and swamp forests . (H.G. Wells)

From primal swamp to speaking humans: Ernst Haeckel said (1903) that the Pithecoiden (monkey) theory of human evolution requires tracing our animal ancestors before monkeys. He began to do this in 1866 in the General Morphology. Silurian fish are followed by Devonian Lurchfische," [lungfish] "the Carboniferous amphibians, the Permian reptiles and in the Mesozoic the first mammals. Mammals appear again in the Triassic as monotremes [egg layers], then in the Jurassic as marsupials [nurturing babies in pouches], and the Cretaceous The oldest placental mammals, in the Tertiary period (Eocene), include our lowest primate ancestors, including lemurs, the first catarrhines the Monkey (Cynopitheken), and later the great apes (anthropomorphic). From a branch of the apes, speechless ape-man (Pithecanthropus alalus) arose in the Pliocene, leading, finally, to the speaking person. (source)

The Old Red Sandstone [see Wikipedia] of Scotland is very thick and contains many fossils, particularly of the Devonian fishes. Lungfish first appeared in the Early Devonian. - Taylor's "Story of a piece of sandstone" - Miquasha (Canada): "The Devonian is known as the "Age of Fishes" in reference to their evolutionary explosion during this period". - The earliest rock in the 1854 Sydenham display is Old Red Sandstone, but it does not feature animal life until the New Red Sandstone, treating the Devonian and Carboniferous as ages of rocks and economic minerals.

408,000,000 to 359.200,000 years ago Devonian period. Primitive fish. Some life left the water.
Primeval swamp?
Ichthyostega (Wikipedia) Greek ikhthus: fish - stegi: roof
Labyrinthodontia (Greek, "maze-toothed") is an extinct amphibian subclass, of which the order Ichthyostegalia is the earliset example, and the earliest landliving vertebrates. (Wikipedia) - G. Paselk pictures four legged "protoamphibians", Acanthostega and Icthyostega, lungfish (Dipterus) and a placoderm (Bothriolepis), with early trees, Archeaosigillaria [see Devonian Times on lycopsids] and Archaeopteris in the background.

Amphibian: an animal living in both water and on land. Reptile originally meant a creeping animal, and included amphibians. The 1854 Sydenham display is based on islands in water from which life emerges (see photo by Warren), which is relevant both to the biblical origin of life and to evolutionary theories. The Sydenham display also links water to the steam which drove the industrial revolution.

about 419,2000,000 to 393,300,000 years ago Early Devonian

The vegetation of the early Devonian consisted primarily of small plants, the tallest being only a meter tall. By the end of the Devonian, ferns, horsetails and seed plants had also appeared, producing the first trees and the first forests. University of California Museum of Paleontology. See University of Aberdeen on Rhynie Chert

about 393,300,000 to 382,700,000 years ago Middle Devonian

Ferns first appear in the fossil record

382,700,000 to 358,900,000 years ago Late Devonian

382,700,000 to 372.200,000 years ago Frasnian age of the Late Devonian

Late Devonian So called "seed ferns". Wikipedia: Pteridospermatophyta. See Marie Stopes

Late Devonian forests of large plants left many fossils in the Old Red Sandstone, mostly resembling ferns [Wikipedia], club-mosses [Wikipedia] and horsetails [Wikipedia], but the size of trees. These forests of flowerless trees, but with greater variety, flourished even more in the Carboniferous period. Similar plants lived throughout the rest of the Paleozoic and well into the Mesozoic. (Observers Book of Geology and Wikipedia Timeline of plant evolution

The coastal cliffs at Miguasha, Quebec, Canada, are Upper Devonian strata of alternating layers of sandstone and shale deposited between 375,000,000 and 350,000,000 years ago. OR (source) The Escuminac formation is now attributed to the middle part of the Frasnian Age. This corresponds to an approximate age of 380,000,000 years ago.

Archaeopteris was the main component of the earliest forests until its extinction around the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary. Archaeopteris grew up to seven metres (23 feet) tall, with a trunk of lignin and cellulose and branches supporting fern-like fronds extending horizontally to capture sunlight.

The first picture shows a large frond from Archaeopteris halliana in the Escuminac Formation in the Miguasha Museum. The Canadian stamp was issued in 1991.
"The earth's atmosphere was changing rapidly, going from perhaps 10 percent to 1 percent CO2 and from about 5 percent to 20 percent oxygen over a 50- million year period in the (late) Devonian period. All plants were responsible for the transformation, but Archaeopteris was important because it made up 90 percent of the forests during the last 15 million years when these changes accelerated" ... "It was the first plant to produce an extensive root system, so had a profound impact on soil chemistry". (Science Daily summary "Archaeopteris is the earliest known modern tree," by Brigitte Meyer-Berthaud, Stephen E. Scheckler, and Jobst Wendt. Nature 22.4.1999.
See Devonian Times archaeopteris and plants and soils and "The Tree That Changed the World" by John Perlin, Pacific Standard 29.3.2010.

Old Red Sandstone of Kiltorean, County Kilkenny, Ireland. Taylor 1873 writes of fine-grained greenish sandstones deposited in freshwater in which land plant fossils are well preserved. "Among the most attractive of these" tree-fern once called Cyelopteris (Round-leaved Fern), re named Palasopteris Hibernicus (Primitive Irish Fern). This was later renamed Archaeopteris Hibernicus. It was the "monarch of the primeval forests" whose "graceful fronds bent over the clear waters of a lake".

372,200,000 to 358,900 years ago Famennian age of the Late Devonian

359,000,000 years ago End of the Devonian period - Start of the Carboniferous period: In latter half of the Devonian, there are three important extinctions separated by about 10 million years. About 375 million years ago, towards the end of a time interval called the Givetian. The end-Frasnian extinction (the largest) about 375 million years ago. The about 365 million years ago during the Famennian.

The end-Frasnian extinction was most pronounced in tropical environments, particularly in the reefs of the shallow seas. Reef building sponges called stromatoporoids and corals suffered losses and stromatoporoids finally disappeared in the third extinction near the end of the Devonian. Brachiopods associated with reefs also became extinct. Groups of trilobites disappeared at each of the three extinctions and very few survived into the following Carboniferous Period. (Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History)

359.200,000 to 299,000,000 years ago   Carboniferous period.

By carboniferous [carbon bearing] soils, Richard Kirwan in 1799 meant the "various sorts of earth or stone among or under which coal is usually found". William Daniel Conybeare and William Phillips (1822, page vii) proposed to consider all rocks in an ascending order with a group including "not only the great coal-deposit itself, but those of the limestone and sandstone also on which it reposes" as the "medial" [middle] order. They said "the epithet carboniferous is of obvious application to this series".

Henry Shaler Williams (1891) proposed Pennine System as the name for the Carboniferous. This was not adopted, but his division into Mississippian, for the Early Carboniferous and Pennsylvanian, for the Late Carboniferous, was (in the USA).

Giant insects. [Large] Brachiopods.

Taylor's "Story of a piece of coal" focuses on coal formation, but includes a section on the carboniferous limestone. It lists (but does not discuss) the intervening millstone grit. It mentions the following periods to indicate how long ago coal was formed: Carboniferous followed by Permian, Triassic, Liassic, Oolitic, Cretaceous (or chalk), Eocene, Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene ... Illustrations of a section of Calamite (tree-like horsetail) [Wikipedia] - Branches, and fruit (Lepidostrobus) of Lepidodendron (scale-trees) [Wikipedia] - Bark of Sigillaria Groe seri [Wikipedia] - "Fossil Fern (Neuropteris)" (a seed fern) [Wikipedia] - Portion of Fossil Tree Fern (Pecopteris arborescens) on Coal Shale [Wikipedia] - Annularia. A Fossil Plant allied to the Calamites - [Wikipedia] -

358,900,000 to 323.200,000 years ago Early Carboniferous or Mississippian (USA) - noted for limestones (calcite). See Late Carboniferous

Palaeos - Humboldt

# 363,000,000 to 325,000,000 years ago: Deposition of mountain or carboniferous limestones of England and Wales. The 1854 Sydenham display shows the carboniferous deposits sandwiched between the Old Red Sandstone and the New Red Sandstone.

Rocks deposited during the Carboniferous period (350 - 290 million years ago) underlie almost all of the Peak National Park and probably two thirds of the remainder of Derbyshire.

359,200,000 - 326,400,000 years ago Dinantian series or epoch from the Lower Carboniferous system in Europe

326,400,000 to 313,400,000 years ago Namurian stage in the regional stratigraphy of northwest Europe

Chatsworth House - Where Paxton built a greenhouse: Carboniferous limestone (green)

Clay Cross: Hill Tupton Rock - Sandstone (not marked) over Pennine Lower Coal Measures (brown).

Matlock: Carboniferous limestone (green), near to millstone grit (buff). The limestone continues under the grit and the coal measures.

Mawe 1802 (sections 2 and 3), followed by Ward (1818) (page 10), says the order to the strata explored by the Derbyshire miners is: Argillaceous (clayey) Grit, in which coal and iron are found - Silicious Grit, providing stone for building and millstones - Shale - then lime-stone and toadstone alternately. The veins of metallic ores appeared in the limestone. Three strata of toadstone had been found, and the limestone under the third was as far as miners had reached. (About 300 yards underground). The Bonsall map project describes the "shallow tropical sea surrounded by coral reefs" in which the limestones were laid down and how "subterranean volcanoes erupted spasmodically through the sea floor, covering the limestones with ash and lava" which formed the toadstone.
# Igneous intrusions in the limestone (red: basalt, greenstone?) are the source of minerals, particularly lead. Bonsall area igneous rocks includes a stone comprising basalt and dolerite, locally referred to as toadstones. A complex of mine and natural cavern near Matlock Bath inspired the mine and cavern feature in the limestone at the 1854 Sydenham display
Rutland and Great Masson (now part of Heights of Abraham) are well known public caverns in Matlock Bath. Others are, or were, Victoria - Devonshire - Flour Spar - Speedwell - Cumberland - Fern - High Tor. (See History, Topography, and Directory of Derbyshire   offline by Bulmer and Company 1895 page 428 following, and Ward Lock's Matlock and Dovedale pages 11-16 - Derbyshire Cave Association Register - offline Masson Cavern complex)

[See Ann Andrews Lead Mining in Matlock and Matlock Bath - Peak District Mines Historical Society - The most common source of lead is Galena (lead sulfide) formed as pockets or veins in carbonate rock into which the mineral bearing fluid rock has intruded. Galena can contain minor amounts of antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, copper, silver, and zinc See Lead ore and mines.

Water flowing through limestone is responsible for creating its natural caves and also for their features of dripstone, stalactites (water icicles) and stalagmites. Encountering impermeable strata (such as toadstone) it forms underground lakes in the limestone which overflow to the surface as natural springs (a resurgence). To reach lower layers, miners drained water from their mines through artificial tunnels (sloughs), thus adding artificial springs. The thermal (hot) springs come from water in the Carboniferous Limestone in structural settings that allow meteoric water (rainfall etc) to descend low enough for it to be heated by the geothermal gradient (earth heat), and then return to the surface without a significant fall in temperature. [See 1780]. The original natural thermal resurgences at Matlock Bath were greatly modified by mining activities, but according to a contributor to the Mine Exploration Forum, all the springs at Matlock Bath seem to originate from Bacon Rake or the Bonsall Fault in the Ball Eye area.

See Matlock Bath and Crystal Palace

The main Early Carboniferous plants were the Equisetales (Horse-tails), Sphenophyllales (scrambling plants), Lycopodiales (Club mosses), Lepidodendrales (scale trees), Filicales (Ferns), Medullosales (previously included in the "seed ferns", an artificial assemblage of a number of early gymnosperm groups) and the Cordaitales. These continued to dominate throughout the Carboniferous period. [Wikipedia]

323.200,000 to 298.900,000 years ago Late Carboniferous or Pennsylvanian (USA) - noted for coal (fossilised carbon)

Plate 22 in Observers Book of Geology includes a depiction by Eli Marsden Wilson (1935) in the Natural History Museum, which it titles "A primeval swamp of the chief coal-forming period". The picture used here comes from Edwin J. Houston's The Elements of Physical Geography Philadelphia 1891, which says "The continents during this age consisted mainly of large, flat, marshy areas, covered with luxuriant vegetation."

Gymnosperms [Wikipedia] originated in the late Carboniferous period, replacing the lycopsid [Wikipedia] rainforests of the tropical region. Taylor says coniferous flora grew "abundantly" during the Liassic.

Alfred Wegener proposed that from the late carboniferous, all continents were stuck together as one big land mass, surrounded by just one ocean. (300,000,000 to 175,000,000 years ago) We can see this in his diagrams (below). Instead of giving the original continent a name, he uses German composite words, beginning ur, that just mean original. Der Urkontinent is the original continent, which is surrounded by einen großen Urozean (a large original ocean). Der karbonischen Urkontinentalmasse is the original continental mass in the carboniferous period. The Urkontinent was later called Pangea (all- earth). (See Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane 1920 - Alfred Wegener - and Wikipedia)

Lage der Kontinentalschollen für die Karbonzeit (ohne Rücksicht auf Wasserbedeckung) - Location of continental floes for the Carboniferous period (without regard to water cover)

Pangea existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It assembled about 300 million years ago, was intact until about 200 million years ago. and began to break apart about 175 million years ago.
# The 1922 and 1929 editions of Wegener's book contain a map of the world at three time periods: Late Carboniferous (Jung Karbon: this picture) - Eocene - and Quaternary.
The shading shows land and sea at the time, with white land, dotted shallow lake and shade: deep sea. Outlines of today's continents and some rivers ae superimposed.

# 298,900,000 to 252,170,000 years ago Permian. Named after the Perm district in Russia. In Britain includes dolomite limestones running south from Durham. (Observers Book of Geology [Wikipedia]

Primitive reptiles, such as Pelycosaur and Cotylosaur, illustrated in this picture from H.G. Wells' The Outline of History 1920. Emerged in the late Carboniferous. Flourished in the Permian.

In Greek sauros is a lizard. From this came saurian - applied to lizard-like creatures, including crocodiles, ichthyosaurus and plesiosaurs in water, pterosaurs in the air, and dinosaurs like megalosaurus and brontosaurus

about 251,000,000 years ago: Permian extinction (worst in history) wiped out more than 90 percent of all marine species and 70 percent of land animals. (National Geographic) - See Wikipedia Permian-Triassic extinction event

(Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History)

# Graph attempting to represent extinction events based on replacement of certain marine fossils. . (Wikimedia commons).

The Permian-Triassic (P - Tr) extinction is at the centre.

The table below is from D. M. Raup and J. J. Sepkoski's "Mass extinctions in the marine fossil record", published in Science in April 1982. (online - offline)

Raup and Sepkoski say that "five mass extinctions are clearly defined". They occured "near the ends of geologic periods", which reflects the fact that the periods were originally defined, in the first half of the 19th century, using major changes in the fossils records.
# Late Ordovician (Ashgillian)

Late Devonian (Givetian-Frasnian)

Late Permian (Guadalupian-Dzhulfian)

Late Triassic (Norian)

Late Cretaceous (Maestrichtian)

Mesozoic (Middle) Era includes the Triassic - Jurassic - and Cretaceous ages. It has been associated with conifers and reptiles. In the 1854 Sydenham display, the Triassic represents the Primary part of geological history, the Secondary starts with the Jurassic.

252,170,000 to 201,300,000 years ago Triassic (So named because it has three divisons in Germany)

In England Bunter (bright coloured) Sandstone and above it Keuper Marl. Forming north-west Midlands and including Cheshire salt beds. Formed in desert conditions. Almost completely without fossils.

Taylor's "Story of a piece of rock-salt". New Red Sandstone or Trias

# The Primary Island of the 1854 Sydenham display is based on the New Red Sandstone. It is here that its prehistoric animals begin. According to Owen (1854) its animals are Batrachia, [Wikipedia], from the Greek word for a frog, now represented by "frogs, toads, and newts, or water-salamanders". [See amphibians]

"But, at the period of the deposition of the new red sandstone, in the present counties of Warwick and Cheshire, the shores of the ancient sea, which were then formed by that sandy deposit, were trodden by reptiles, having the essential bony characters of the Batrachia, but combining these with other bony characters of crocodiles and lizards ; and exhibiting both under a bulk which is made manifest by the restoration of the largest known species".

The models include Labyrinthodon salamandroides, the Salamander-like Labyrinthodon - Labyrinthodon pachygnathus, the Thick-jawed Labyrinthodon - and Dicynodon lacerticeps, or Lizard-headed Dicynodon. See Simon Jackson on Labyrinthodon and Dicynodon - photo by Warren - Wikipedia: Dicynodon

"The largest and most remarkable kind of fish discovered in our strata ... on account of its resemblance to the crocodile or lizard family .. termed the ichthyosaurus, or lizard-fish... But our noblest fossil animal is the crocodile... the specimen" [a Teleosaurus] ... in the Whitby Museum, being the finest ... in our own country, or any other". (Young and Bird 1828 under "Fishes and Amphibia")
# 237,000,000 to 228,000,000 years ago Carnian or Karnian stage [Wikipedia] at the start of the Late Triassic epoch. Archosaurs [Wikipedia] , ancestors of birds and crocodiles, became the dominant faunas. Phytosaurs [Wikipedia] first appear during the Carnian. With many other large crurotarsan [Wikipedia] reptiles, they disappear at the end of the Triassic
Picture (signed by the author), page 188 Water Reptiles of the Past and Present by Samuel Wendell Williston. Published 1914 by The University of Chicago Press in Chicago. (Internet Archive - offline). See Teleosaurus.

230,000,000 years ago "The first dinosaurs appeared about 230 million years ago and for the next 160 million years, the Earth belonged to these ancient reptiles" Natural History Museum.

208,000,000 years ago Asteroid impact in what is now Quebec, Canada, created crater 70 kilometres in diameter and wiped out many species (psigate)

about 205,000,000 years ago First appearance of Plesiosaurs in the latest Triassic Period (possibly Rhaetian stage), They became especially common during the Jurassic Period and continued until the the end of the Cretaceous Period. They had a worldwide oceanic distribution. Elasmosaurus is a Plesiosaur from the late Cretaceous.
# This one was discovered in Kansas. - See Oceans of Kansas

Pterosaurs (meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles that existed from the late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous. [Wikipedia]. See Dimorphodon - Stonesfield Slate - 1828 - 1854 - 1866 #
"a flying reptile or dragon, called Pterodactyle, from the Greek words pteron, a wing, and dactylos, a finger; because the wings are mainly supported by the outer finger, enormously lengthened and of proportionate strength, I which, nevertheless, answers to the little finger of the human hand. The wings consisted of folds of skin, like the leather wings of the bat; and the Pterodactyles were covered with scales, not with feathers: the head, though somewhat resembling in shape that of a bird, and supported on a long and slender neck, was provided with long jaws, armed with teeth."
(Owen 1854)

The p being silent gives words pronounced something like terror soars and terror dactyle. See strange creatures and replica project

Late Triassic survivals and extinctions (about 201 million years ago): All major groups of marine invertebrates survived, but most suffered losses. Brachiopods, shelled cephalopods, sponges and corals were particularly hard hit. On land, casualties included the phytosaurs. (Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History)

201,300,000 to 145,000,000 years ago Jurassic. More dinosaurs.

Jurassic from the Jura Mountains on the borders of France and Switzerland.

about 200,000,000 years ago After 100,000,000 years the world still consisted of one continent, Pangea, surrounded by one ocean.

# The Tethys sea developed between Laurasia (north america, europe and asia) and Gondwana (africa southwards) during the Jurassic Period
The picture shows the Tethys according to Leopold Kober in 1922. Kober thought it was a sea that ran in a syncline between the two great land masses. Eduard Suess wrote in Natural science: a monthly review of scientific progress in 1893: "Modern geology permits us to follow the first outlines of the history of a great ocean which once stretched across part of Eurasia. The folded and crumpled deposits of this ocean stand forth to heaven in Thibet, Himalaya, and the Alps. This ocean we designate by the name 'Tethys', after the sister and consort of Oceanus." (Oxford English Dictionary)

# The ancestors of our fir trees and the monkey puzzle tree. (Observers Book of Geology and Wikipedia Timeline of plant evolution. Picture clip from J. E. Taylor's Geological Stories 1873: "Ideal landscape of the Oolitic period". "Fern and gymnosperm floras from both polar regions ... wide distribution of fern genera whose modern relatives are intolerant of cold" (Hallam 1982)

Jurassic Park: a 1993 USA film in which re-created dinosaurs escape from a theme park.

English Heritage's A Building Stone Atlas of Dorset - (offline) - British Geological Survey begins with the Lias Group and works upwards to Heathstones in the Lower Tertiary. The best known of the Dorset building stones are the Purbeck Marble and Portland limestones

Lower Jurassic beds called Lias (quarrymen's layers) in England running between Whitby on the coats of Yorkshire and Lyme Regis in Dorset, consisting of alternate beds of limestone and shale. Owen 1854: The Lias "forms the base of the oolite, or immediately underlies that division of secondary rocks". But see Wikipedia - Gateway - Engineering Geology of British Rocks and Soils - Lias Group 2012 online offline

# "Imagine well-watered and gently undulating lands teeming with plants and animals, drained by large rivers turbid with mud and sand, and discharging their burden of sediment, organic debris, and soluble salts into an open but not very deep sea in which life abounded. Such is the picture of the lias" (Wills 1929 p.134 and Figure 51 on p.126). For the figure, Wills references [Émile] Haug - [Theodor] Arldt - and [Dudley] Stamp [Introduction to Stratigraphy 1923?]

Taylor's "What the piece of jet had to say". "Where jet occurs: Lias beds". "As a fossil pitch or gum, I am related to the peculiar coniferous flora which grew so abundantly, although in comparatively few species, during the Liassic epoch". (Taylor, p.129).

See Lulworth forest and Hanover Point. Jet was popular after 1861 when Queen Victoria wore it following the death of Prince Albert. [Wikipedia]


Richard and Mary Anning's Ichthyosaurus (Temnodontosaurus platyodon) was discovered in the Lias beds at Lyme Regis in 1811 and 1812. The body (but not the head) of the Anning's find is lost. (Wikipedia)
# This drawing of a Ichthyosaurus (fish lizard) is from J. E. Taylor's Geological Stories 1873)
# Coprolites (copro=dung and lithos=stone) or fossil faeces from Lias at Lyme Regis. 1828 picture. Associated with Saurians, especially Ichthyosaurus. See Cambridge Greensands - 866 - 1606 - Anning - 1822 - 1828 - 1842 - 1843 - 1845 - 1861 - 1872 - 2013. Buckland named "fossil faeces ... evidently derived from Ichthyosauri" Ichthyosauro-coprus.

Since Buckland, coprolite sometimes just means rounded lumps of fossilised material. (See Wimpole coprolites)

Dimorphodon [Wikipedia] was a medium-sized pterosaur from the early Jurassic Period first discovered by Mary Anning in 1828. The 1854 Sydenham display featured Pterodactyles from the Ooolite and one from a chalk pit in the Cretaceous

199,600 to 140,000,000 years ago Fossil remains of Steneosaurus [Wikipedia] range from the early Jurassic through the early Cretaceous.
Steneosaurus bollensis (previously Teleosaurus chapmani Konig) fossils are found within Europe, including Germany, France and England. The Whitby crocodiles are regared as such Teleosaurs. See Crocodile. Thalattosuchia or sea crocodiles [Wikipedia],

190,800,000 to 182,700,000 years ago Pliensbachian in lower Jurassic. Cleveland ironstone. Jurassic ironstone deposits stretch in a broad arc from North East England through Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, Rutland and into Oxfordshire. See Wealden ironstone

182,700,000 to 174,100,000 years ago Toarcian in lower Jurassic. Includes Alum shales of the Cleveland basin.

about 175,000,000 years ago Middle Jurassic.

Lower Oolite: Inferior oolite - Fuller's earth - Great oolite and Stonesfield slate - Cornbrash and forest marble. - Middle Oolite: Oxford clay and Coral rag - Upper Oolite: Portland stone and Kimmeridge clay

about 168,300,000 years ago to 166.100,000 years ago Bathonian stage of the Middle Jurassic, named after Bath. Lee's Quarry, Taynton Down, Oxfordshire is the type section for the Taynton Limestone Formation. Part of the Great Oolite Group. Sites of four mines around the village of Stonesfield Village, Oxfordshire, are the type-locality of Stonesfield Slates, probably developed at the base of the Taynton Formation.
The Stonesfield "slates" are limestones, originally deposited in a shallow sea. William Buckland obtained fossil bones from the quarries which later composed Megalosaurus, shown here dominating the Oolitic island at the centre of the 1854 Sydenham display. To the right flew "Pterodactyles of the Ooolite", Buckland's Pterodactyle, found "pretty abundantly" at Stonesfield.

Pangea began to rift from the Tethys Ocean in the east to the Pacific in the west. One rift resulted in the North Atlantic Ocean.

brontosaurus the thunder lizard - stegosaurus covered lizard - pterodactylus the winged finger - camptosaurus flexible lizard - diplodocus double beam - tyrannosaurus tyrant lizard - trachodon rough tooth - triceratops three horned face - archaeopteryx ancient wing - Pictures from H.G. Wells' The Outline of History 1920

about 161,000,000 million years ago Upper Jurassic. Contains many beds of limestone of the type called Oolite

Taylor's "What the piece of Purbeck Marble had to say". Includes "flying reptiles" and "stonesfield slates".

between about 152,100,000 and 145,000,000 years ago The Tithonian age, named after Tithonus, the lover who chased Eos (dawn). It is the last age of the Jurassic, chasing the Cretaceous. Includes the the lithographic limestones of Solenhofen, Bavaria, which was used for fine printing plates and which also preserves detailed fossils. Portland stone (Dorset) underlies Purbeck Marble.

[Cambridgeshire] At the end of the Jurassic, about 145,000,000 years ago, the land was gradually sinking and a series of clays were being deposited. See Gault - Upper Cretaceous - Cambridge Greensands

around 145,800,000 years ago The "fossil forest" at Lulworth Cove. "This forest was dominated by conifers, tree-ferns and cycads". (walk site) - See Ian West's the fossil forest: Part 1: the ledge and strata and Part 2: the Purbeck fossil trees. In 1983, Jane Francis named the dominant tree (conifer) Protocupressinoxylon purbeckensis (Early cypress-wood from the Purbecks) in an article now online. The reconsruction (right) is from the article. #
See New occurrences of the wood Protocupressinoxylon purbeckensis Francis..., Marc Philippe and others 2009.

145,500,000 to 66,000,000 years ago Cretaceous. Last dinosaurs.

Although cretaceous means chalk, the lower cretaceous does not include chalk. In Britain it comprises the Wealden Beds, the Lower Greensand and the lower part of Blue Gault Clay.

Strata near Swanage, Dorset: Portland rock, Purbeck deposits, Wealden, and Cretaceous beds.

See Ian West's Swanage Bay and Ballard Cliff geology.

"Darwin's "abominable mystery" asked how did the world's flora go from no flowering plants at the beginning of the Cretaceous to modern ones by the time of the Dakota Group, 40 million years later".

around 140,000,000 to 125,000,000 years ago   Wealden Supergroup

# 1 Cainozoic - 2 Chalk - 3 Gault - 4 Lower Greensand

5 Weald clay and 6 Weald sands = Wealden group

Generalised section across the Weal in south-east England, crossing the escarpments (downs) in the north, but following the Ouse valley in the south. From (Wills 1929 p.200). See Portsmouth Symposium 2000 for relation to Isle of Wight and Dorset. Also see Bucks Geology Group

The "Pine Raft" at Hanover Point near Brook consists of gymnosperm tree remains that can be seen at low tide. They come from a Wealden plant bed. The tree remains are either compressed or in solid uncompressed form ... Examples ... impregnated by calcite at a very early stage ... have avoided compaction. (Ian West's Brightstone Bay) - See 1825 and BBC The Petrified Forest which says "the wood has been converted into a substance resembling the mineral Jet". See [Brightstone is also known as Brixton and is probably where Mantell found his cottage garden Iguanodon toe bone]

about 139,800,000 to 132,900,000 years ago Valanginian stage of the Lower Cretaceous includes Wadhurst Clay Formation. Clay ironstone nodules occur in the Wadhurst Clay and Ashdown Sand of the Kent and Sussex Weald. [See extraordinary book of doors for detailed strata] See Jurassic ironstone. Wealden ironstone was the basis of Wealden iron. See Research Group

Swanage (Dorset): The upper part of the Wealden, as seen very completely in the Northern Cliffs of Swanage Bay [Punfield Cove], exposes about 700 feet of clays frequently red or purple, less frequently blue, greenish, or very pale, alternating with sandstones of different tints, mostly soft and fine- grained, but sometimes hardened by irony impregnation, or modified by admixture of pebbles. One band contains much lignite. In the upper part of this series, above every red or purple bed, are alternations of sandstone and pale shale. In one of the shale-beds is a course of small nodules of pyritous ironstone. John Phillips 1859 - See Buckland 1829

Valanginian stage of the Lower Cretaceous includes Cuckfield Stone Bed. In 1822, Mary Ann and Gideon Mantell [Wikipedia] found dinosaur remains, including the original Iguanodon [Wikipedia] teeth, in quarries in the Whiteman's Green area [around TQ 300 255]. See Gateway to the Earth and dinosaurs

# At the 1854 exhibition, a Pterodactyl dominates the chalk and two Iguanodon dominate the Wealden deposits. ... "remains of the Iguanodon have been principally found ... in the Weald of Kent and Sussex: Horsham in Sussex; Maidstone in Kent; and the Isle of Wight"   (Owen 1854)
# Eli Marsden Wilson's 1935- "Idealized Landscape of the Wealden Lake" showing Iguanodon (iguana tooth), Cetiosaurus (whale lizard) and Polacanthus (many spiked), (from the Natural History Museum, London, has the title "Mesozoic scene with great reptiles" in the Observers Book of Geology. The Natural History Museum website Image ID: 004324 describes it as "Scene from the Wealden times, during the Cretacous period".
Fossil bones of an Iguanodon from the Wealden Beds of the Isle of Wight (Observers Geology Plate 23)

about 125,000,000 to 113,000,000 years ago Aptian stage of the Lower Cretaceous. Main period of lower greensand deposits.

about 120,000,000 to 90,000,000 years ago Mid-Cretaceous Period "one period in the geologic past that stands out as distinctly warmer than today, particularly at high latitudes" (NOAA)

[Cambridgeshire] about 113,000,000 to 110,000,000 years ago Gault Clay deposited (reaching about 45 metres near Cambridge). From about 110,000,000 years ago: a local upward movement of the sea-bed caused sea erosion of the Upper Gault. Heavier material, including fossils, was rolled around and re-deposited , mixing fossils of different ages, and coating them in a hard phosphate, sand and phosphatic nodules formed the Cambridge Greensand.

100,500,000 to 66,000,000 years ago. Upper Cretaceous [Chalk] See Dakota Group in North America.

Taylor's "Story of a piece of chalk". In Britain the upper cretaceous comprises the upper part of the Gault, the Upper Greensand, and the whole of the chalk. Place in strate in Cambridgeshire: Topsoil, Chalk, Chalk Marl, Upper [Cambridge] Greensand, "Coprolite", Gault, Lower Greensand. Picture below is a sketch of a pit excavating phosphatic nodules at Horningsea, four miles north of Cambridge, about 1874. The average depth of working the nodule bed was about twelve feet but, as the undulations in the gault show, this was very varied.
# "On the Relations of the Cambridge Gault and Greensand" by A. J. Jukes-Browne, of the Geological Survey of England. Read 13.1.1875.
Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society xxxi, p.260, [Internet Archive] - (offline)

about 100,500,000 to 93,900,000 years ago Cenomanian age began the Upper Cretaceous. [Cambridgeshire] Cambridge Greensands with phosphatic nodules.

Cambridge Greensands: "Glauconitic marl: Thin but distinctive condensed basement bed of pale greenish grey marl rich in phosphatic nodules (so called "coprolites") at base. Much dark green glauconite as sand-sized grains, disseminated or concentrated in pods and layers giving a sandy texture and hence name "greensand"." (Gateway to Earth). The nodule beds are on average 25cm thick but, where hollows in the Gault occur, local depths of over a metre could accumulate. Fossilised dung relatively scarce. Fossils at core of nodules include many small sea creatures particularly bivalve molluscs (like Terebratula), brachiopods, ammonites and belemnites. Larger fossils include many fish and reptiles such as ichthyosaurs, pterosaurs and some (often poorly preserved) dinosaurs. (Wimpole coprolites 2015)

"The fossil beds were found at the base of both the Lower and Upper Cambridgeshire Greensand". (O'Connor)

100,000,000 to 650,000,000 years ago. The Chalk Sea. Culver Cliff, Isle of Wight was photographed in 1956, when I was twelve and it not yet a milion years old. "Chalk is made from billions of tiny shells of plankton which lived in the clear warm waters" (Isle of Wight Geological History) #
The chalk ridge running along the centre of the island, from the Needles (by Alum Bay) on the west to Culver on the east, has younger rocks to the north and older ones to the south. The map is from Isle of Wight Local Geodiversity Action Plan. The Isle of Wight Philosophical Society founded a museum in Newport in 1819 (or later) that has evolved into today's Dinosaur Isle

about 83,600,000 to 72,100,000 years ago Campanian age of the Late Cretaceous, when the Plesiosaur Elasmosaurus swam in the Dakota inland sea

Fossils of flowering plants first become abundant in the chalk. Those of the earlier Tertiary including types (in Britain) characteristic of a tropical climate. (Observers Book of Geology and Wikipedia Timeline of plant evolution) - Charles Darwin sought an explanation for what appeared to be an abrupt origin and highly accelerated rate of diversification of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous. (Friedman 2008)
From 1853 fossils of the leaves of flowering plants were collected from Cretacious rocks in the Dakota Formation in the USA mid- west.
# Recently a few fossils of actual flowers have been added to the leaf collections. This picture, from The Abominable Mystery of The First Flowers: Clues from Nebraska and Kansas by M. R. Bolick and R. K. Pabian of the University of Nebraska (1994) shows a fossil flower from Rose Creek, Nebraska, with petals and stamens.

about 75,000,000 years ago According to Ron Hubbard, science fiction writer and founder of the scientologists, Xenu, ruler of a Galactic Confederation of 76 planets, transported billions of his charges in spaceships to Teegeeack (Earth), placed them near volcanoes and killed them by exploding hydrogen bombs, Their "thetans" (souls) later inhabited the bodies of humans, causing the dysfuntions that scientology claims to be able to repair.

about 72,100,000 to 66,000,000 to years ago Maastrichtian age ends Late Cretaceous

None of the reptile "monsters are found in the rocks later than the Chalk" (Observers Geology, p.132)

Tertiary (third) period: former term (still much used) for the geological period from 66,000,000 years ago to the Quaternary. Cenozoic (recent life). Ceno from Greek kainos, meaning new or recent. Also used in -cene at end of epochs: Paleo (old) - Eo (dawn) - Oligo (small) - Mio (less) - Plio (more) - Pleisto (most) - Holo (whole) - Anthropo (human)

Age of mammals, including primitive horses and hominids. Following the Cretaceous extinction of dinosaurs, the Eocene epochs - Paleocene - Eocene - Oligocene - Miocene - and Pliocene - have been described as chapters in the mammals rise to dominance. Most recent geological materials are soft sediments like sands and clays.

66,000,000 years ago extinction of dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous epoch. Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event . Psigate said 65,000,000 years ago "Impact at Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, created crater almost 200 kilometres across, caused global devastation and possible extinction of dinosaurs, along with an estimated 85% of all life". Another source: Dinosaurs (and 90% of all species) wiped out after a meteorite. defined by a "golden spike" in sediments around the world iridium dispersed from the meteorite.

Extinction (vertebrates) of dinosaurs and flying pterosaurs, the mosasaurs, plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs of the oceans. (Marine invertebrates) ammonites, groups of cephalopods and some bivalves, such as the reef-building rudists and some relatives of modern oysters. (Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History) - Most groups of organisms survived. Soon after the end of the Cretaceous, there was a tremendous diversification of insects, mammals, birds, and flowering plants on land, and of fishes, corals, and molluscs in the ocean. (Richard Cowen).

# 56,000,000 to 33,900,000 years ago Eocene Epoch. Plate 21 in Observers Book of Geology includes this depiction by Eli Marsden Wilson (1935) in the Natural History Museum, which it titles "Eocene landscape, London clay period".

A world that was essentially ice-free

# Wegener's Eozän: Eocene

In the early Eocene, there were land connections between Antarctica and Australia, North America and Europe through Greenland, and probably between North America and Asia through the Bering Strait.

60,000,000 to 55,000,000 years ago, Laurasia split when North America/Greenland and Eurasia separated, opening the Norwegian Sea. See Tethys. In the mid-Eocene, Australia and Antarctica separated. New ocean currents cooled the world towards the end of the Eocene. (source).

about 45,000,000 years ago during the early to mid Eocene Palaeotherium species living in the tropical forests covering Europe. (Wikipedia)

34,000,000 years ago Antarctic ice sheet began to form around this time (psigate)

Tropical forest to temperate grassland. Enter the beautiful world

33,900,000 to 23,000,000 years ago Oligocene: a transition from the tropical Eocene more temperate climates. Grasslands expanded world-wide and tropical forests receded to the equatorial belt.

During the Oligocene and Miocene the Alpine chain of mountains was formed, replacing the western end of the Tethys.

28,100,000 years ago Upper Oligocene (Chattian) - (Wikipedia) - Abbe Bourgeois announced in 1867 that he had discovered man-made tools in an assemblage of chipped flints in the bed of upper Oligocene age near Thenay. Similar finds were made elsewhere in Europe in 1872 and 1877 in upper Miocene beds. The human origin of these "eoliths" was disputed.

25,000,000 years ago hominoids (apes) diverged from the Old World monkeys according to Wikipedia. The Greek word pithecoid (ape like) was much used in 19th century evolutionary theory. A 1900 Dictionary defines an ape as a four limbed animal with teeth of the same number of form as humans and without either tails or cheek-pouches, and Pithecoid as pertaining to apes, or resembling an ape, or ape-like.

"Divergence among great apes, a small ape, and an Old World monkey with respect to humans", figure one from an article in Nature 469, 529-533 (27.1.2011)

Rather than call this Middle Tertiary "in 1833 I proposed the name of Miocene, selecting the 'faluns' of the valley of the Loire in France as my example or type". "No British strata have a distinct claim to be regarded as Miocene". (Charles Lyell)
# 23,030,000 to 5,332,000 years ago Miocene era - (Wikipedia

"If the Creator made this world especially for man, then there was one period paricularly adapted to man's wants. The world never experienced a more beautiful period. That period was the Miocene, and by all manner of logical reasoning it was the time when man should have appeared" Mastodon, Mammoth, and Man by John Patterson MacLean 1878 page 67

Picture of Miocene mammals from The Prehistoric World: or, Vanished Races by Emory Adams Allen 1885.

Taylor's "Story of a piece of lignite"

Whilst accepting the authenticity of the flint tools found by l'abbé Bourgeois at Thenay, Albert Gaudry did not admit the existence of humans in the Miocene epoch. Sommeone suggested Dryopithecus cracked the stones. (Histoire) - See Mortillet.

In 1856 Éduard Lartet described fossil jaw fragments and a piece of humerus from a "très-grand Singe de la tribu des Simiens" [Simian] "ou Singes supérieurs", which had been discovered by Monsieur Fontan, of Saint-Gaudens (Haute-Caronne), a [zealous] naturaliste. He named the monkey whose bones these were, Dryopithecus fontani [See below]. They were found in a strata of marly clays (banc d'argile marneuse) from the Miocene being exploited at the base of the plateau on which Saint-Gaudens is built,
# at the start of the plaine de Valentine that stretches to the foothills of the Pyrenees.
Fontan recovered from the same site, bones of Macrotherium, Rhinoceros, Dicrocerus elegans, apparently identical to species of the same genera previously found at Sansan. These mammals belong essentially, Lartet said, to "nos terrains tertiaires moyens (miocènes)", as we also find their remains in the faluns of Touraine. - See Lartout "Note sur un grand singe fossile qui se rattache au groupe des singes supérieurs" in Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences Paris, Band 43, 1856, pages 219-223. (offline)

The fossils were not (as Lyell states) found in lignite deposits, but Lartet refers to trunks of oak, chestnut and pine in lignite in the lowest foothills of the Pyrenees, which he thinks are the same age as fossils a Saint-Gaudens and Sansan, because he has collected some remains of mammals belonging to the same period. Lartet concluded on the evidence he had that this monkey, of very great size, mainly ate fruit, and lived usually in trees, as Gibbons of the present time. He said he took the name Dryopithecus from [Greek] Dryos (tree, oak) and pithekos (monkey). So Lyell is correct in linking the name to oaks found in lignite. Monsieur Fontan, after who the full name Dryopithecus fontani comes, is named as Urbaine Fontan in the Journal de Toulouse. He may also be "A. Fontan, docteur-médecin", who is mentioned elsewhere.

The Journal de Toulouse carried to reports of the discovery (the second correctin the first) on 3.8.1856 and 5.8.1856. Fontan is reported as saying the find is the more interesting as Cuvier had not managed to find such a fossil. Flourens "went even further, this unexpected result gives him hope that one will soon find fossil men". (3.8.1856 - Third page)

Plate and notes (adapted) provided with Lartet's note


1. A series of teeth from "une négresse du Gabon"

2. The same series from an adult Chimpanzee - 3. Orang from Borneo - 4. Gibbon from Siamang - 5. Gorilla

7, 8, and 9 are Dryopithecus. 7 shows shows three views of jaw fragments with teeth and 8 how they fot in to the whole jaw. 8 shows the humerus (upper arm) bone (not to scale)

10 and 11 are the teeth and jaw of Pliopithecus antiquus that Lartet discovered at Sansan in 1837.

6 is a gorilla's jaw (not to scale)

Lartet says the Siamang, "placed by Zoologists in general in the last row of the tribe of the Simians or higher apes, nevertheless, provide by their skeleton, a sum of characters approaching the human type much greater than one can find in Orang or even in the chimpanzee".

13,000,000 years ago divergence between humans and orang-utangs (between 12 and 15 million years ago).

more than 7,000,000 years ago divergence between the two existing beavers: castor canadensis (north america) and castor fiber (europe and asia).

7,000,000 years ago divergence between humans and gorillas (between 6 and 8 million years ago).

6,230,000 years ago The the red deer (cervus elaphus) and Indian spotted deer (axis axis) last shared a common ancestor. However, they remain completely interfertile. ("Neanderthals and modern humans: an example of a mammalian syngameon?" by T. W. Holliday 2006)

6,000,000 years ago divergence between humans and chimpanzees (between 5 and 7 million years ago). Common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans. Skin on face and hands of baby chimpanzees darkens after exposure to the sun. The rest of the body is protected by hair (fur)) and remains pale.

"Six million years are said to separate human beings from other great apes" (Tomasello 1999, p.2);

5,300,000 years ago appearance of Ursus minimus (the Auvergne bear). (Wikipedia). It is thought to have been the ancestor of Ursus etruscus. Etruscus became a larger bear. Radiating across Europe and Asia, it gave rise cave bears in Europe and brown bears in Asia. See A Review of Bear Evolution by Bruce Mclellan and David C. Reiner, 1992/1994.

Geological periods of hominids # Pliocene

Early Pleistocene

Middle Pleistocene

Late Pleistocene









Pliocene means "more recent". The shelly sand-banks of East Anglia known as crag were formed in the Pliocene. Pleistocene was "was originally regarded as ... the period in which man, as tool-using animal, first made his appearance and ... evolved". But the case was made in "recent years" (1929) that tool-users existed in the "Pliocene or even earlier". (Wills 1929 p.209).

# 5,333,000 to 2,580,000 years ago Pliocene geological epoch. Eolithic means dawn of stone and the term eolith was used for flints that might have been hand wrought, but might be natural. This one is said to resemble a musk ox on the left and a bear on the right. (Larousse Prehistoric)

# Nature 29.3.1924 contained a report dating eoliths that could have been tools to "at least, an early phase of the Pliocene period".
Rushton Hall (1928/1930) wrote "Out of the mists of Antiquity appear the earliest known people, to whom the name the people of the dawn or eolithic period has been given" (p.40). "Piltdown may be the remains of a Dawn Period man" (page 57). His Dawn Man developed in River Drift Man, another possibility for placing Piltdown Man. The pictures are of Piltdown Man and an eolith from Rushton Hall.

Ardipithecus ramidus 4,400,000 years ago Earliest known hominid [human, not ape] fossils dated to this time (psigate) -

Ardipithecus ramidus, named September 1994, found in Ethiopia by research team headed by Tim White.

The so called southern apes

4,000,000 years ago to 2,000,000 years ago Australopithecus genus in Africa. Named by Raymond A. Dart (1893-1988) in 1925 from Latin australis "southern" and Greek pithekos "ape". Wikipedia: Australopithecus

about 3,900,000 years ago Equus caballus, the modern horse, , diverged from the lineage it shares with zebras and asses, according to molecular data. The fossil suggests a divergence at least 2 millions years ago.

about 3,600,000 years ago A woolly rhinoceros in the Himalayas lived there during a general world period of warmth. they migrated from there to northern Asia and Europe when the Ice Age began. The woolly rhinoceros co-existed with woolly mammoths in the Pleistocene. Successively named Rhinocerotis antiquitatis - Gryphus antiquitatus - Rhinocerotis tichorhini and Coelodonta antiquitatis.

European land mammals

Lindsay and others in 1980 wrote of "three major dispersal events of large mammals during the Pliocene" at 3,700,000 years ago - then 2,600,000 years ago - then 1,900,000 years ago.

3,600,000 to 3,000,000 years ago or earlier Start of Villafranchian fauna. (Wikipedia) -

Villafranchian: The land-mammal stage that spans the upper Pliocene and lower Pleistocene 3,600,000 to 1,200,000 years ago (Oxford: A Dictionary of Zoology by Michael Allaby 2009). Villafranchian: An age that is dated at base at approximately 3,000,000 years ago. It lasted approximately 2,000,000 years and therefore crosses the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene boundary. (Oxford: A Dictionary of Plant Sciences by Michael Allaby 2006)

Leptobos event. Early Villafranchian starts with appearance of a primitive bovid of the genus of Leptobos in Italy. Leptobos existed only during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene, thus it is a diagnostic taxon for the Villafranchian-Nihewanian land mammal ages of Europe and China

The Etruscan rhinoceros (Stephanorhinus etruscus) was the European rhino from the early Pleistocene. It was succeeded the Steppe Rhino (Stephanorhinus hemitoechus) in the middle Pleistocene.

Elephant-Equus (elephant horse) event. somewhere between 3,000,000 and 2,000,000 years ago. It starts with the appeance of Equus (real horse) and Mammuthus meridionalis. "We now report new data that limit the time of Equus' dispersal and into Europe to the 2,600,000 years ago dispersal event". (Lindsay and others)

Equus was derived from a species of the single-toed horse Pliohippus, known only from North America.

Begining of middle Villafranchian coincides with Gauss/Matuyama magnetic transgresson and onset of Quaternary (Pleistocene) 2,580,000 years ago.

See Tiglian

The Wolf event, may fall near 1,700,000 years ago. The late Villafranchian starts with the appearance of Canis etruscus (Etrurian wolf)

end Villafranchian event

Followed by Galerian Mammal Age and Aurelian Mammal Age (350,000 to 13,000 years ago).

3,300,000 years ago Lomekwi 3 site tools in Kenya discovered 2015. Proposal to call the Lomekwian technology as older and distinct from Oldowan.

"Oldest stone tools pre-date earliest humans" (BBC) - Wikipedia: stone age - stone tools - Article from Nature 21.5.2015 - Article from Science 14.4. 2015

See modes.

3,300,000 years ago hominin (human-like primate) called "Lucy" discovered in Ethiopia in 1974     BBC 4.3.2015 - Wikipedia - Google doodle archive. Jablonski 2012 infers skin and fur similar to chimpanzees as activities would not "built up excess heat as the result of prolonged activity".

2,800,000 years ago Ethiopian jaw bone. BBC 4.3.2015 "'First human' discovered in Ethiopia"

# Wegener's Alt-Quartär: early Quaternary

The major land masses were about where they are today.

Quaternary Period current period of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale. Includes two epochs: the Pleistocene to 11,700 years ago - and the Holocene to today. Quaternary glaciation.
2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago Pleistocene [From Greek for most recent. Term introduced by Lyell in 1839 for ice age deposits after the Pliocene]. Current ice age with permanent ice sheets in Antarctica and perhaps Greenland, and fluctuating ice sheets elsewhere. The ice across much of Russia preserved remains of Pleistocene mammals such as this mammoth from near Moscow whose mounted bones are diplayed in the entrance hall to the Orlov Museum of Paleontology. The Woolly Rhinoceros also roamed Siberia. See Édouard Lartet's age of. Mammoth

# furry coat or sweaty skin

a case of bi-polar - hot then cold - cold then hot

Glacials and interglacials:

North Germany: Pre-Tiglian - Tiglian - Alpine region (Donau = Danube): Biber (Wikipedia) - Biber/Danube - Danube (Wikipedia) - Danube/Gunz (Wikipedia)

MIS 62 - Günz - MS 22 - Cromerian (Piltdowns) MIS 15 MIS 14 MIS 13 - Mindel MIS 12 - Holstein MIS 11 (Swanscombes) - Riss MIS 10 (Bilzingslebens) MIS 8 MIS 6 - Eem (hippos) MIS 5 - Wurm - MIS 2 - Holocene (farmers) MIS 1 .

Mammoth: and rhinoceros - ivory carving - prehistoric art - Aurignacian - mammoths in art - Dolni Vestonice - cave bear and other extinctions - eburnien - reindeer - mammoth extinct -

The first cool period at the junction of the Pliocene and the Pleistocene was the pre-Tiglian. - the Pre tiglian cold stage can be dated between about 2,500,000 and 2,300,000 years ago -

The Tiglian was about 2,000,000 years ago - The Tiglian interglacial phase ends in the Olduvai magnetic event about 1,700 years ago - 1,700,000 to 1,200,000 million years ago Donau-Günz or Tiglian interglacial. Tiglian derived from Tegelen in the Netherlands (Wikipedia). "A classical Villafranchian locality".

Part of a sketch of what the Tegelen landscape may have looked like, made by Dubois (1904?). From "A century of research on the classical locality of Tegelen (province of Limburg, The Netherlands)" by Lars W. Van Den Hoek Ostende and John De Vos

Noted for its deer. Dubois wrote about a species of Eucladoceros (bush- antlered deer) Eucladoceros tegulensis, later called Eucladoceros, and Cervus rhenanus Dubois, 1904 (named after him), the small deer of Venlo, remains of which are found primarily in Tegelen.

Elephants, rhinoceroses, a wild pig species and possibly even tapirs - a landscape of riverine woodlands and swamps ("Origins and development of grassland communities in northwestern Europe" by Herbert H. T. Prins 1998)

Paleolithic (Old stone age) See stone and bone.

Paleo = old   lithos = stone. The three ages, Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic, were named in relation to the type of stone tools that survived in archaeological sites. The Paleolithic is divided into Lower, Middle and Upper.

Paeolithic savagery (Gordon Childe)

[Strepean?] - Chellean - Abbevillian (Wikipedia) - Oldowan (Wikipedia).
See Mortillet classification

2,600,000 to 2,550,000 years ago Mode one - Oldowan - stone tools. Picture above from Wikipedia of a "simple chopping-tool". Tools made by knocking flakes off a core stone (pebble core) with a hammerstone. Core and flake tools made.

# World prehistory: a new outline, by Grahame Clark. 1969, page 31.

"Archaeology studies human history from the development of the first stone tools.." (Wikipedia). It is one of the main ways in which social theorists have tried to access pre-history (the human story before writing). Another major way has been through speculation on the content of myths. Artefacts, like stone tools, can be dated in a way that inferences from myths can not. On the other hand, myths may give access to the mind in a way that artifacts do not.

See Sweden

Lower Paleolithic

The first homo - Latin for human

2,350,000 years ago upper jaw from Hadar, Ethiopia, oldest fossil attributed to the genus Homo before 2015 jaw

"Man alone has become a biped" (Charles Darwin) - After Lucy.

2,000,000 years ago (or later) Upright human: Homo erectus: "the fossil record between ... Lucy ... and Homo erectus (with its relatively large brain and humanlike body proportions) two million years ago is sparse". ((BBC 4.3.2015) - Wikipedia

"Compared with its australopithecine forebears-who were four feet tall with ape-sized brains and no stone tools - Homo was larger physically, had a larger brain, and made stone tools." (Tomasello 1999)

# From Stepping out: a computer simulation of hominid dispersal from Africa (2002) by Steven Mithen and Melissa Reed
Map based on hominids leaving Africa about 2 million years ago. They get to the far east in 100,000 years, but take over 1,000,000 years to get to west Europe. Why? - Read about
Wushan Man and Indonesia's top five hominid fossil sites - Norfolk footprints and Boxgrove tibia

1,800,000 years ago Hippopotamus antiquus, the European hippopotamus appeared. (Wikipedia)

1,800,000 years ago "Early human migrations began when Homo erectus first migrated out of Africa over the Levantine corridor and Horn of Africa to Eurasia about 1.8 million years ago". (Wikipedia in an earlier incarnation) - Two major dispersals of hominins out of Africa occurred. That of homo erectus began around 1,800,000 years ago. That of homo sapiens began around 80,000 years ago. (Jablonski 2012)

about 1,750,000 years ago The Olduvai child: OH 7 and Zinjanthropus: OH 5

MIS 62 - 1.750,000 years ago: end of the Tiglian

Acheulean about 1,600,000 to 200,000 years ago

Acheulean artifacts from Africa date to 1,600,000 years ago. The oldest sites in India are slightly younger. In Europe [See Mortillet classification], the earliest Acheulean tools appear just after 800,000 years ago, as homo erectus moved north out of Africa. (anthromuseum.missouri). But the classical French Acheulean is much later.

Mode two tools: Large bifacial cutting tools made from flakes and cores such as Acheulean handaxes, cleavers and picks.

about 1,500,000 years ago Turkana Boy or Nariokotome Boy (WT-15000) discovered in Kenya August 1984. 108 bones (view bones): almost all the scull and most of the rest of the skeleton. The most complete early hominid found. Structure suggests a physically very activ biped and Jablonski 2012 deduces that early hominids had lost body hair and increased sweat glands by the time he "traversed the woodland grassland" of the Lake Turkana Basin. Homo erectus preferred to homo ergaster

1,500,000 years ago Attirampakkam, south India, Acheulean site. See Antiquity - Indi-Uni - Science - Indian Acheulean. Also see earlier dating.

# 1,400,000 years ago Acheulean - Mode two tools. The picture, from Wikipedia, is of an Acheulean handaxe from Zamora in Spain.

From Saint-Acheul, a suburb of Amiens where the first tools from this period were found in 1859. Wikipedia: Acheulean

The start of Antroparkbaby in the European Acheulean is based on the Bilzingsleben site of early palaeolithic human remains in Thuringia, Germany, dated about 370,000 years ago. Also Shoningen and Stránská .

The four levels of Antroparkbaby are Acheulean, which it associates with homo erectus - Mousterian (Neanderthal) - Gravettian - and Magdalenian (both homo sapiens)

about 1,250.000 to 700,000 years ago The Mid-Pleistocene Transition or revolution. A period during which the dominant periodicity of Earth's climate (glacial-interglacial) cycles inexplicably changed from 41,000 years to 100,000 years

1,200,000 to 700,000 years ago Günz glaciation (Alps). Britain's corresponding Beestonian Stage consists of alternating glacial and interglacial phases. The Beestonian Stage and Marine Isotope Stage 22 ended about 866,000 years ago. (Wikipedia). H.G. Wells calls the "first glacial age"

MIS 22 - 1,030,000 years ago, marking the end of the Bavelian period in Europe. The Leerdam interglacial is located at MIS23 and the Bavelian at MIS25 by Wll Roebroeks and Thijs Van Kolfschoten. They include both in the Bavelian complex. This complex precedes the Cromerian complex.

Antoine in began a chart of regional sequancies with Leerdam followed by the aluvial Somme terrace "Ferme de Grace" (MIS22). The road to Ferme de Grace is in the Renancourt district of Amiens.

Gabriel de Mortillet's classification
# 1,200,000 years ago Zuzana Balàkovà on Antoparkbaby imagines homo erectus entering Europe from the north coast of Africa aross the straights of Gibralter.

Conceptualising pre-historic human time in Europe

In arranging geological strata Alexander Brongniart (1770-1847) proposed that each stratum could be defined by the presence of one or more specific fossils of animals or plants, which he called a fossile caractéristique. In prehistoric archaeology, Mortillet spoke, instead, of a fossile-directeur, which served the same function. The Fossile- directeur was a tool made by humans rather than a biological remain.

En 1861, [Édouard Lartet] propose une chronologie du Quaternaire fondée sur les espèces successives de grands mammifères dominants, à partir desquelles il pensait pouvoir dater les industries lithiques paléolithiques: l'âge de l'ours des cavernes, l'âge de l'éléphant (mammouth) et du rhinocéros laineux, l'âge du renne et l'âge de l'auroch.

Lartet suggested four ages or periods based on associated fauna, to which Felix Garrigou added an earlier Hippopotamus period:

The Hippopotamus period
The Cave Bear period
The Woolly Mammoth and Rhinoceros period
The Reindeer period
The Aurochs or Bison period

In Mortillet's scheme Hippopotamus became Chellean, most of Cave Bear and Mammoth became Mousterian, although some late finds were put in a separate Aurignacian. Reindeer was divided into Solutrean and Magdalenian, and Robenhausian was added for the Neolithic period. (Oscar Abadía 2002)

Names of some periods of the paleolithic as classified by Gabriel de Mortillet. "Mortillet's most successful idea was to define time- periods by their typical stone tools which acted like the fossile directeurs of the geologists". (Aggsbach's Paleolithic Blog)


See eoliths and pre-mode tools

Thenaisienne - Eolithique. Stones "étonnée par le feu". (shaped, cracked into shape, using fire). Named after Thenay in Loire et Cher where, from 1860, Abbé Bourgeois collected objects from Upper Oligocene beds that he suggested to the Congress of Paris in 1867 were man-made. Possible Tertiary man.

Picture 2 is an example shaped by fire. Picture 5 is an example with its edge (bottom) retouched by chipping.

See mode one tools

See Piltdown often considered before Chellean.


Chelléen (Chellean). Term suggested by Ernest d'Acy in 1878, employed by Mortillet in 1883. Named after site at Chelles (Seine-et-Marne, France) (Wikipedia). Henri Breuil proposed replacing by Abbevillien in reference to sites on the haute terrasse de la Somme at Abbeville (Wikipedia), where tools coexist with the fossils of animals from a hot climate such as Elephas antiquus.
# The characteristic tool is often called an axe, but is a hand tool to cut, drill, trim and do everything. Mortillet calls it a coup-de-poing (blow of the fist - punch) or knuckle-fist. The word bifacial was substituted following André Vayson (1920).

Acheuléen (Acheulean), named after a site at Saint-Acheul near Amiens (Somme). A transitonal period with a cooler climate, still dominated by the coup- de-poing, which is refined. The mammoth replaces the elephant as the climate cools

Wikipedia: Acheulean tools are classified as mode two, meaning they are more advanced than the (usually earlier) mode one tools of the Clactonian or Oldowan/Abbevillian [Mortillet's Thenaisienne] industries but lacking the sophistication of the (usually later) mode three tools of the Middle Palaeolithic, exemplified by the Mousterian (below)

See tools

Moustérien (Mousterian). Named after a site at the l'abri supérieur du Moustier à Peyzac-le-Moustier (Dordogne) discovered by Édouard Lartet in 1860. Associated with the great bear of the caves. The Acheulean and Mousterian were both very long periods during which large fluvial (river) alluvium deposits of gravel, sands and silts formed. Their deposits are much more abundant than chelleennes alluvium. The industry gradually changed and eventually was completely transformed. The general purpose tool, though persisting, was increasingly replaced by specialist forms such as the blade, the tip and the scraper.
# Mousterian flint tools in transition to Solutrean

113: a flint pointe.

109 and 110: Two sides of one flint pointe.

116: A double scraper.

111 and 112: two sides of a very large scraper. Lanceolate shape. Montillet notes the care and skill that has gone into shaping each side and comments that "this remarkable instrument approaches solutrean".

114 and 115: two sides of one tool. 114 shows "passage" from a ponte to a scaper. A pointe has been retouched along the length of one side (bottom) "forming a very beautiful scraper". 115 shows a Conchoidal fracture (percusion chonchoid) in the corner.

See mode three tools


# Solutréen (Solutrean) after a site discovered au pied de la Roche de Solutré (Saône-et-Loire) par Henry Testot-Ferry en 1866, which Mortillet visited at his invitation. First part associated with mammoths, second with reindeer. Tool remains include two types of pointes, which, although not abundant, are characteristic. One type is laurel leaf shaped, the other willow leaf with a side notch. Artistic retouching on both faces, at both ends and at the perimeter, distinguishes them from Mousterian pointes. They were made to be emmanchées (mounted, on wood, for example). Later authors agree that the Solutrean represents the pinnacle of working flint and produced arrowheads of a perfection rarely equalled afterwards.

See mode four tools

Magdalénien (Magdalenian). The name of the site of la Madeleine (Dordogne) discovered by Édouard Lartet in 1863. Humans lived in caves for the most part. Asociated with reindeer throughout. Characterised especially by development of instruments in bone and antler. It develops naturally from the Solutrean. Bone objects begin to appear at the end of the Solutrean and finely worked flint pointes are sometimes found in the early Magdalenian. But the use of bone harms the development of flint objects, which are less beautiful.

A dagger carved from reindeer antler. The handle is carved as a reindeer From Laugerie-Basse (Dordogne) (Wikipedia). Museum of Saint-Germain.


[Mesolithic] Term not used on Mortillet's plans. Instead, he added Tourassien to the end of the old stone age and Tardenoisien to the start of the new stone age.

# Tourassien (1872? 1894?) Wikipedia. Term fell into disuse in favour of the Azilien [terme tombé en désuétude au profit d'Azilien]. (Wikipedia)

At the end of the Paleolithic a warmer climate forced reindeer north. Without this "animal heaven" the human populations of Western Europe lived in much more difficult times and (stone) industry declined. The shelter beyond Tourasse, close to Saint-Martory (Haute-Garonne) provides a good set of tools, characterised by harpoons.

Temps actuels = current time

"Sous le nom de temps actuels, on comprend tous ceux qui se sont trouvés dans des conditions de géographie physique, d'hydrographie, de climatologie, de flore et de faune à peu pràs semblables celles de nos jours." (Ascribed to Mortillet - Seems to be an extract from the second edition (Paris 1895) of Alcide Railliet's Traité de zoologie médicale et agricole. Alcide Railliet says that the Neolithic period contains only one time: the Robenhausian. The "gap" between Quaternary and current time is explained by the change from a cold dry climate to a temperate one, which led to the reindeer moving north, followed by the humans who hunted them. The space they left is eventually filled by a new people, bringing their own tools.

Current - Tardenoisien (1897) (Wikipedia) - named after natural French region of Tardenois Wikipedia. Characterised by small flints with geometric shapes. #

After geologic time came the current time, but at the beginning, and for a long time, we are still in the stone age. At this point we call it Neolithic or the new stone age. I begins with an industry characterised by flint instruments which are very small and have geometric shapes. They are in abundance in the Tardenois, Department of the Aisne.

Néolithique (Neolithic)
Period of Pierre polie (polished stone), because it generally polished the most common instrument, the axe. Mortillet counts Tardenoisien and Robenhausian as the two neolithic epochs. He just has one plate for Tardenoisien, but many for Robenhausian.

Robenhausienne (Robenhausian) named after a Swiss Lake Resort, the palafitte of Robenhausen (Wikipedia) on small partly desiccated Lake Pfäffikon, in the canton of Zurich. This important station provided many and interesting information on industry, customs and habits of the men in the end the period of the stone polished. The polishing of stone took especially great development to the robenhausienne time.

Plates with a diverse range of tools. The first plate being hammers or firing pins, "the first of all the tools,.absolutely essential for trimming stone".

# Mortillet says that ("primitive") Pottery, for general use, appeared for the first time in Europe during the Robenhausian, having been completely lacking during the Quaternary. The fist pots ("vases") are crude. (Perhaps?) incompletely fired. Only the surface is reddened by the fire. The interior of the pottery is coloured brown by the charcoal or black of smoke. It is usually mixed with angular fragments of rocks or shells. This mixture intended to give consistency to the clay and to prevent splitting during drying and while cooking. These bottoms of these first pots are rounded, without a flattened foot. To stand upright they would have to be pressed into earth, sand or ash. Side nipples suggest suspension by cords.

Âge; du bronze (bronze age)



Âge; du fer (iron age)






# Mortillet 1883 Le Préhistorioue - Antiquité de L'Homme p.21

A basic binary division is made between "temps geologiques" (geological time) and "temps actuelles" (current time). In geological time is Tertiary and Quaternary, until the start of the Neolithic in current time, which is marked by the polishing of stone tools.

It was considered possible that hunter humans had simply been replaced by other humans who tilled the soil. It has been suggested (seriously?) that a gap between the two might have marked Noah's flood. The search for an alternative, develomental, process led to the two-stage theory becoming a three stage one with a Mesolithic (middle) stage. See Wikipedia

Mortillet's research gap - the missing middle

Mortillet: 16.4.1874 at la Société d'Anthropologie,

Toute la discussion, je crois, repose sur un malentendu. Entre l'époque paléolithique ou des cavernes et l'époque néolithique ou de la pierre polie, il existe un hiatus; mais cet hiatus n'est qu'une simple lacune dans nos connaissances. Il ne représente'pas une véritable lacune dans le temps et dans l'industrie. Certainement l'époque paléolithique a dû se rattacher et se souder à l'époque néolithique; mais nous n'avons pas encore découvert le point de contact. Entre les deux époques, il n'y a pas eu une période où l'Europe était inhabitable; seulement, les restes de l'époque de transition ou de passage n'ont pas encore été trouvés et reconnus. C'est ce qui constitue l'hiatus que nous constatons. Je le répéte, cet hiatus n'est pas réel un existe que dans le résultai de nos études et de nos recherches actuelles. Je devais une explication parce que je suis le principal propagateur de l'idée de l'hiatus. J'ai signalé le fait pour stimuler les recherches et les investigations.

The entire discussion, I believe, is based on a misunderstanding. Between the Paleolithic era or the caves and the time Neolithic or polished stone, there is a hiatus; but this hiatus is just a simple gap in our knowledge. It is not a real gap in time and in the industry. Certainly the Paleolithic era has had to be connected and merge in the Neolithic, but we have yet to discover the point of contact. Between the two eras, there has not been a period where Europe was uninhabitable; only the remains of the epoch of transition or passage have not yet been found and recognized. That is the gap we see. I repeat, this hiatus is not a real one, but exists only in the results of our studies and our current research. I owe this explanation because I am the main propagator of the idea of the hiatus. I pointed out the fact to stimulate research and investigations.

Mesolithic - needed or not needed?

Phillipe Salmon argued for a Campignian Culture (name from Campigny, Seine Inferieure - Wikipedia)) starting before the Robenhausian (1882? 1891?). The Tourassien (later Azilian) may have been suggested in 1894 and the Tardenoisien in 1897. The Tourassien and Tardenoisien industries were collated to form the Mesolithic period, which remained a controversial concept until after the second world war. From the marxist approach of modes of production, the transition from the old stone age to the new was a transition from savagery to barbarism, and a transitional stage was not needed. Gordon Childe wrote that cultivating the soil "was the first step in the neolithic revolution, and suffices to distinguish barbarism from savagery" (1942, p.43)


Musée préhistorique by Gabriel and Adrien de Mortillet. 1903 edition. The major change from the 1883 chart is two transitional epochs between the old and new stone ages.

1,000,000 years ago

about 1,000,000 to 900,000 years ago The "end- Villafranchian" event. A practically total rejuvenation of the fauna of Eurasia, along with new types of adaptation, and changes in climate and vegetation. May have been triggered by tectonic movements in the mountain belts of central and southern Asia. Major reorganization of large-mammal communities within the interval from about 920,000 to 750,000 years ago, which is from the early to middle Galerian mammal age. The bear Ursus dolinensis and the bison, a more evolved form than Bison (Eobison), are taxa typical of the beginning of the Galerian mammal age. Above beds with upper Villafranchian fossils in East Anglia is the Cromer Forest Bed. Early Cromerian and early Galerian may be the same.

Carleton S Coon says his The History of Man begins about 700,000 years ago "at the beginning of the ice age". But he also writes of the "Pleistocene or age of ice" between one million years and 10,000 years ago (8,000BC). His phase one of human history lasted over 650,000 years - over 90% of the time. It was the period of homo erectus (Java, Peking, Olduvai erectus) and Rhodesian that evolved into homo sapiens. , Heidelberg, Swanscombe, Steinheim. Also Neanderthal. See phase 2 and phase 3.

Choppers and flake tools (including scrapers) occur at a number of sites before 1,000,000 years ago. (Gilligan 3.2010) - Scrapers are possibly an indication of work on hides for clothing.

# 1,000,000 to 700,000 years ago Date range for Pithecanthropus erectus (ape-human that stands upright) - Java Man - a fossil skullcap, femur and a tooth discovered by geologist Eugène Dubois in 1891. (Jeremy Norman) - See ape and Haeckel.

See 1900 reconstruction - 1914 reconstruction - by Louis Mascré - Link to display at Natural Science Museum, Leiden - Indonesia

1,000,000 years ago "members of the genus Homo living in Africa ... from which all modern humans evolved ... probably had mostly naked and darkly pigmented skin" (Jablonski 2012)

# Happisburgh - first known settlement in northern Europe

970,000 to 936,000 years ago a prominent warm stage in Britain.

866,000-814,000 years ago a prominent warm stage in Britain. years ago".

Happisburgh: "Site 3 probably dates to one of the prominent warm stages (i.e. those most likely to have supported deciduous forest and other thermophilous plants)". (British Museum) - See British Archaeology January/February 2006

About 80 flint tools

Footprints - Research article: "Hominin Footprints from Early Pleistocene Deposits at Happisburgh, UK" 7.2.2014.

Dates for Cromer Forest Bed: 780,000 to 450,000 years ago? (Wikipedia). Link for West Runton (mammoth and rhino) - See Galerian

The three levels of the Thames Terraces: (gravels black)
# Boyn Gravels (100 feet) contain Chellean and Acheulean tools. 44 feet thick at Swanscombe.

Taplow Gravels (50 feet) contain Mousterian tools.

Flood Plain Gravels (F.P.) are ones younger than the Taplow ones.

The Thames gravels were used to date the Piltdown gravels. As a "missing link" between monkey and man, Piltdown was considered as buried in Boyn level gravels. The gravels he was alleged to have been found in were, in fact, at the younger Taplow level. See Piltdown geology.

The diagram is based on one by Henry Dewey and taken from Wills 1929 p.241.

866,000 to 478,000 years ago or 700,000 to 650,000 years ago: an interglacial period - Called Günz- Mindel - Pre-Illinoian - or Cromerian. Called third interglacial if dating backwards, but H.G. Wells calls the "first interglacial period"
Chellean (Abbevillian) culture in France. The fossil locality of Chilhac three is known for a rich Villafranchian fauna (Boeuf 1983) ...... thought to represent the earliest stage named Chellean (De Mortillet 1883). See Wikipedia. Possible fauna: Etruscan rhinoceros - Hippopotamus - Primitive horse - Sabre tooth tiger - Broad nosed rhinoceros - Straight tusked elephant - Giant beaver - Short faced hyena - Deer - Bison - Wild Cattle.

"With extreme cold glacial times following the Cromerian, the European Hippopotamus moved out of Britain, never to return. It would be another 250,000 years before a hippopotamus were to waddle into Britain again." (Jan Freedman)

Cromerian interglacials starting 563,000 years ago (MIS15) - 533,000 years ago (MIS14) - 478,000 years ago (MIS13)

"Prior to the Cromerian age the fossils are African" "Australopithecus" - Then "hominids are found in Asia and Europe as well - the volcanic strata of Java and the fossil beds near Peking and Heidelberg being good examples. These fossils have recently been grouped as Homo erectus". (Larousse Prehistoric 1957-1962).

Piltdown Man in context 1912 - 1953 - 1954
# A 1934 Encyclopedia says that the Piltdown remains "are usually attributed to the third inter-glacial period, but may be considerably older"

The section from table 28 of The Earliest Englishman (1948) shows Piltdown Man as the earliest "species of man in western Europe".

The "earliest Englishman" was a fraud. Swanscombe woman is genuine.

Other finds were said to "show that the following animals lived in this part of the Wealden country when Piltdown Man was here: Giant Elephant (probably
Elephas antiquus). Horse (Equus caballus). Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). Beaver (Castor fiber). To these may be added the following from Eastbourne:- Small-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros hemitarchus *). Giant Irish Deer (Megaceros hibernicus ). Bison (Bison priscus). The country must have been well wooded, and watered by rivers which were often bounded by swamps. The climate could not have been very different from that of the present day, only perhaps with heavier rain. It was indeed a truly mild episode in the Great Ice Age, and the occurrence of the hippopotamus with the giant forest elephant confirms the supposition that this was the earliest break in the Arctic record. The Piltdown gravel is therefore shown to belong to the early part of the Pleistocene period." (pages 35-36)

* Stephanorhinus hemitoechus - Dicerorhinus hemitoechus - Rhinoceros hemitoechus

The geology of Piltdown, in the Weald of East Sussex: The area is one of "Tunbridge Wells Sand" from the cretaceous period. However, in places, there are shallow surface deposits of gravel. These deposits were not shown on the geological maps until after the first world war. Workman repairing roads excavated them, however, and are said to have provided Charles Dawson with his first scull fragment in 1908.
The strata at Piltdown.

1. 35 centimeters (14 inches) of surface soil

2. A few centimters to a meter (3.3 feet) of pale yellow gravel

3. 50 centimeters (20 inches) of dark gravel in which fossil were "found"

4. 25 centimeters (10 inches) of gravel without fossils

5. Tunbridge Wells Sand (Cretaceous)

Francis H. Edmunds mapped the Piltdown gravel in 1925. He found it correlated with the Thames Taplow gravels, much younger than the Swanscombe terrace deposits.

Leonard Wills' 1929 list of recognised "cultural stages" begins with the Lower Paleolithic or river-drift race. Another source tells us river drift included the Piltdown skull and the Trinil and Heidelberg remains. It was related to the Strepean, Chellean and Acheulean ages. "Chellean man lived in the open in a warm, probably interglacial climate" (Wills 1929 p.248).

River man was followed by Middle Paleolithic or older cave man - Upper Paleolithic or newer cave man - and then Post-Glacial man.

Another account has some Piltdown men (I)Eoanthropus (Eolithic culture) about 1,000,000 years ago probably living in "the valley of the early post-Pliocene Thames". An Ice Age started and then men of the Old Stone Age appeared in the lower part of the valley at least 500,000 years ago. These included both "Chellean and Acheulean Paleolithic cultures". The use of stone tools probably began about 500,000 years ago. Chellean man developed stone tools for about 200,000 years.

about 781,000 to 126,000 years ago (655.000 years): Middle Pleistocene or Ionian stage. See Mid Pleistocene Transition

"toolmakers graduated from the chopping tools to... a handaxe, made of quartzite or flint" (Coon, p.75).

During cold periods towards the end of the Middle Pleistocene, proliferation of scraper tools in the "cooler climatic zones occupied by hominins, facilitated the manufacture of simple clothing. (See below) (Gilligan 1.2010 and 3.2010)

about 750,000 years ago A date for Peking Man (BBC - Wikipedia: Peking Man - Zhoukoudian caves - "a tool-maker, killed and devoured his fellow beings and even knew the use of fire" ( Schenk, G. 1961, p.75)

Creationist criticism on Jesus, dinosaurs and more" includes criticism of the fire hypothesis and the cannibalism claim

MIS 17 - 712,000 years ago

# about 700,000 years ago

Nature 15.12.2005. The scraper on the cover was one of 32 worked flints found in "a clearly datable stratigraphic context" in the "Cromer Forest-bed Formation" at Pakefield, Suffolk, in Britain. Nature summary - BBC - The Guardian

MIS 16 - 676,000 years ago

MIS 15 - 621,000 years ago
# The Somme valley in northern France is developed on an Upper Cretaceous Chalk bedrock (continuous with that under the Thames) and has has terrace system in its middle part (about 70 km long). Between Amiens and Abbeville, ten stepped alluvial formations (nappes alluviales) have been described.
Map extract from Pleistocene fluvial terraces from northern France (Seine, Yonne, Somme): synthesis, and new results from interglacial deposits, by Antoine and others 2007.
# In the area of Amiens, the river terraces tiered system of Somme includes ten fossil alluvial the oldest (the highest) was set up there more than a million years. Numbered from the most recent to the oldest,

The upper terrace (Nappe de Grâce) weathered to red on the surface, may be attributed to the Older Mindel phase. These deposits are generally decalcified, with little wildlife, except at Abbeville.

Table from Le système de terrasses du Bassin de la Somme... by Pierre Antoine. Quaternaire Année 1993 Volume 4 Numéro 1 pp. 3-16. See also his thesis: Les terrasses quaternaires du bassin de la somme. ... Thèse, Université des Sciences et Techniques de Lille Flandres-Artois, 1989. (offline) - and Paléoenvironnements pléistocènes et peuplements paléolithiques dans le bassin de la Somme 2003.

in Abbeville (Carrière Carpentier), where mammal assemblages show that calcareous fluvial deposits have been deposited in an interglacial environment. On the basis of terrace stratigraphy, ESR-quartz dating, and biostratigraphic data, these fluvial deposits are allocated to MIS 15. Handaxes discovered at the base of the slope deposits, directly overlying the fluvial sequence, can be, as a first hypothesis, allocated to MIS 14. They are thus due to Homo heidelbergensis according to the age of the eponymous Mauer site in Germany. Consequently, in the state of knowledge, the "Rue du Manège" and Carrière Carpentier findings represent the oldest in situ evidence of the hominid occupation in the terrace record of Northern France. Dating the earliest human occupation of Western Europe: New evidence from the fluvial terrace system of the Somme basin (Northern France) by Pierre Antoine, Emmanuelle Stoetzel and others 2015.

about 600,000 years ago The Heidelberg jaw discovered in 1907.

about 600,000 years ago First human settlements at Stránská Rock, Brno, Moravia. Further settlements between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago. (Wikiedia) See Bohunician.

MIS 14 - 563,000 years ago

550,000 years ago Possible date for earliest Somme valley Acheulean remains (see below)

MIS 13 - 533,000 years ago

About 500,000 years ago 2003 estimate of earliest known Acheulean localities from South Asia. Persisted in peninsular India until about 125,000 years ago (possibly longer), before yielding to Middle Paleolithic flake-dominated assemblages. Parth R. Chauhan 2003

About 500,000 years ago Flints and a hominid tibia from Eartham Pit. Boxgrove, Sussex in Britain.

500,000 to 450,000 years ago Earliest human occupation in Somme Valley according to Antoine 2003 who says they already represented well developed Acheulean industries (about the start of MIS 12 according to modern excavations)

478,000 to 424,000 years ago Mindel glaciation - Anglian in UK - MIS 12 - "The Anglian Stage and Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 12 started about 478,000 years ago and ended about 424,000 years ago." The most extreme ice age during the last 2 million years. In Britain the ice sheet reached Hornchurch in north-east London" (Wikipedia). Equated with the Elster glaciation of northern Germany, but dates given are very different. H.G. Wells calls the "second glacial age"

Quarry of Menchecourt at Abbeville (where Boucher de Perthes recovered antediluvian antiquities.

In the Somme terraces system in situ Acheulean settlements where dated to early MIS 12 at about 450,000 years ago in the 1990s, but new field discoveries allow to increase significantly the age of the oldest human occupation (Early Middle Pleistocene). The first one (Amiens "Rue du Manège" 2007) is dated at about 550,000 years ago using ESR and terrace stratigraphy. (Antoine, Stoetzel and others 2015).

The Abbevillian type site is on the 150-foot [45.72 meters] terrace of the River Somme. Tools found there are rough chipped bifacial handaxes made during the Elsterian Stage of the Pleistocene Ice Age, which covered central Europe between 478,000 and 424,000 years ago. (Wikipedia). See Mortillet

The Carrière de Menchecourt à Abbeville (Quarry of Menchecourt at Abbeville), Rue de Haut 80100 Abbeville, France, in the grounds of what was the Maison du Temple à Abbeville (House of the Templers at Abbeville) was made an historical monument on 1.12.1983. (See also)

See Chelles

Marcel-Jérôme Rigollot inspected the Abbeville finds and Menchecourt quarry in 1853, and made similar finds at Saint-Acheul in 1854. See Mortillet

See Jardin archéologique de Saint- Acheul - Archeological Travel - Le-Musee-Boucher-de-Perthes

424,000 to 374,000 years ago [Marine Isotope Stage 11] or 300,000 to 250,000 years ago: an interglacial period - Called , Mindel-Riss, Pre-Illinoian, Holstein and Hoxnian. Called second interglacial if dating backwards and by H.G. Wells.

Boyn Hill Thames Terrace deposits . Sand and gravel deposits underneath Swanscombe were laid down between 425,000 and 350,000BC by an ancient course of the Thames, (Swanscombe Heritage Park) - Swanscombe woman and Steinheim (man?)

Swanscombe Animals: lion, straight tusked elephant - rhinoceroses - giant deer - mice - bats - water voles - reptiles - fish - molluscs - A climate slightly warmer than the present day.

MIS 11 424,000 years ago - Hoxnian Stage in Britain.

"Differentiating the two interglacials MIS 11 and 9 is not always possible, as they were short and sometimes shared common climatic and environmental features. MIS 10 is also considered to be short and is not always preserved in the sedimentological record." (Aggsbach's Paleolithic Blog)

The Clactonian is the name given to an industry of European flint tool manufacture that dates to the early part of the Hoxnian interglacial.

a tufa deposit located at the top of a Middle Pleistocene fluvial sequence... correlation of the Saint-Acheul assemblage with malacofaunas recovered in other MIS 11 tufa deposits from the Somme and Seine valleys.... reappraisal of these French molluscan assemblages shows that they are similar to British malacofaunas of Hoxnian age. These new results strengthen the uniqueness and biostratigraphical value of the 'Lyrodiscus assemblage'. (N. Limondin-Lozouet and P. Antoine 2006, "A new Lyrodiscus (Mollusca, Gastropoda) assemblage from Saint-Acheul (Somme Valley): a reappraisal of MIS 11 malacofaunas from northern France". Boreas, 35: pp 622-633). See also - and

400,000 years ago Common ancestors of neanderthal humans and homo erectus began separation. Neanderthal developed in Europe and homo erectus in Africa.

The picture shows a racial depiction of the separation in a 1950s Children's Encyclopedia. The separation of "ape men" from "true men" is shown as equivalent to, or greater than, that separating humans from gorillas and chimpanzees. True men then divide into two distinct lines - black (negro - negroid - australoid) and white (european - mongoloid). This distinction is shown as equivalent to that between orang-utangs and gorillas.

A group of individuals that actually or potentially interbreed in nature is considered the same species, however different appearances. See early human gene exchange.

about 400,000 years ago scullcap discovered in Olduvai Gorge by Lewis Leakey in 1960. Coon classifies as homo erectus.

400,000? years ago First use of fire See trees.

about 400,000 years ago Swanscombe woman lived and died in Kent, Britain. Charcoal may indicate fire. Before the Boxgrove tibia, her remains were the earliest in what became Britain. See Britain an island. She lived during the MIS 11 interglacial, near the start of the Aurelian mammal age.

Argued to have a lower Clactonian strata below an Acheulean culture. One of the richest Pleistocene vertebrate localities in Britain, and by far the richest locality attributable to the Hoxnian Interglacial.

About 400,000 to 380,000 years ago Wooden spears made of spruce of from an ancient lakeshore hunting ground. Found in a coal mine in Shöningen, near Hanover, Germany in 1997.

374,000 years ago: MIS 10

about 370,000 years ago Bilzingsleben site in Germany. In the 1970s Dietrich Mania excavated "three round ground plans of dwellings with hearths by their entrances". (Antropark). He "found large stones arranged in a circular manner. He thought that it probably was a base for a dwelling. However, ring-center analysis showed that the site was an open air site. C. Gamble proposed that humans congregated at the site around the fire". Stone chopping tools of small size, mainly flint. Numerous bone tools include hoes, scrapers, point and gougers. Some hoes made of antler or ivory. Some wooden artefacts preserved. (Wikipedia)

Sewing The burin, a stone chisel that could shape bone, was rare before the Upper Paleolithic. Instead of bone awls, the Antropark website suggests, people made holes in leather using wooden awls made of dry yew and sewed with sinews. "Another possibility was to cut narrow stripes and to make small holes in those parts of leather one wanted to join using a minor flake. The holes were cleaned using a sharp piece of wood. The stripes were then pushed through the holes and parts of leather were sewn together in this way."

Antropark reconstructions. People said to be homo erectus - Acheulean tool industry.

350,000 to 250,000 years ago Steinheim skull

# In 1999, Ireland celebrated four extinct residents: the brown bear (not cave bear), the mammoth, the wolf and the Irish elk. The stamps and the animals are discussed on Megaloceros, the Irish elk, represents the Quaternay in the 1854 Sydenham display

350,000 to 13,000 years ago Aurelian Mammal Age. (after Via Aurelia, north east of Rome). Start indicated by the Irish elk (Megaloceros giganteus), the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus), and grey wolf (Canis lupus). Few "archaic carnivores survived the transition to the Aurelian ELMA, roughly around the beginning of MIS 9" about 333,000 years ago. (Steven Churchill 2014). MIS 9 - 337,000 years ago. Informally called the Purfleet Interglacial Wikipedia). See GeoEssex

300,000 years ago "Cave bears inhabited caves in Europe throughout the Pleistocene, from about 300,000 to 15,000 BC, disappearing by the end of the last ice age. Their population seems to have diminished upon the arrival of Cro-magnon in Europe" "Most cave bears seem to have died off well before the Weichselian glaciation". (Cave Bears) - See cave Chauvet and Édouard Lartet's age of

Middle Paleolithic 300,000 to 30,000 years ago

300,000 years ago In the mont Châlat area of Chelles a settlement of people whose flint tools were discovered in 1874. Near Lauchonia sylva (forest) and the river Marne. See flint biface in Musée départemental de Préhistoire d'île-de-France, Nemours, from the collection of local prehistorian Edmond Edmee Doigneau (23.9.1825-4.5.1891). See Mortillet

300,000 to 125,000 years ago Rhodesian man - See 1921 and 1950s reconstruction and Heidelberg.

250,000 to 120,000 years ago Riss glaciation

Penultimate Ice Age. H.G. Wells calls the "third glacial age"

Early blade tools in Europe date from the penultimate ice age

The Riss is paralleled by MIS 6, 8 and 10, which would therefore place it about 350,000 and 120,000 years ago (Wikipedia)

MIS 8: Somme level three: Argoeuves. 300,000 to 250,000 years ago lavalloisian

250,000 to 200,000 years ago First "true" Neanderthals (Whatever that means)

# "Most of the Mousterian as well as the upper Paleolithic cultures seem to have coincided with one of the Glacial episodes when man dwelt chiefly in caves" (Wills 1929 p.248). "The cave bears were old tenants with long existing rights. But the Mousterian hunters had... the courage of despair. They must be housed or perish" (Rushton Hall 1928/1930 p.80)

220,000 to 40,000 years ago Mousterian on Antroparkbaby. Mode three tools. Based on Molodova - Ukraine. Tool culture named after Le Moustier. Associated primarily with Homo neanderthalensis. Wikipedia dates Mousterian from 160,000 years ago - See Mortillet classification

# Mode three tools: Flake tools struck from prepared cores, with an overlapping sequence of flake removal (sometimes referred to as façonnage) system - including the Levallois technology, See Archaic Human Culture by Dennis O'Neil and Making Flint Tools by Don Hitchcock.

The picture, from Noël-Hume (1953), shows a core culture axe at the top and then a flake point. Technology moved its emphasis from fashioning cores to fashioning flakes.

sapiens: the wise, discerning, thinking

200,000 years ago "It is most likely that modern Homo sapiens born 200,000 thousand years ago, somewhere in Eastern (Central) Africa" (Dates in the history of biology) (I have assumed it means 200,000)

The first anatomically modern human fossils date back 195,000 years. Geneticists argue that almost all living men gained their Y chromosome from a common male ancestor living between 140,000 and 60,000 years ago. (New Scientist)

"Since the earliest appearance of modern humans more than 150,000 years ago during the Pleistocene (Ice Age), people had always relied on hunting herds of wild animals, fishing, and gathering wild plants to feed themselves... All human groups during the Paleolithic ("Old Stone") period during the Ice Age were nomadic hunters and gatherers." (Gil Stein)

190,000 to 50,000 years ago Range of stone tools discovered alongside homo floresiensis the dragon island Flores in Indonesia. (Wikipedia)

From about 180,000 to about 60,000 years ago: no evidence of human occupation in Britain, Wikipedia: Prehistoric Britain

160,000 years ago

Between 130,000 and 114,000 years ago, the ice retreated during the Eemian interglacial - and then advanced again to create the glacial that most people know as "the ice age". (New Scientist 24.5.2010).     Riss- Würm. Corresponds to Marine Isotope Stage 5e. Called first interglacial if dating backwards, but H.G. Wells calls the "third interglacial period" The Taplow Terrace dates to the rise of the sea in this interglacial.
# At the peak, Northern Hemisphere winters were generally warmer and wetter than now. The hippopotamus was distributed as far north as the rivers Rhine and Thames. (Wikipedia) - and further north:

Bones from a hippopotamus, and some from rhinoceros and elephant, were dug up in Derby in 1895. They are now in the Derybshire Museum's new nature gallery

121,000 years ago ± 4000 years: uranium-thorium dating of Calcite deposits overlying the bone-bearing sediments in the Kirkdale Cave.

MIS 5: 130,000 to 71,000 years ago.
MIS 5e - 123,000 years ago. (Eemian or Ipswichian)
MIS 5d - 109,000 years ago.
MIS 5c - 96,000 years ago.
MIS 5b - 87,000 years ago.
MIS 5a - 82,000 years ago.

According to Unwritten History, Dawn man developed into river drift man. River drift man began in the warmer climates that supported rhinoceros, hippopotamus and straight tusked elephants in Britain. In the succeeding cold period, river drift man developed into cave man

A large number of sites in Britain are attributed to Marine Isotope Stage 5e, mainly on the basis of hippopotumus remains. None show signs of humans. See Nick Ashton

In Britain Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus is often found in association with remains of hippopotamus in early Last Interglacial deposits (OIS substage 5e), about 125,000 years old. (Natural History Museum)

Harry William Whanslaw's picture (1934) shows "river-drift men" hunting the "straight-tusked elephant of prehistoric time". A specimen from Upnor, near Chatham, Kent, was mounted at the Bitish Museum of Natural History in 1926.


about 126,000 to 11,700 years ago Late Pleistocene or Tarantian geological stage. Strata start with sediments laid down at the start of the Eemian interglacial and include the subsequent ice age. Archaeological remains include scrapers, blades, awls and adornment. Industries with blades and awls accompany humans into colder zones. Signs of modern human behaviour. (Gilligan 3.2010)

125,000 years ago

Modern humans, Homo sapiens, evolved in Africa up to 200,000 years ago and reached the Near East around 125,000 years ago.
An attempt to depict migrations from Madison Coonan's website
From the Near East, these populations spread east to South Asia by 50,000 years ago, and on to Australia by 40,000 years ago, when for the first time H. sapiens reached territory never reached by H. erectus.
H. sapiens reached Europe around 40,000 years ago, eventually replacing the Neanderthal population. East Asia was reached by 30,000 years ago. (Wikipedia)

110,000 to 12,000 years ago - The last glacial period - Weichselian glaciation. Frequently just called the Ice Age. H.G. Wells calls the "fourth and last glacial period"
last 100,000 years of the Pleistocene
See maximum.

100,000 years ago Noam Chomsky's date for the chance mutation that he considers made the sudden appearance of language possible.

100,000 years ago Blombos Cave, South Africa, tools for making ochre paint. (BBC) - Wikipedia Blombos Cave

100,000 to 90,000 years ago With the last Ice Age, there developed the more-or-less continuous use of clothing. This was partly because cold promoted the replacement of simple clothing (draped loosely over the body) by complex clothing (shaped to fit body and limbs). This acquired psychosocial functions that have helped to maintain its continuing use up to the present. (Gilligan 1.2010 and 3.2010)

80,000 years ago "Climate Change May Have Spurred Early Human Migration"

70,000 years ago A possible date for the "Python Cave" evidence of ritual in the Tsodilo Hills of Botswana that some suggest is the first evidence of religion. (National Geographic report). Bone tools in Blombos Cave, South Africa, indicate "modern" behaviour in humans. (National Geographic report)

# Modern humans began living above the tropics more than 60,000 years ago.
Jablonski 2012 relates this, and later movement, to survival value from light skin.

#LaChapelle1908 about 60,000 years ago The old man of La Chapelle buried. the first relatively complete Neanderthal skeleton unearthed in France.

The picture is a Musée de l'Homme de Neandertal reconstruction of the grave. The bones were visually reassembled as a skeleton, which gave the basis for an artist's impression.

50,000 to 10,000 years ago Upper Paleolithic (Wikipedia)

"Blades became the favored technology... although they are occasionally found in earlier periods" (Wikipedia blade). Stone burins (French for engraving tools) or chisels were developed for carving ivory, bone and antler into spears, harpoons, throwers, and portable art like figurines. See Gravettian pictures

See Epipaleolithic and Mesolithic

Around 50,000BC years ago, Carleton S Coon "places the emergence of Homo sapiens ... equipped with weapons and clothes ... spread across the earth, accompanied by his new ally, the dog. (blurb). See phase 2. blade - burin - harpoon head - needle - fur garment - spear-thrower - bow .   See polished stone axe

There seems to be more ideology than science in the distinction between "homo sapiens" and "homo neanderthalensis". [See common ancestor and age of true Neanderthal and La Chapelle and exit]

about 48,000 years ago Bohunician "artifact assemblages". Named after Brno. Arguably first presence of Homo sapiens in Europe.

about 45,000 years ago Age of fossilised skull of Homo neanderthalensis discovered at Le Moustier, France, in 1908. The site consists of two rock shelters. - Wikipedia. It has given its name to the Mousterian tool culture.

about 45,000 to 40,000 years ago: 5,000 years of possible Neanderthal and "modern" human co-existence. See Nature 21.8.2014

45,000 to 43,000 years ago "Modern humans' ancestors first reached Europe". Dated remains in Italy and Britain. "Into this environment came the dog". Wikipedia article on dog. Dog like skull 36,000 years ago, remains near humans 17,000 to 16,000 years ago. Wolf or dog drawing 19,000 years ago . Also later estimates.

The European Music Archaeology Project (EMAP) "travelled in time" from about 40,000 B.C. to the great classical civilisations. Rupert Till's "Soundgate app" modelled sound and sight of the Altamira cave - Stonehenge and the Paphos Theatre in Cyprus. See Songs of the Caves - initial report

about 40,000 years ago Age of Feldhofer 1 or Neanderthal 1 discovered in the Neandertal valley in Germany in August 1856 (See 1858). Wikipedia: Neanderthal 1

# Modern humans began living above 50 degrees north about 40,000 years ago.
Jablonski 2012

Prehistoric imagination, art and craft

# Maxime Aubert of Griffith University, Australia, looks at Indonesian Cave Art on the island of Sulawesi. He has dated art in this group to 40,000 years ago leading to it being described as the world's oldest cave art - See Matthew MacEgan - Nature - National Geographic - BBC dating the region -

Ice Age art arrival of the modern mind (2013 exhibition at the British Museum) "Ice Age art was created between 40,000 and 10,000 years ago and many of the pieces are made of mammoth ivory and reindeer antler

Édouard Piette (1827-1906) used the term glyptic for the period of carved figures. In the eburnien (ivory) period he decided (from analysis of carved figures) that two races existed: a hairy and a hairless race or a fat (steatopygous) race and a not fat (asteatogenous) race. The fat race became associated with the idea of people of African appearance (but hairy) living in Europe, and producing fat Venuses, who were dominated by another race - less hairy and thinner, Cro-Magnons.

Between 38,000 and 29,000 years ago Aurignacian
Named after the
cave of Aurignac

Mode four tools: "Punch struck blades with steep retouch" (Clark). A core stone is prepared from which blades are struck and then retouched into various specialized forms such as scrapers, burins, backed blades and points. See pictures

about 40,000 years ago Löwenmensch figurine - 1939: "Im Hohlensteinmassiv wurde die Figur des Löwenmenschen gefunden. Die Höhle ist im hinteren Teil verschlossen". (Art News 2013

The photograph is from the website of (Cycle tours Germany). It shows The figure of the lion human, an ivory carving from the tusk of a mammoth displayed in the Museum of Ulm. The same page shows caves where figures have been discovered. - Cycle tour guide archive)

37,000 to 29,000 years ago Radiocarbon dating of cave bear remains from cave Chauvet. - About 36,000 years ago Cave paintings of the cave Chauvet. (Wikipedia). Include cave bears. (picture) - See New Scientist 2011


40,000 to 35,000 years ago Venus of Hohle Fels figurine. Discovered in 2008 in the Hohle Fels cave in Germany. The figurine is tiny (6 centimetres). A nearby discovery was a 20 centimetre long vulture's bone flute with four holes and a V- shaped mouthpiece. See Divje Bab eflute

36,000 years ago Goyet Cave, Samson River Valley, Belgium Dog-like skull

36,000 years ago A date for the Man of Spy - Homme de Spy - Mens van Spy. Discovered 1886. See Espace de l'Homme de Spy

About 35,000 years ago, Carleton S Coon begins his "second phase of history" "the skilled hunter and healer", when "man covers the face of the earth". Ending "about 7000BC with the invention of agricuture". See 50,000BC and phase 3

# "thirty or thirty-five thousand years ago as the climate grew warmer" a "more intelligent" race "ousted the Neanderthalers from their caves ... they hunted the same food; they probably made war upon their grisly predecessors and killed them off" (H.G. Wells 1922. Drawing inspiration from Rutot and Mascré).

Rutot called the new race Paleolithic and argued that it enslaved the Neandethals.

The end of the Mousterian has now been pushed back to about 40,000 years ago. See co-existence.

35,000 to 11,500 years ago mammoths in prehistoric art

around 35,000 years ago The development of the needle. See sewing - 22,000 years ago - clothing remains - manufacture - needle lost - needlework 1840 - sewing machine 1917 -

About 35,000 years ago First human occupation of the Grotte d'Aurignac (Cave of Aurignac). Remains also show occupation by wild animals: 10 herbivores include horse (Equus caballus), aurochs (Bos primigenius/Bison europceus), rhinoceros (Rhinoceros tichorhinus), mammoth, stag (Cervus elaphus), elk (Megaceros hibernicus), roebuck (Cervus capreolus), reindeer (Cervus/Rangifer tarandus), and pig (Sus scrofa). Carnivores included cave-bear (Ursus spelceus), brown bear (Ursus arctos?), badger (Meles taxus), polecat (Putorius vulgaris), cave hyaena (crocuta spelae), cave- lion (Felis spelcea), wild cat (Felis catus ferus), wolf (Canis lupus), and fox (Canis vulpis). The oldest layer of the cave is later than the Acheulean (1,700,000 to 300,000 years ago), but before the Solutrean (approximately 22,000 to 17,000 before present), thus defining a new prehistoric culture, the Aurignacian (approximately 39,000 to 28,000 before present), the first culture of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe.

34,000 to 24,000 years ago "With the exception of dwarfed island descendants in the Mediterranean, the expansion of cold grasslands and the contraction of forests drove Palaeoloxodon to extinction" in Europe. (National Geographic - Wikipedia)

About 30,000 years ago, modern homo sapiens entirely replaced earlier man-like forms. Weapons and tools of flint and bone survive along with female carved stone figures with exaggerated sexual features, suggesting fertility symbols and magical ceremonies.

Mentone caves. "Grimaldi Man" "The three best-known skeletons (4,5,6) may have been burials from an early Upper Paleolithic (Aurignacian or Gravettian) level into a sterile layer that may represent an interstadial period. This last level immediately succeeds the latest Mousterian horizon in the cave." (source)

A 1934 Encyclopedia contrasts the "Grimalid Race" remains, which are of "a Negroid type" with "Cro-magnon remains" at a higher level in the Mentone caves.

Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33,000 and 26,500 years ago. (Peter Clark and others Science 7.8.2009). MIS 2: 29,000 years ago (near Last Glacial Maximum)

30,000 years ago Gravettian on Antroparkbaby, which calls it "the biggest and the longest continued civilisation of the modern man". Based on Pavlovian culture. Probably Dolni Vestonice

# 29,000 to 22,000 years ago: Gravettian toolmaking culture Named after La Gravette in the Dordogne region of France. (Don's maps). Toolmaking culture most closely associated with Venus figurines.

Above: Four views of the same blade (lame) in the Muséum de Toulouse. The blade is 5.6 centimeters (2.2. inches) long. It was found in a Gravettian strata at Brassempouy

Right: Four views of one burin, 5.9 centmeters (2.33 inches) long. (Wikipedia)


29,000 to 25,000 years ago. Pavlovian culture [a variant of the Gravettian] existed in the region of Moravia, northern Austria and southern Poland. See Antropark - archive

28,000 years ago age of Cro-Magnon cave people: Louis Lartet Lartet discovered the first five skeletons in the Abri de Cro-Magnon in March 1868. "These Cro-magnon humans were soon identified as a new prehistoric human race distinct from the Neanderthal fossils discovered in Germany in 1856". (source). A 1934 Encyclopedia focuses on the Mentone caves (Italy) rather than France, contrasting Cromagnon with Grimaldi man:
"It ws not until the opening-up of the Mentone caves that our direct ancestors were found... early representatives of Homo sapiens... named the Cro-magnon Race".
and saying "These men men were the pre-historic artists and mystics", speaking the possibilities of "a great beyond" in the "cults of nutrition, death and motherhood" revealed by cave drawings.

A 1952 Pictorial Encyclopedia mentions cave painting and tools and says:
# Peking - Piltdown - Neanderthal - Cromagnon. "... only homo sapiens, able to adapt... survived"

Nearly all ice sheets were at their Last Glacial Maximum positions from 26,500 to 20,000 to 19,000 years ago

26,000 years ago

The mammoth hunter of Dolni Vestonice

# Head carved from mammoth ivory showing a person with an asymmetrical face, found in Dolni Vestonice, Southern Moravia. It is a face:

"finely strung, lively, sympathetic and also suffering, a being which stood facing the world devout, pure and humble. This picture...has all the characteristics of human elevation. Everything points to the Ice Age hunter having depicted himself". ( Schenk, G. 1961 , p.127)

First thought to depict a man, it is now known as Venus XV and the consensus seems to be that it depicts the woman who made the ceramic figures from Dolni Vestonice]

about 25,000 years ago La Dame à la capuche (lady in a hood) carved in ivory. Discovered in 1894 in La grotte du Pape at Brassempouy in France by Édouard Piette. Also known as the Venus of Brassempouy. Acquisition number MAN 47 019. Maximum dimension 3.6 centimetres (1.4 inches).

See Randall White (2006) "The Women of Brassempouy" - Karen Jennett (2008) "Female Figurines of the Upper Paleolithic" - "The Venus Cult" (based on The Urantia Book)


# about 25,000 years ago Venus of Laussel discovered in 1911 in the Grand Abri de Laussel, Dordogne, France

A photograph of the original, which is in the Musée d'Aquitaine, Bordeaux, and clay reconstruction of 1914.

about 24,000 years ago European "cave bear" (Ursus spelaeus) became extinct.

Wikipedia on Pleistocene extinctions: - Across Eurasia, the straight-tusked elephant became extinct between 100,000-50,000 years ago. The hippopotamus, interglacial rhinoceros (Stephanorhinus), cave bear (Ursus spelaeus), and heavy-bodied Asian antelope (Spirocerus) died out between 50,000- 16,000 years ago. The spotted hyena, woolly rhinoceros and mammoths died out between 16,000- 11,500 years ago. The musk ox died out later, as did the giant deer (Megaloceros) with the last pocket having survived until about 7,700 years ago in western Siberia. A pocket of mammoths survived on Wrangel Island until 4,500 years ago. - See Édouard Lartet

about 22,300 years ago Kostenki I (Polyakov site) prehistoric settlement in the watershed of the river Don in central Russia. Excavation begun by I. S. Polyakov in 1879. See "Palaeolithic Art from the Danube to Lake Baikal" by Väino Poikalainen in Folklore volume 18 2001 and Kostenki Paleolithic site on the Don River

Flint points from Kostenki-I have use-wear traces of hide-working at their tips indicating they were used as awls. (Gilligan 3.2010)

22,000 to 17,000 years ago: Solutrean

a mammoth and racing animal [reindeer] time (eburnien and tarandien) ... a horse, mammoth and racing animal time (liquidien, eburnien and tarandien) ... a Solutrien and Magdalenian time ... or a mild weather open sky and cold cave living time... Von H. Behlen in Haiger. (1907?) "Der diluviale (paläolithische) Mensch in Europa". [The diluvial (Paleolithic) humans in Europe]. (Internet Library). Ebur: Latin ivory. Reindeer in Latin: rene, onis, or tarendus

Eyed needles from the Solutrean (dating to MIS 2) at Grotte de Jouclas. France (Gilligan 3.2010). Marine Isotope 2 began 29,000 years ago near the Last Glacial Maximum. (Wikipedia)

22,000 years ago

# The Venus of Willendorf was found in Austria in 1908. It is thought to be a carving of a woman, without facial features, fat, with pendulous breasts and a huge, perhaps pregnant, belly. Many figures with similar characteristics have been found from Russia to France

Interpretations of Stone Age Art

Wikipedia - Christopher Witcombe

20,000 to 19,000 years ago start of the Northern Hemisphere deglaciation. (Source of an abrupt rise in sea level)

20,000 years ago

20,000 years ago to about 10,500 years ago Epipaleolithic or Levant Mesolithic. The Levant is the eastern end of the Mediterranean: modern Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. See The Mesolithic (EpiPaleolithic) of the Levant The "most diagnostic archaeological feature" of the mesolithic "was a chipped stone industry characterised by microlithic tools". [Mode five tools]. See microlith technology. Levant Mesolithic sites were first discovered in Palestine. The earliest group of these sites was called Kebaran. ( (Wikipedia)). The second phase was called Natufian.

See European Mesolithic for pictures of tools including a microlith.

Mode five tools: Retouched microliths and other retouched components of composite tools - Middle Stone Age toolkits included points, which could be hafted on to shafts to make spears; stone awls, which could have been used to perforate hides; and scrapers that were useful in preparing hide, wood, and other materials. (Smithsonian) - But see Bilzingsleben and Late Pleistocene - Kostenki one

19,400 years ago Ohalo village of six circular brushwood huts on the shore of the sea of Galilee in Palestine. Wikipedia - Ohalo to   Jericho

19,000 years ago wolf-like canid drawing, Font-de-Gaume, France.

By radiocarbon analysis charcoal and bone proteins associated with pottery fragments in strata at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China, it has been possible to "securely date" the pottery to "18,300 to 17,500" years ago. The cave was occupied from around 18,000 to 14,000 years ago. (Elisabetta Boaretto and others, 1.6.2009). Pottery "may be the oldest known to science". (BBC News 1.6.2009). "The Yuchanyan pot is oldest known clay vessel". History of "firing clay and making figurines" is "twice as long as vessel making". See ceramic objects from Dolni Vestonice. See clay and settlements and Robenhausian.

18,000 years ago

17,000 years ago is 15,000 BC

17,000 to 12,000 years ago Darren Brewer's events in science and history begins between 15,000 and 10,000 BC with the world warming up from the ice age and people painting in caves. This corresponds with the five thousand year Âge du renne (age of the reindeer). Name given to the final phase of the European Upper Paleolithic by Édouard Lartet in 1861. It was later renamed the Magdalenian. The Magdalenian on Antroparkbaby is based on the cave of Altamira which was occupied (used?) from 22,000 to 13,000 years before the present. (Museo de Altamira) - See settlements

Stone burin (chisel) characteristic of the Upper Paleolithic (especially Magdalenian) in the Old World and of some Early Lithic and Mesolithic cultures of the New World. Most stratified finds of spear-throwers (Europe) come from the Magdalenian.

# Fragment of engraved reindeer metatarsal decorated on one surface with two reindeer, one of which is now incomplete. Length: 7.1 centimetres. Width: 3.3 centimetres. Thickness: 2 centimetres. Stored in the British Museum where the acquisition notes say "exacavated by both Christy and Lartet in 1863".

about 17,000 years ago (15,000BC) Cave paintings at Lascaux, near Montignac, south west France. Charging bulls. Discovered by three teenagers searching their lost dog in 1940. Opened to the public in 1948. Closed 1963. Reproduction paintings now on view in the International Centre of Parietal Art at Montignac.

16,945 years ago Eliseevich-I site, Bryansk Region, Russian Plain, Russia: "Ice-age dogs"

16,000 years ago

about 15,000 years ago (13,000BC) Cave art Trois Frères, Ariège, France. (French Wikipedia). Dieu cornu (horned god) or Sorcier (sorcerer) or chaman (shaman). In animal skins and stag antlers. Upper wall above the entrance to the 20,000-25,000 year-old grand gallery. #
# Petit Sorcier a l'Arc Musical (Little sorcerer with musical bow), amongst animals in 285 cm wide panel on right hand wall of Sanctuary.
The two human figures in Trois Frères, are wearing animal skins as a form of
# In this picture, the little sorcerer is rotated from vertical to horizontal to show it as a person disguised in animal skins stalking prey.

See discussion by Simona Petru, Documenta Praehistorica 39 (2012), "Man, animal or both - Problems in the interpretation of early symbolic behaviour"

13,500 to 11,100BC Hamburg culture a Late Upper Paleolithic culture of reindeer hunters in northwestern Europe. Finds from this culture in Scandinavia have been excavated since the early 1980s.

MIS 1 - 14,000 years ago: end of the Younger Dryas marks the start of the Holocene, continuing to the present.

14,000 to 15,000 years ago start of the deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. (Source of an abrupt rise in sea level)

about 14,500 years ago (12,500BC) to 11,500 years ago (9,500BC) Natufian culture in the Levant sedentary hunter-gatherers. - Wikipedia

about 12,000 to 9,000BC Azilien cultural period. Mortillet's Tourassien.

about 12,000 to 8,000 years ago - 10,000 to 6,000BC
Flood geology locates Noah's flood.
Fossil evidence: On "the highest mountains" "shells, skeletons of fish and sea monsters" have been found, showing the sea once covered them. Animals are found "far from their native areas": Elephants in England. Crocodiles in Germany. (Edwin Rice 1893). Coder and Howe's The Bible, Science and Creation (1966, page 63) says "flood geology" dates creation to about 10,000 years ago "and relates most of the geological strata and fossil beds to the Flood"
The flood has been located (about 1870) between the old and new stone ages. The New Bible Dictionary (Douglas 1962, page 429) relates much "evidence of a serious flood" to the Ice Age and suggests a world wide flood might have been caused by "release of water" at the end of that about "10,000BC"

12,000 years ago (12,000BP) is 10,000 BC

About 10,000BC End of last glacial period (ice-age), beginning of Holocene (recent), or present period with ice at the north and south and on mountains. [About 11,700 years ago End of the Pleistocene, start of the Holocene]. Holocene defined by boundary between two ice layers in a core taken from Greenland and now stored in Denmark.

On one system, interglacials are numbered backwards from the Holocene (1) and glacials also backwards.

Spindle whorls. Thermal basis for greater use of woven fabrics in post- glacial climates. Production of fibres for textiles a prominent feature of early agriculture. (Gilligan 3.2010)

David Lee's science timeline begins about 10,000 BC, when wolves were probably domesticated. [Darren Brewer "dog domesticated" about 12,000 BC

12,600 years ago (10,600 BC) to 10,300 years ago (8,300BC) Period when the Baltic was a large freshwater, inland, lake. The Baltic Ice Lake. (See evolution of Baltic) "Finds of bone implements (axes, harpoons, fishing tackle), as well as of very primitive flint implements... These ... bone age people evidently lived by hunting and fishing". (Hallendorff and Schuck p.2) See Hamburg culture - bone - Baltic sea - 7000BC Middle stone age - Ertebølle culture - Meilgård midden - Megalit graves - Alvastra - single graves - bronze - iron

"Until recently, the last woolly mammoths were generally assumed to have vanished from Europe and southern Siberia about 12,000 years ago", (Wikipedia)

Jodey Bateman's (2002) Jericho history begins with Natufian camp fires around 11,000BC. Around 11,000 to 10,000BC: Levant warm spell in which Natufians occupied much of the Middle East. "At places like Jericho they left the charcoal of their campfires and the distinctive tools of stone and animal bone that they used". They deserted the Jericho site during "a brief cold spell" from about 10,000BC to 9,800BC. (Bateman 2002)

10,200BC Neolithic (new stone age) in some parts of the Middle East (See Wikipedia) - Europe.

Neolithic barbarianism (Gordon Childe)

10,000BC - 12,000 years ago

# Tell es-Sultan:

In Arabic, a tell is a tall hill.

In Midle East Archaeology, a tell is a mound formed by the accumulated remains of ancient settlements.

Jericho: Earliest permanent settlement at Tell es- Sultan
(Wikipedia) dated between 10,000 and 9.000 BC. "The earliest remains date back to the Natufian period, 10th-8th millennia BC" (UNESCO) - See Ohalo to Jericho - Bateman - town - wall - Cipola - second settlement - 5500BC - bronze age Jericho - Jericho and Ai destroyed - Canaanites - end of bronze age town - Joshua - Hiel - Judea - end - Herod's Jericho

"The round pit-houses in Natufian settlements at Jericho and Abu Hureyra are some of the world's earliest known villages." (Gil Stein)

10,000 to 5,000BC: Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age in Europe. See Levant - (Wikipedia)

# Mesolithic tools from Britain. [Mode five].

from Noël-Hume (1953)

Core axe known as a Thames pick. Small blade known as "microlith" used collectively mounted on wood in spears, and harpoons and a borer.

"The oldest clothing remains in the world in the Middle East dated to around 9,500 years ago" . But we have evidence of the kinds of tools required to make fitted garments - primitive hide-scraping and cutting devices and needles. Until the last cold period, 30,000 years ago, Neanderthals did not bother with specialised cutting and sewing technologies." Ian Gilligan. The Australian National University, See ochre - sewing - 50,000BC - Trois Frères art - Spanish art

9,000BC - 11,000 years ago

Agricultural revolution - "In the archaeological record barbarism began less than ten thousand years ago with the Neolithic Age of archaeologists" Gordon Childe 1950

8,500BC? "The town of Jericho", covering about 6 acres, preceded the wall by about 500 years". It contained round mud-brick houses, without street planning. (Wikipedia)

8,300 to 7,500 BC Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) - cultivation of wheat and barley.

As the the Baltic ceased to be a lake the "climate became less severe and the vegetation less stunted". From this time onwards the "shores of southern Scandinavia yield numerous traces of early man. In particular, the 'kitchen-middens'" "The implements now in use were generally made of flint". (Hallendorff and Schuck p.2)

Eighth millennium BC

8,000BC - 10,000 years ago

Rock Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula (Wikipedia). "According to UNESCO, the oldest art ... is from 8000BC, and the most recent examples from around 3500BC"

# "The bow seems to have been invented near the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic, roughly 10,000 years ago". (Wikipedia). See Valltorta

From 10,000 to 6500BC Valencian cave art. Scene of hunting of deer with bows and arrows. Wall painting in Cueva de los Caballos in the Valley of Valltorta, Castell in Eastern Spain

Other pictures from this area/period show people wearing clothes.

About 8,500BC Initial domestication of taurine cattle from local wild ox (aurochs) in the Near East. About "80 female aurochs were initially domesticated". An initial breeding phase lasted some 1.5 millennia in an area between the Levant, central Anatolia and western Iran. Domestic cattle started to appear in western Anatolia and southeastern Europe by 6,800BC, in southern Italy by 6,500BC and Central Europe by 6,000BC. (Ruth Bollongino and others 1.9.2012) - See also Mario Melletti: First cattle with short horns appeared in Mesopotamia about 3000BC and was the most common form in Europe from about 1000BC.

"By the 8th millennium BC, Jericho became a big fortified town surrounded by a stone wall supported by a massive round tower. These are the earliest urban fortifications known in the world, later several times replaced" (UNESCO)

About 8,000BC Star Carr in north Yorkshire, England. Post- holes of a round-house structure. About 7,600BC Howick house, Northumberland, England. Similar to Star Carr.

7,500 to 5,700 BC Çatalhöyük in southern Anatolia. A city of mudbrick houses crammed together without streets between. Most entered through holes in their roofs. Wikipedia - Cast lead beads dating from about 6,500 BC. Earliest metal smelted. See Moses metal list. Galena is one of the easiest ores to smelt. It can simply be placed in a fire and then lead can be recovered from under the ashes when the fire goes out. Archaeologists have found evidence that lead was smelted as early as 6,500 BC in what is now Turkey. Small amounts of silver were refined from lead by the Romans about 2000 years ago. See lead UK - Rutland 1470 - Rutland 1810 - Pb 1814 - Rutland 1844 - Crystal Palace 1854 - Thomas Legge - lead poisoning 1904 - lead poisoning 1912 - lead paint ban 1921 - lead paint 1930-1955 - lead in hair 1977 - lead in gardens - lead paint ban 1992

7,500 to 6,000 BC Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) - domestication of sheep and goats, cattle and pigs. about 6,800BC Second settlement at Jericho: rectilinear (straight-sided) mudbricks buildings on stone foundations. "Square adobe houses". At Jericho from shortly after 7,500BC to shortly before 7,000BC. Wall paintings show dances wearing masks. Seashells (traded?) carved for necklaces and to make eyes in the skulls of their dead. "Left Tell es Sultan shortly before 7,000 BC and the mound which had been building up for almost 1,000 years was deserted for 1,500 years" (Bateman 2002).

Seventh millennium BC

About 9,000BP (7,000BC) insolation peak of Holocene. Separated by some 115,000 years from the Eemian insolation peak at 125,000BP. Suggests insolation maxima at about 240,000BP and 355,000BP.

7,000BC Indus Valley: Mehrgarh precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization.

Remains of an ancient farming village at Jericho have been carbon-dated to around 7,000 BC. The same excavations uncovered materials pre-dating agriculture which have been carbon-dated 800 years earlier (Carlo Cipola 1962, pp 18-19)

7,000BC The climate in Scandinavia was warming as it moved from the Boreal to the Atlantic period. Reindeer and their hunters had migrated to northern Scandinavia, and forests had established. Wikipedia Nordic Stone Age (Mesolithic)

Between 6,430 and 6,120BC Calibrated carbon dating of an underwater oak tree bole at the foot of the underwater cliff at Bouldnor in the Isle of Wight. Mesolithic remains recovered from this underwater site include string (6,220-5,980BC), worked wood (6,240-6000BC), flint tools and flakes, and burnt (cooked?) hazel nuts. There is an imaginative re-construction of this as a "Mesolithic Village" at CosmOnline.

Sixth millennium BC

About 6,000BC Rising sea level cuts Britain off from Europe. About 5,000BC Rising sea level submerges Bouldnor Cliff

By 6,000BC, Carleton S Coon 's "third phase of history" had begun. This included "eight distinct ages comparable to the Paleolithic and Mesolithic. These were the Neolithic, Bronze, Iron, Gunpowder, Coke, Oil, Hydroelectric and First Atomic ages."

About 6,000 to 4,000BC Neolithic or New Stone Age in Europe. [See Middle East] Marked by the adoption of agriculture, the development of pottery, polished stone tools and larger, more complex settlements. "European Neolithization ~6000-4000 BC represents a pivotal change in human history when farming spread and the mobile style of life of the hunter-foragers was superseded by the agrarian culture". (Tegel)

6,000BC or earlier: beans, lentils, peas, and chickpeas believed to have become part of the eastern Mediterranean diet.

about 5500 to 45005BC Linearbandkeramik flourished in Europe. (Wikipedia). "Longhouses, pottery and stone tools". The longhouses have left "only ground-plans in the soil". (Tegel)

about 5400BC The Sumerian settlement of Eridu (Eridug) founded on a site that was then close to the Persian Gulf near the mouth of the Euphrates River. It appears to be the earliest settlement in the region. The Sumerian King List begins by saying that "After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years." Sumerian was the first language to be written. No related languages are now known. It died out as a spoken language about 2000BC

Enki, the god of wisdom, was the patron god of Eridu. Sumerians believed that he created civilisation by bringing humanity's skills together in a cohesive world order. Sumerian language, writing and culture continued after their passing, in Mesopotamia, under the Akkadians and Assyrians. Assyrians belied that Enki gave his people metal working skills. (Haidar, D. 2011). See also Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Godesses

5500BC Pit-house dwellers at Jericho made pottery storage jars for grain. A new people came who built houses of stone and adobe. The pithouse people (unusual for Jericho or the Middle East) lived peacefully in the same village with the house builders. Gradually everyone in the community came to live in houses. The site was deserted again in 4000BC approximately. (Bateman 2002)

about 5300BC to 3950BC Ertebølle culture of southern Scandinavia. The last hunter-gatherer culture of the Stone Age? Preceded by Kongemose culture and followed by Funnelbeaker culture. (Wikipedia). The shell bank at Meilgaard was discovered in 1850.

5206 to 5098BC Date given to oak timbers in excavation near Leipzig, Germany, by Willy Tegel and Dietrich Hakelberg. See "Early Neolithic Water Wells Reveal the World's Oldest Wood Architecture"

From prehistoric to historic times: Time and space Narrative

Fifth millennium BC

5000BC to 4000BC Millennium between pre-history and (recorded) history. History is story told by human beings about human beings, and our first written records come from Sumerian (southern Mesopotamia) and Egyptian cultures in the fourth millennium 19th century historians were inclined to start written history much later, at the end of the second millenium BC.

antiquity is the (long) period before the middle ages. Sometimes classical antiquity is used for the period of ancient Greece and Rome. Christian antiquity refers to the early centuries of the Christian church.

about 5000BC In Ensisheim, France, a 50-year-old man died. His skull, excavated in "had two holes" that Sandra Pichler (and others) 1997 say "were clearly the result of surgery, not violence". (offline)

4700BC Possible beginning of Sumerian calendar.

4600BC to 4200BC Varna Cemetry (Bulgaria). Some of the world's oldest gold jewellery hanging on skeletons. See silver and coins.

4500BC Meilgård midden-settlement. In east of the coastal forest of Nederskov on the
Djursland peninsula in Denmark. Just north of Meilgård castle. "Land covered debris" from a settlement of the Ertebølekultur about 4500BC. (Panoramio - fortidsmindeguide)

Worsaae (quoted Gräslund, p.36) described artifacts found in association with shell banks like this as

"rough-hewn flint axes, chisels, arrows, flint cores, nodules and flint flakes made of deer antlers and a great many bodkins and implements made of bone"

4228BC Possible introduction of Egyptian calendar.

By 4000BC the Sumerians could melt copper - and so extract the metal from its ore. (Haidar, D. 2011). Copper Age also called Eneolithic and Chalcolithic: Late 5th millennium BC in the Middle East and the Caucasus for about 1,000 years to the Early Bronze Age. The transition from the European Copper Age to Bronze Age Europe occurs about the same time, between the late 5th and the late 3rd millennia BC. (Wikipedia)

Evidence of human use of the Spaccasasso cave in Southern Tuscany, Grosseto, Italy, from Late Neolithic to the Copper Age, the Early and Middle Bronze Age, and Late Antiquity (5th and 6th centuries B.C.). The cave and the calcareous rock face is characterised by thermal action, which deposits mercury sulphide in the limestone rock and results in cinnabar veins. Cinnabar minerals were mined in different phases of the site's occupation. Copper age mining remains include a large fireplace used to heat the rock face. Above this are copper age funerary remains. (Federico Poggiali and others 2015). See also The Prehistoric Quarry of La Pietra ... Copper Age Lithic Workshops and the Production of Bifacial Points in Central Italy by Adriana Moroni and others 2016.

Fourth millennium BC

4004 BC was the creation of the world in Usher's chronology       See above.

Days of creation: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 -
Adam and Eve in more detail

"If the Creator made this world especially for man..."

Quran: thy Lord said to the angels: "I am about to create man from clay". Adam is considered the first of the prophets in Islam. Others include Ibrahim (Abraham) - Musa (Moses) - Daud (David) - Sulayman (Solomon) - Isa (Jesus) - and Muhammad

Sumerian writing on clay tablets using picture signs. See Eridu - 2400BC - library.

Hypothetical reconstruction of neolithic village of Aichbühl on the Federsee in Wuertemburg - later neolithic 4400BC to 3500BC - Gordon Childe 1950
Foundations of 25 buildings discovered in peat wetland by Robert Rudolf Schmidt in 1930. About 20 two-room houses with walls of split wooden posts. A much larger central building probably used for community acrivities. Other buildings possibly for storage. A hunting community with wheat and barley fields and livestock. Small polished stone hatchets and bone tools found. Hearths and clay ovens in the houses. Unpainted pottery. (Britannica)

"In prehistoric Europe the largest neolithic village yet known, Barkaer in Jutland, comprised 52 small, one-roomed dwellings, but 16 to 30 houses was a more normal figure; so the average local group in neolithic times would average 200 to 400 members". (Gordon Childe 1950)

[Sumerian] "census (for taxation purposes)" - Start of Ed Stephan's demography timeline and [Ireland's] the census through history an [UK] census-taking in the ancient world [Does anyone know the evidence?]

about 3500BC Limestone tablet engraved with pictographic writing Kish, Mesopotamia. Contains pictographs of heads, feet, hands, numbers and threshing-boards. Now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Photographed by José-Manuel Benito.

The cuneiform (wedge shaped) writing of
Sumeria (now Iraq) starts about 3400BC. It is the earliest form of writing known that does not use pictures. The early stages of Egyptian hieroglyphics date from about 3200BC

Metallurgists dealt with copper for [over a thousand years before] bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, was discovered. The Bronze Age in Mesopotamia started around 3300BC and it denoted that bronze tools, decorations and weapons were commonly used and owned items. The transition from the Copper to the Bronze Age was simplified because the melting temperature of bronze is less than copper, between 1084C and 232C 449.4F) depending on the percent of tin, so new techniques to cast and forge bronze were not required. (Haidar, D. 2011)

See Wikipedia on tin sources and trade - See Sweden - Bunhill tin.
Brass in the 1611 Bible may refer to copper or bronze. See Moses metal list and brass/bronze and Bristol brass and Bunhill.

about 3600 to 2900BC Megalithic tombs in Sweden. The oldest megalithic tomb in Europe was built in Brittany around 4800BC. A few other countries in Europe have tombs to the beginning of bronze age, around 1500BC. Skegriedsen is a well-preserved stone chamber tomb surrounded by seventeen stones, dated 3000 to 2500BC. Wikipedia: Megalitgrav - Megalith. See Alvastra and single graves

about 3500BC New village on Tell es-Sultan now over 20 feet high is first of the bronze age. Walled with a tower. Pottery styles show contact with Sumeria and Egypt. Early village unplanned, with rubbish discarded between houses. In "later Early Bronze layers" laid out in a grid and rubbish discarded outside wall. Deforestation for construction or firewood. (Bateman 2002)

Sometime between 3400BC and 3100BC: Death of Ötzi, the Tyrolean Iceman. Wikipedia

About 3100BC. Reign of Narmer in Egypt. The Narmer Palette (left) was discovered by James E. Quibell in 1898 in Hierakonpolis. On it, Narmer displaying the insignia of both Upper and Lower Egypt, giving rise to the theory that he unified the two kingdoms and was the founder of the first dynasty.

Narmer is sometimes identified with Menes.

5000BC - calendar - hieroglyphics - Narmer - papyrus - geometry - Old Kingdom - Middle Kingdom - Thebes library - New Kingdom - Eighteenth Dynasty 1549-1292 - Amenhotep 4 - Nineteenth Dynasty 1292-1189 - Ramesses 2 - Twenty-sixth Dynasty 672-525 - Amasis - Ptolemaic (Hellenistic) - Argead Dynasty 332-305 - Ptolemaic Kingdom 305-30BC - Cleopatra

Papyrus, depicted on the Narmer Palette, is a plant that grew in the river Nile from which a writing material, also called papyrus, was made.

about 3100BC end of the Late Ubaid period in Mesopotamia. A setlement from this period lay under the Ur flood deposit disovered by the archaeologist Leonard Woolley and announced in In 1929. Wooley believed the 3.75 meter (12 foot) thick clay deposit had been laid down by the Great Flood. Jona Lendering writes "It is likely... the event ... behind the myth... can be dated to the end of Early Dynastic I period". (2,750BC?)

Third millennium BC

See Wikipedia article on Ancient History which has table from different parts of the world from 3000BC

About 3000BC Alvastra pile dwelling constructed in the Dags Mosse mire, Alvastra, Östergötland, Sweden. Swedish stone age. See Sweden graves

About 3000BC Silver first mined in Anatolia (Turkey) - source. See gold - Moses metal list - Shalmaneser - coins - Edmund - Spain.

3000BC: Five thousand years ago, the Egyptians began the invention of practical geometry. The waters of the river Nile overflowed every year and wiped out the land boundaries. Perhaps geometry was invented because it was necessary to reconstruct the fields for taxation purposes and to tell people where to plant their seeds.

One of the geometrical rules discovered was the 3,4,5 Rule for constructing right angles. It may have been discovered by people laying out fields, or perhaps by builders or architects. This way of making right angles was used as a trick of the trade. It was not known why the rule works, but it does, and it was used to make temples and pyramids.

Cities = civilisation (!?)

Urban revolution. "About 5,000 years ago irrigation cultivation (combined with stock- breeding and fishing) in the valleys of the Nile, the Tigris-Euphrates and the Indus had begun to yield a social surplus, large enough to support a number of resident specialists who were themselves released from food-production. Water-transport, supplemented in Mesopotamia and the Indus valley by wheeled vehicles and even in Egypt by pack animals, made it easy to gather food stuffs at a few centres... Thus arose the first cities - units of settlement ten times as great as any known neolithic village." (Gordon Childe 1950)

about 2900BC Eridu (in southern Mesopotamia), argued to be the oldest city in the world has been said to have become a substantial city of mudbrick and reed houses covering 20 to 25 acres. Eridu is south of the (later) city of Ur. This are "was the birthplace of cities and of civilisation about 5,000 years ago and home to the Sumerians and the later Babylonians". (Stuart Campbell, Manchester archeologist. See below)

about 2800BCE Swedish-Norwegian Battle Axe culture appeared. It is known from about 3000 graves. Wikipedia Corded Ware culture. Associated with single graves. See Sweden graves

"the stone-chamber tombs and the passage graves consitently yield smoothly shaped, finished and sharp-edged flint artefacts and, in addition, neat stone hammers, amber ornaments and earthenware pots, several of which have quite tasteful shapes and decorations" (Worsaae quoted (Gräslund, p.36)."

Old Kingdom of Egypt

The first pyramid of Egypt. The Pyramid of Djzosèr built at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630-2611 BC. Said to have been designed by Imhotep, who may be the first architect whose name we know, and who was defied 2.000 years later as a god of medicine and healing. The picture is taken from the Wikipedia website. Clicking on it will take you to more information
The pyramids in the Egyptian deserts are monumental tombs for the rulers of ancient Egypt, who were believed to be gods.

The Great Pyramids at Gizah were erected about 2650BC. One of these, the grave of Cheops, is built of stone blocks averaging 2.5 tons in weight. The pyramid, 481 feet high, is of great geometrical accuracy.

The way the pyramids were built and the mathematical calculations involved are subjects of much speculation.

Jewellery From the old kingdom onwards, much archaeological and textual evidence of expeditions in search of copper, gold, turquoise, malachite and other gemstones. (source)

about 2600 to 2400BC Early Dynastic Three period in Mesopotamia - Royal Tombs. A stratum from this period lay on top of the Ur flood deposit

"In China a complex civilisation flourished from about 2500BC which developed its own independent outlook on the world" (Colin Ronan, The Atlas of Scientific Discovery, 1983, page 12).

pottery - Xia Dynasty 2100-1600 BC - Shang Dynasty 1600-1046 BC - Zhou Dynasty 1045-256 BC - [Hundred Schools of Thought including Confucius] - Qin Dynasty 221-206 BC - [compass] - Han Dynasty 206BC-220AD - [paper - Census AD2] - Three kingdoms - Jin Dynasty 265-420 - Southern and Northern Dynasties 420-589 - Sui Dynasty 581-618 - Tang Dynasty 618-907 - printing - gunpowder? - Liao Dynasty 907-1125 - Song Dynasty 960-1279 - [ gunpowder formula - Zhu Xi] - Yuan Dynasty 1271-1368 - [Wenxian Tongkao] - Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 - Qing Dynasty 1644-1911 - [Transit of Venus - Edouard Biot] - Republic of China 1912-1949 - [Liang and Tao] - People's Republic of China 1945 - [sociology - women - stamps]

"The Wen-tong-hian-kao" [Wenxian Tongkao] "... contains a section entitled Hou-keou-men ... which presents various population counts made in China since the reign of the first dynasties until year 1223 of the Christian era." (Edouard Biot 1836)

2400BC Sumerian baked clay tablets with arithmetic . There is a large body of mathematical tablets dating back to the old Babylonian period (1800 to 1500BC).

2348BC "The Second Age of the World" "When Noah was 601 years old, on the 1st day of the 1st month (Friday, October 23rd), the 1st day of the new post-flood world, the surface of the earth was now all dry. Noah took off the covering of the ark". (Usher) refering to Genesis 8:13. See 1736 "evidences of the Deluge" and flood geology. See Epic of Gilgamesh and Ur flood. Picture described as "Various animals entering the Ark built by Noah because of the great flood".
From the early nineteenth century (see
1849, for example) the term antediluvian (before the deluge), sometimes lost specific reference to a flood and referred to long extinct beings only known as fossils.

2286BC One of the classical dates for the foundation of the city of Babylon, originally a small semitic, Akkadian speaking city. See Old Babylonian Period - Hammurabi - Ninevah falls - and Nebuchadnezzar

about 2300 to 2200BC Jericho and Ai (the largest town in the area) destroyed. Invaders broke the walls of Jericho with fires. (Bateman 2002)

2200BC Approximate date for the erection of the standing stones at Stonehenge. The earlier earthbank and ditch have been dated about 3100BC

2015BC Word Siqlu, as a unit of weight, in use in Mesopotamia. The Hebrew term shekel derives from this.

Ur-Nammu, founder of Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur. See ... reconstructing the Ur-Nammu Stela by Jeanny Vorys Canby. Possible dates for Ur-Nammu: 2112BC to 2095BC.

The Legal Code of Ur-Nammu, written on tablets in the Sumerian language about 2100BC to 2050BC. Fragments are on display in the Istanbul Archaeological Museums. The lugal (big man, or king) ruled a society divided into two classes: lu (free) and slave (male, arad; female geme). (Wikipedia)

about 2100BC in the Third Dynasty of Ur, Early Sumarian poems. Surviving copies of the complete Epic of Gilgamesh date from the 18th to 10th centuries BC. In these the Cedar Forest, the realm of the gods, is desecrated by Gilgamesh by cutting down cedars for timber. See Jan Oosthoek wood in world history.

Some argue that the Sumerian language, as a mother tongue, had died out by the end of the third millennium.

Second millennium BC

"Old Babylonian Period" used for south Mesopotamia from about 2000BC to 1600BC. Initially a number of (city?) states dominating the region: Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna and, from 1894BC, Babylon.

Middle bronze age in Middle East: 2100 to 1550BC

Excavation of Tell Khaiber, 20 kilometres from Ur

about 2000BC "We provisionally date the site to around 2,000 BC, the time of the sack of the city and the fall of the last Sumerian royal dynasty." Stuart Campbell, (April 2013) ,Manchester archeologist excavating at Tell Khaiber, 20km from Ur, "the last capital of the Sumerian royal dynasties". - Web page of Ur Region Archaeology Project

The naked lady features on the 2013 Report

The Jewish book of Genesis say that Abraham came from "Ur of the Chaldees" (Genesis 11:31)

around 2000BC Middle bronze age Jericho (Canaanite) had stone walls six to nine feet thick on ridges of packed earth. The main street, about six and a half feet wide, was built in stair steps to the top of the mound and there was a small ditch alongside the street to catch rain water and keep the area from flooding. In the Middle Bronze, about 200 settlements on the highland ridges including Jerusalem, Hebron and Nablus (Shechem). (Bateman 2002)

2000BC Time that Cadmus would have introduced the original (Phoenician) alphabet to Greece if the speculations of Herodotus were correct. See Hobbes on the invention of letters.

about 2000BC The Lavagnone plough (Italy), made of wood, claimed to be the world's oldest surviving plough.

"You might as reasonably expect to understand the nature of the adult man by watching him for an hour.. as to suppose that you can fathom humanity by studying the last four thousand years of its evolution" (Herbert Spencer quoted by Paul Hirst, 1976, p.32)

1921BC Usher's Third Age of the World. Start of 430 years which Abraham and his posterity spent in foreign lands.

about 1850BC The "Petrie Papyri", from Kahun and Gurob, (named after Flinders Petrie who discovered them in 1889). "Principally of the Middle Kingdom" They include literary, medical and vetinary papyri and mathematical fragments. The three pages of medical text are all gynaecological and include a brief passage that suggests crocodile dung and/or honey to prevent child-birth. I think this is the bit with the crocodile:

1812BC to 1637BC (175 years). Traditional Jewish dates for the life of Abraham. "He lived, an hundred threescore and fifteen years". A Christian term for Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and other revered rulers of families (tribes) in the Bible is the Patriarchs. The same term is used for high ranking bishops in the church. See Die Familie (1912). In Jewish tradition "Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, known as the Patriarchs, are both the physical and spiritual ancestors of Judaism". The word "Jew" is derived from Y'hudah (Judah), the fourth son of Jacob.

Abraham's "family" or "household" was large. At one time he formed an army of 318 "trained servants, born in his own house". He was "rich" in cattle, silver and gold. All male members of his household (slave or free) had to be circumcised.

Abraham was accompanied on his journey out of Ur by his nephew, Lot. Lot's adventures in relation to Sodom and Gomorrah are part of the Jewish, Christian and Muslim scriptures. These sinful cities were destroyed by "fire and brimstone", brimstone being sulphur. See gunpowder - brimstone - Paracelsus - sulphuric acid - Wesley - sulphate - manure - phenothiazine - child labour - antibiotic - trace methods - surplus.   When Lot's wife turned to look back, she became a pillar of salt.


1792BC to 1750BC Reign of Hammurabi, who extended the rule of Babylonia throughout Mesopotamia

Code of Hammurabi - Babylonian law code.

1700BC to 1100BC Possible date range for the (oral) composition of the Rigveda. - See artificial limb

Sweden: Bronze age ahips

"The stone age was followed by the bronze age, which lasted from about 1800BC to 600BC" (Hallendorff and Schuck p.5). Johan Ling: BA Bronze Age 1700BC to 500BC.

about 1700BC to 500BC. Rock Art (Hällristningar - Cliff-drawings) in Uppland, Sweden includes some 2000 ship pictures. Drawings, dates and text on these ships based on Johan Ling Rock Art and Seascapes in Upland 2013.

Early Bronze Age 1700BC to 1100BC

Period one 200 years to 1500BC - Period two 200 years to 1300BC - Period three 200 years to 1100BC -

Late Bronze Age 1100BC to 500BC

Period four 200 years to 900BC - Period five 200 years to 700BC - Period six 200 years to 500BC

Ling suggests that the rock art at Bogösa indicates a meeting ground in a maritime space for a wide area that was, at the time, penetrated by the sea. (p.96)

Metres above sea-level of lowest images from succeding periods (ordered by type of ship): Period one: 25 metres. Period two: 22 metres. Period three: 19-20 metres. Period four to five: 18 metres.

Scandinavian boat drawings have been interpreted as skin boats, planked boats, dugouts and rafts.

1670BC According to Lenormant, a royal library was established at Thebes in Egypt. See Amasis

1650BC The Hyksos (Shepherd Kings) ruled northern Egypt. (Wikipedia)


about 1550BC (stratigraphical dating by Kenyon). about 1573BC (later carbon dating): Destruction of the Bronze Age Jericho.

1500BC Domestication of silk worm in China. [I think this is far too late a date]. See silk road and rayon.

Meteoric iron had long been known, but not their relation to iron ores used for pigments The Hittites (greater Armenia) found out how to smelt iron ore between 1500BC and 1200BC and the practice spread to the rest of the Near East after their empire fell in 1180BC. The subsequent period is called the Iron Age. Bronze had not replaced stone tools in many trades, but iron was cheap enough to be used (for example) for ploughs. It was democratic rather than an aristocratic metal! (Wikipedia and Forbes and Dijksterhus) See Sweden

1500BC to 1300BC: Sweden bronze two.
All images with inturned prows and horizontal or slightly upturned keel extensions were 24 metes or more above sea level. (Ling page 81)

1500BC to 1300BC: Baal with Thunderbolt. (Wikipedia). Drawing (1960) by Gillian Potter from a photograph of the limestone stele in Musée du Louvre, excavated (1932) from Ras Shamra, Ugarit.

Baal meant lord, master, owner or husband in Semitic languages. It was also applied to Gods. The plural was Baalim. Baalim might own specific areas, being the Gods of specific peoples.

The Jews also called God lord and believed he had a special relationship to them. However, they (eventually) believed in only one God (monotheism) who is master of all, and they believed that graven images should not be made of him. [See ten commandments]

See Amenhotep 4

1400BC Possible date for Jews settling in what became Israel. Traditionally, the ten commandments and the rest of the Torah (Five books of "law" or Pentateuch) is conceived to have been received by Moses before this. The Tabernacle, a portable shrine said to have been created by Moses to contain the law, eventually became part of the Temple

"the gold, and the silver, the brass, the iron, the tin, and the lead" (Numbers 31:22) - chariots of iron

It is possible that the earliest of the Jewish psalms (sacred songs - hymns) is Psalm 90 and that this was composed about 1400BC. Psalms continued to be composed until a time after the exile (Psalm 137, after 538BC)

1446BC Suggested date for fall of Jericho to forces under Joshua (Hoshea), who God told to "march around the city... with seven priests carrying seven trumpets of rams' horns before the Ark". When they heard the sound of the trumpet all the people were to shout "and the wall of the city will fall down flat". "Cursed... be the man that ... Jericho. At the cost of his first-born shall he lay its foundation, and at the cost of his youngest son shall he set up its gates." (Joshua 6:26 RSV).

1380BC to 1050BC Approximate period covered by the Jewish book of Judges. "In those days there was no king in Israel: every man did that which was right in his own eyes". See John Locke on justice in a state of nature.

1300BC Suggested date for the (mythical) journey of the ship Argo in which Jason and the other Argonauts sought the Golden Fleece. Vase painting (480-470BC) in British Museum shows 4 oarsman, but 6 oars. Suggested there were 12 men, 6 oars each side, 3 men to a bench.

1300BC to 1100BC: Bronze three

1348/1346BC Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep 4th raised Aten (the Sun) to the status of supreme God. This, and the "Great Hymn to the Aten" have been considered as origins of monotheism (belief in one God). Amenhotep's chief wife was Nefertiti.

about 1279 to 1213BC Ramesses 2nd. The Ramesseum in Thebes is the 'mortuary temple' of this Egyptian king. The Petrie Papyri were found beneath this.

Iron age in the middle east sometimes dated from about 1200BC, with the diffusion of iron technology following the collapse of the Hittite Empire (centred in what is now Turkey)

1194BC to 1184BC Dates of possible conflict behind the stories of a "Trojan War". Roughly corresponds with archaeological evidence for burning of Troy 7.

1107BC The start of Deborah's forty years of judging Israel according to traditional Jewish chronology. She died in 1067BC. The Song of Deborah may date to as early as the 12th century BC and is perhaps the earliest sample of Hebrew poetry.


1100BC to 900BC: Bronze four. In periods four and five more elaborate "depictions of humans" (Ling, page 87)


First millennium BC from 1000BC

1050BC Conventional date for start of Phoenician alphabet which was spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, Aramaic and Greek alphabets developed from this.

about 1046BC Zhou Dynasty in China - Wikipedia

Julius Wellhausen (1885) proposed four documentary sources for the Jewish Bible: Yahwist (J) written about 950BC in Judah - Elohist (E) written about 850BC in Israel - Deuteronomist (D) written about 600BC in Jerusalem - Priestly written about 500BC by Kohanim (Jewish priests) in exile in Babylon. See Wikipedia Documentary hypothesis

911BC to 891BC Adad-nirari 2, King of Assyria begins to found the Neo-Assyrian Empire. A large increase in the use of iron for tools and weapons took place from the neo-Assyrian period onwards.

about 900BC Late iron age Levant: separate Kingdoms of Israel (north, centered on Ephraim's territory, capital Samaria) and Judah (south, capital Jerusalem). Jericho was in Israel. Around 850BC, Hiel is said to have rebuilt the walls. "In Ahab's time, Hiel of Bethel rebuilt Jericho. He laid its foundations at the cost of his firstborn son Abiram, and he set up its gates at the cost of his youngest son Segub, in accordance with the word of the LORD spoken by Joshua son of Nun" (1 Kings 16:34)

900BC to 700BC: Bronze five - Sweden

India See Rigveda

"During the time between 800 and 200 BCE the Shramana-movement formed, from which originated Jainism and Buddhism. In the same period the first Upanishads were written." (Wikipedia)

ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME "Freeman and slave"
See slavery and social science

Engels in 1884 spoke of this period as entering "the field of written history", which coincided with the advent of the "patriarchal family" and a period where "comparative jurisprudence can give valuable help". The history of writing is much older, but picture and cuneiform scripts were only re-deciphered in the 19th cenury.

Bronze relief from the Balawat Gates (in the British Museum) dated to the Shalmaneser 3. It shows a six wheeled Assyrian battering ram with a metal tip. The metal tip may well have been of iron. See (Haidar, D. 2011)

859BC to 824BC Shalmaneser 3 king of Assyria.

853BC 853BC Battle of Qarqar

825BC Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser 3 was erected in Nimrud. It was excavated in 1845 and is now in the British Museum. It includes this bas relief of tribute from Jehu, king of Israel.
"The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears."

850BC: Date assigned to Homer by Herodotus. Stories recited as poems transmitted culture. See Wikipedia on Odyssey.

800BC - 480BC Archaic period in Greece. Rise of the polis (city states)

8th century BC (800BC-701BC)

776 BC First Olympiad: The olympic games were held every four years and became the standard measure by which Greek and Roman historians dated time. See Olympics

770 to 221 BC "Hundred Schools of Thought" of Chinese philosophy includes Confucius

The hundred years from 750BC to 650BC includes the first four writing prophets of the Jews: Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, and Micah. The Iliad and The Odyssey were being written. The skills that led to the Parthenon originated. Zoroaster was born. the Upanishads appeared, Hinduism blossomed (prior to Buddhism) and the movement arose in China that led to Confucius and the Taoism of Lao-tse. (from a book blurb)

Lupa di Roma The She-Wolf with Romulus and Remus illustrates the founding myth of Rome. Their father was the god of war, Mars. Abandoned, they were reared by a she wolf. Romulus murdered Remus before founding Rome. The 1929 stamp shows the bronze in the Capitoline Museum
21.4.753 BC A traditional date for the foundation of Rome
The oldest
gentes claimed to have originated before the foundation of Rome. - Roman Kingdom 753 to 509 BC - Roman Republic 509 to 27 BC - Roman Empire 27 BC to AD 476. Romulus, the legendary founder of Rome, is said to have called together one hundred elders to form a senate to advise him. [consulere senatum: calling together the old]. The institution continued beyond the fall of the empire in AD 476.

755BC to 745BC Ashur-nirari 5 king of Assyria. Followed, 745BC to 727BC, by his son, Tiglath-Pileser 3.

740BC "The year King Uzziah died" (Judea). Start of the teaching of Isaiah the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible.

727BC to 722BC Shalmaneser 5, son of Tiglath-Pileser 3, king of Assyria.

Hoshea was the last king of Israel. 722BC is the usual date for the fall of Samaria (capital of Israel) to the Assyrians. Much of the population of Israel is said to have been moved, but a Jewish diaspora was not created as they did not retain their identity as Jews. Many from Israel fled to Judea and pats of Israel, including Jericho, were incorporated into Judea. The religious reforms of Hezekiah (716-697BC) and Josiah followed.

7th century BC (700BC-601BC)

Brandskogship - Boglösa 109. Photo: Hallendorff and Schuck
700BC?. This ship from Brandskog is the largest. Some have argued that it post-dates the Swedish bronze age

Ling (p.66) says the out turned prows ending in horses heads are typical of period five (900BC to 700BC)

The image was discovered in September 1925.

The oldest surviving royal library in the world is that of Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria 668 to around 630BC (British Museum) -

K.8538 is a circular clay tablet representing the night sky of 3.1.650BC/4.1.650BC over Nineveh. May show the seven wandering stars (planets), now known as Moon, Sun, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Mercury and Mars.

Coins developed independently in Anatolia and Greece, India and China around the 7th and 6th centuries BC, spreading rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries through Greece and Persia... See trade . The British Museum describes the coin illustrated as a Lydian (western Anatolia) 1/6 stater made of electrum (an alloy of gold and silver) between about 650 and 600BC.

641 to 609BC Josiah king of Judea is credited with overseeing the "Deuteronomic" revision of the Jewish Bible. [See 2 Kings 22] The last chapter of the final Bible outlines Jewish history from the death of Josiah to the promised restoration of the Temple under Cyrus .

612BC Battle of Ninevah led to the destruction of what was at the time the world's largest city. In 626BC Babylon replaced Nineveh as the seat of the Mesopotamian Empire.

6th century BC (600BC-501BC)

597 - 587 BC Nebuchadnezzar 2nd, King of the Babylonians, conquered the Jews and took many into exile in Babylon. They included an elite "skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science" who were to serve amongst the "wise men of Babylon". One of these was Daniel. See Diaspora

Tisha B'Av, 586BC On Sunday 9th Av, Nebuchadnezzar's forces set the Temple on fire and destroyed it. Some people date Ezekial's vision of a future Temple to 573BC.
Jericho was destroyed by the Babylonians. This was probably the end of settlements on Tell es-Sultan

The book of Daniel (Chapter 4) says that Nebuchadnezzar lost his reason and ate grass for many years. See mental health timeline

569-525 BC Amasis, a common man, was Pharaoh in Egypt. He allowed the Greeks (previously excluded for bad behaviour) to enter Egypt to trade, but not to study in the Royal Library. His golden foot-pan trick gave Aristotle an illustration, used in his comparison of state and family politics

551 to 479 BC Confucius

About 550 to 330 BC The Achaemenid Empire or First Persian Empire [Iran] under Cyrus the Great (Reigned 559 to 530BC). Darius 1st (Reigned from 522BC) and subsequent Kings owed religious allegiance to Ahura Mazda.

Ahuramazda has granted unto me this empire. Ahuramazda brought me help, until I gained this empire; by the grace of Ahuramazda do I hold this empire.

Map of the Persian Empire about 500BC drawn by William Robert Shepherd 1923

Cyrus promised to restore the Temple. [See Chronicles] 536BC Return of some Jews to Jerusalem, followed by the construction of the second Temple, which lasted until 70AD

509BC Roman Republic established "patrician and plebeian"
See theory of social class

Early years of the Roman Republic Burgess and Locke (1945) (p.20) say the patriarch of the Roman family in this period was a "very close approximation" to "absolute power" in the Large Patriarchal Family. They say that "Among the Greeks the power of the head of the house was less absolute, since it was considered a trust to be administered for the welfare of the family. In the Hebrew patriarchal family the power of the father was limited by the Mosaic Law" See Die Familie (1912)

In Greek philosophy the nature of " reason " is explored. Human thought consciously sought to define what reason is and to use it as the key to understanding the world. The Greek philosophers were drawn on by later thinkers in the Arabic and European worlds. They include Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Euclid.

PYTHAGORAS Pythgoras's theorem

Pythagoras, who died about 500BC, founded the Pythagorean School of thinkers. They created mathematical ways of representing and analysing musical harmony, and theories explaining sight mechanically: thinking of light as an emission of particles travelling in straight lines between the eye and the object seen. Mathematics, experiment, theory, aesthetics and religious speculation were all part of the Pythagorean imagination. They established the relationship of harmonious sound between families of notes produced by striking metal bars of different lengths, and the numbers that relate the lengths to the notes. Pythagorus also believed in the harmony of nature: See
Derek Antrobus, 7.2002 Philosophy of diet - or philosophy of life?

5th century BC (500BC-401BC) Possibly in this century that the Hebrew Book of Job was written with its description of mining and its image of Leviathan - See 1651. The Priestly texts are usually related to the reading of the law by Ezra.

Swedish iron age: Pre-Roman Iron Age 500 to 100BC - Roman Iron Age 100BC to 376AD (See Thomsen) - Germanic Iron Age (See Völkerwanderung and Vendel period) 376AD to Viking Age

484BC to 425BC Life of the Greek historian Herodotus

about 480BC Triremes, war ships with three banks of oars. Pictured on vase of Argo. See Replicas of the world

480BC to 404BC So called "golden age" of Athens.

447BC to 438BC Construction of the Parthenon.

Before 469BC Socrates (philosopher) born in Athens, Greece

451BC In Rome the laws were inscribed on tablets. These were the foundation of Roman jurisprudence. (The science of law). The Ten Commandments of the Jews, another source of jurisprudence, were also originally inscribed on tables of stone. 449BC Traditional date for completion of the "Law of the Twelve Tables" (Latin: Leges Duodecim Tabularum which were posted in the Roman Forum so all Romans could read and know them. (See Wikipedia)

445/444B In the 20th year of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, Nehemiah was cup-bearer to the king. The reading of the Law by Ezra.

431BC Start of the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta) [Thucydides Book 2]

429BC Pericles (leader of the democracy in Athens) died of fever during a long war between Athens and Sparta. Political turmoil followed his death.

Plato (philosopher) born

404BC Athens surrendered to Sparta. Government of the thirty tyrants came to power in Athens.
403BC Restoration of democracy in Athens.

4th century BC (400BC-301BC)

399BC Socrates tried for misleading the Athenian youth with his philosophy. Sentenced to death.


386BC Plato, a pupil of Socrates, established the Academy - the first university - where he taught for the rest of his life. See later academies

Socrates, Plato
Aristotle in Raphael's School of Athens Plato argued that:
  • truth and reason are external.
  • we must govern our personal and social lives using reason.
  • humans can reason to external truth.
  • 384BC Aristotle (philosopher and naturalist) born.

    363BC Aristotle studied under Plato.

    347BC Plato died. Following Plato's death, Aristotle left Athens.
    342BC Aristotle tutor to Alexander, who became the Emperor Alexander. Strabo wrote that Aristotle was "the first man, so far as I know, to have collected books and to have taught the kings in Egypt how to arrange a library".

    335BC Aristotle returned to Athens, where he opened a school called the Lyceum. Most of his writings were composed during the following thirteen years.

    331BC onwards Alexander destroyed the power of Persia, and established an empire which stretched from Macedonia to Egypt, and to the Indus.

    322BC Aristotle died. He bequeathed his library and the school (Lyceum) to Theophrastus (about 371BC to 287BC)

    323BC Alexander died. His empire was divided between the Antigonids, who controlled Greece, the Seleucids, who ruled most of Asia Minor, Syria and Mesopotamia, and the Ptolemies, who ruled Egypt.

    Ptolemy 1st, one of Alexander's generals, ruled Egypt from 323 to 283BC. His son, Ptolemy 2nd, ruled from 309 to 246BC. During this time, a library was established at Alexandria. [See Berti and Costa 2009]. The library was part of the Musaeum (Greek mouseion = seat of the Muses).

    3rd century BC (300BC-201BC)


    About 300BC Euclid taught in Alexandria, Egypt. Building on the practical geometry of the Egyptians, Euclid laid the foundations of theoretical geometry
    Read: Euclid's axioms

    ARCHIMEDES - born about 287BC - died 212Bc

    221BC Qin Dynasty in China - Wikipedia

    Chinese compasses: "The compass was probably invented in the Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) by Chinese fortune-tellers who used the lodestones to construct their fortune telling boards" (source) - Other sources say this was in the 4th century BC:

    206BC Han Dynasty in China - Wikipedia

    2nd century BC (200BC-101BC)

    Chinese paper 2nd century BC - Wikipedia: history of paper

    The Dead Sea Scrolls are probably a library of the Essenes, mainly from the period from about 200BC to 68AD, although some date back to the third century BC. (See Jewish Virtual Library)

    167BC Judas Maccabeus led a Jewish revolt that led to the restoration of the Temple of Jerusalem in 165BC. - miracle of light celebrated at Hanukkah - [Extracts from the first book of Maccabees - link to book another]. The Maccabees founded the Hasmonean dynasty, which ruled from 164BC to 63BC. From 129BC to 63BC, Judea was independent. Roman rule began in 63BC. In 104BC Judah Aristobulus I was the first "Hasmonean" to declare himself a king. The Hasmonean's built the winter palace which was part of the new Jericho (Herod's) at Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq (destroyed 70AD)

    101BC "Defeat of the Cimbri". Defeat of Celts by Germans and Romans in the next century is argued by Hallendorff and Schuck (p.7) to have led to the Roman Empire extending "as far as Germanic territory on the Rhine" (see 58BC) and Roman culture penetrating Scandinavia in the "Roman iron age".


    1st century BC (100BC-1BC)

    69 BC Cleopatra, the last great queen of Egypt, born in Alexandria. Died 12.8.30 BC (aged 39)

    58BC to 51BC Conquest of Gaul (France and north west Europe) by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar (13.7.100BC - 15.3.44 BC). See 1929 stamps

    Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War) ascribed to Julius Caesar, describes the north-west European tribes the Roman legions fought. A source of images of Druids practising human sacrifice. It is also the source of the statement (6.19) that, amongst the Gauls, "Husbands have power of life and death over their wives as well as over their children". [See John Stuart Mill 1869]

    February 44BC Julius Caesar, constitutional dictator of Rome, declared himself dictator for life and, shortly afterwards (15.3.44 BC), was assassinated. See Neumann's dictatorship types

    Augustus. See 1929 stamps

    31BC The Age of Augustus, from 31BC to 14AD, is taken as the transition from the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire. The empire may have included a larger percentage of the world's population than any other, before or since. Its survival was dependent on trade. Roads it built survive today. Its engineers also constructed long tunnels and bridges, including aqueducts. The arithmetic of its trade and commerce was calculated using counting boards and hand abaci. See problems of arithmetic with Roman Numbers


    AD1 Alleged date of the birth of Jesus Christ - celebrated at Christmas - Calendar dates back from here (BC: Before Christ) and forward from here. Time and space

    Centuries are also numbered backwards and forwards from here.


    1600 AD to 1699 AD is the 17th century AD not the 16th century
    1900 AD to 1999 AD is the 20th century AD not the 19th century
    2000 AD to 2099 AD is the 21st century AD not the 20th century

    The system of numbering things at equal intervals (years in this case) from an arbitrary starting point (the birth of Christ in this case) with items being counted backwards and forwards from the starting point, is called an Interval Scale.

    The birth of Jesus took place in Bethlehem (instead of Nazareth) because the Roman Emperor, Caesar Augustus, ordered people throughout his empire to go to their family home to be counted for taxation. This is an example of political arithmetic, state arithmetic, or statistics.

    AD2 First "tolerably accurate census of the Chinese empire" (under the Han dynasty) although Chinese census counts "go back to back to the second millennium BC" "There was little pretence of scholarly interest in the numbers... the emperor was interested in revenue" (Hollingsworth T. H. 1969 pp 65-66 and 67)

    18.9.14 AD Tiberius the Roman Emperor

    Strabo's Geography was finished within the reign of Tiberius. Strabo died in 23AD

    37-41 Reign of the Roman Emperor Caligula who banished or murdered most of his relatives, executed large numbers of people, confiscated property and, for entertainment, had people tortured and killed whilst he was eating. He made himself a God. A Jewish philosopher, Philo Judaeus, went to Rome to plead with Caligula for the lives of Jews who had refused to worship him as God. Philo is remembered as a theorist who fused Greek and Jewish thought. Caligula was assassinated and is remembered by many social theorists as an example of an undesirable ruler. They read about him in the works of Philo.

    about 40 to 90AD Pedanius Dioscorides, a Greek physician who compiled five volumes about the (largely herbal) materials of medicine in Greek. Translated into Latin as De Materia Medica.

    24.1.41 to 13.10.54 Reign of the Roman Emperor Claudius, builder of aqueducts, roads and canals, who put Judea under direct rule and expanded the Empire north to Britain.

    43 AD Romans invaded Britain - Iron industry already established (Wealden iron). Lead was also (probably) mined. (Peak). Lime used for building mortar (Mendips). - See Wikipedia Mining in Roman Britain and 1854 Sydenham display

    50 AD Romans founded Colonia on the Rhine. The library, for an estimated 20,000 scrolls, was built between 150AD and 200AD.

    13.10.54 to 9.6.68 Reign of the Roman Emperor Nero

    19.7.64 to 25.7.64 The Great Fire of Rome

    1.7.69 to 24.6.79 Reign of the Roman Emperor Vespasian

    Tisha B'Av, 70AD: 4.8.70 The Roman army destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem. After this the oral tradition of the rabbis began to be written in what became the Talmud. See Talmud Yerushalmi and Talmud Bavli

    75 to 99AD The period of Josephus writing.

    90 to 168AD Claudius Ptolemaeus or Ptolemy: Astronomer and geographer who lived in Alexandria and compiled a large compendium of astronomy, with the earth as the centre of the universe. His compendium was called the Almagest when translated into Arabic.

    around 98AD De Origine et situ Germanorum (On the Origin and Situation of the Germanic Peoples) by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus.

    Tacitus wrote about the Baltic tribes of Suioneso [Swedes?], north of the Germans, who were powerful in ships. Their naval craft had bow and stern constructed alike, equally well suited for landing, The oars were not fastened along the sides, but left free and they did not use sails. Hallendorff and Schuck p.8). See Viking ships
    Stone with engraved ship from the Roman iron age of the type described by Tacitus. Found in Uppland. Hallendorff and Schuck p.15)

    About 110AD Suggested date for the Targum of Onkelos (born about 35AD, died 120AD). The Targum Onkelos was written down between this date and the 4th century AD. The Targum Onkelos uses the word Shekhinah for the presence of God. See Polyglotta.

    Tisha B'Av, 135AD The Fall of Betar. End of the revolt of the Jews against the Romans led by Simon bar Kokhba. See Diaspora

    170AD to 180AD Note "to myself" of the Roman Emperor, Marcus Aurelius. "I ... have seen the nature of ... him who does wrong, that it is akin to me, not only of the same blood or seed, but that it participates in the same intelligence and the same portion of the divinity,.. we are made for co-operation, like feet, like hands, like eyelids, like the rows of the upper and lower teeth." (Meditations Book one) - See organism

    The two centuries from 200AD to 400AD are a critical turning point in the Saint-Simonian system of history between the epoch with polytheist ideas and a society based on slavery, and that with "theological" ideas and a feudal organisation of society.

    About 251 to 356AD Anthony (or Antony) one of the earliest of the desert fathers, from whom developed monasticism.

    306 to 337 Constantine Emperor of the Roman Empire. He rebuilt Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinopolis (Constantinople), which became the new capital of the Empire, tolerated Christianity and other religions, and promoted Christianity throughout the empire. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325 at which the leaders of Christianity agreed unifying beliefs: the Nicene Creed, which was amended and extended in 381.

    about 350AD Traditionally, the Talmud known as the Talmud Yerushalmi (Jerusalem Talmud) was thought to have been redacted (made into one book) by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel.

    376? Death of Ermanaric, king who ruled the Goths when their realm may have stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south and as far eastwards as the Ural Mountains.

    376 Start of first war between Visigoths and Rome. Völkerwanderung (German), age of the folk-wanderings, (Hallendorff and Schuck), barbarian invasions (of Roman Empire), migration period Wikipedia. Leading to Viking Age.

    The "Scandinavian people ... seem to have learnt the art of sailing during the period of the folk-wanderings" (Hallendorff and Schuck), page 15.

    393-397 AD Synods of the Christian Church decided which books would form the Christian Bible. This is composed of an "Old Testament" (the Hebrew Bible) and a "New Testament" (books about Jesus and the early Christians). The whole is arranged in approximate chronological order, giving a history of the material world from its beginning (Genesis) to future end (Revelation) [See 1611]

    405 AD Jerome completed his translation (commenced in 382) of the Bible from Hebrew and Arabic into Latin: the language common to educated christendom. It became known as the versio vulgata or Vulgate [external link   another ]

    Oldest surviving Targum dates from the fifth century, but Aramaic translations came about after the return from exile. See Onkelos

    Mythologiae (mythologies), a book accredited to the the Christian writer Fulgentius, re-told classic Greek stories of the Gods, and tried to explain them in Christian terms. - [early 5th century AD]

    410 Sack of Rome by Alaric 1

    De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii ("On the Marriage of Philology and Mercury") by Martianus Minneus Felix Capella, in which the seven female servants of Philologiae (word-love) are Grammar, who cuts out errors with her knife, Dialectic, Rhetoric, Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy and (musical) Harmony. Architecture and Medicine, were present but kept silent, because they are earthly rather than heavenly arts.

    420 to 650 Occupation of village at what is West Stow, Suffolk. The modern reconstruction uses wood and thatch. Most houses are partially sunk in the ground. Noël-Hume (1953) (Archaeology in Britain p.86) suggested "walls of wattle and daub, puddled clay floors, and ... roofs covered with thatch or turf" as common building materials, and a "single, window-less room with a hearth in the middle and a hole in the roof to allow smoke to escape".
    Autopsy of a sunken house and The History of West Stow Manor, West Stow Heath and Anglo-Saxon Village Site - internet archive

    about 429 Germanus of Auxerre (in Gaul) visited Britain to combat the Palagian heresy. Bede's account tells of a journey accompanied by miracles, through which some scenes of ordinary life show through. A "large fire" was "lit in the middle of the house". It threw up sparks and, the house and neighbouring houses, being thatched, caught alight, but the house in which Germanus lay was untouched.

    429 Conquest of North Africa by the Vandals

    4.9.476 Romulus Augustus, last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, deposed by Odoacer, a Germanic [Teutonic] chieftain

    From this period to the early 13th century, Constantinople [capital of he Eastern Empire] was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe.

    476 to about 800 The European "dark ages" were so called because historians considered they were a time of ignorance and lack of progress (Webster's dictionary 1960). [In the mid-1960s I attended adult education classes about this being a mistake]

    "Among our Teutonic forefathers the village community was apparently the chief sphere of sympathy and mutual aid for the commons all through the 'dark' and middle ages" (Charles Cooley 1909)

    A graph with a broader world-view

    The graph is taken from "One Thousand Years of Missing History" by Salim Al-Hassani

    The Talmud Bavli (Babylonian Talmud) was finished in the late fifth century using document from the third to fifth centuries.


    Brahmagupta `Bhillamalacarya' (589-668) Rajasthan (India). His textbook Brahmasphutasiddhanta is sometimes considered the first textbook "to treat zero as a number in its own right." It also treated negative numbers. Brahmagupta was also among the first to express equations with symbols rather than words. [See Great Mathematicians - Wikipedia - and Weber's Introduction to The Protestant Ethic... ]

    The legendary King Arthur of medieval romances is said to have led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders before his death at the Battle of Camlann about 542.

    "The Chronicles of Arthur relate how King Arthur, with the help of a Cornish carpenter, invented... the miraculous Round Table at which his knights would never come to blows... "no knight will be able to raise combat, for there the highly placed will be on the same level as the lowly"." (Mauss p.81)

    597 Augustine (of Canterbury) arrived in Kent to try to convert the inhabitants to Christianity. St Martin's Church, Canterbury, is said to have been the private chapel of Bertha, the Queen of Kent, before 597. The oldest surviving Anglo-Saxon church may be the Chapel of St Peter-on-the-Wall built between 660 and 662


    "lord and serf" - "guild-masters and journeyman" -
    See feudal and feudalism

    There is well established division of European history into antiquity or the Classical Period (ancient Greece and the Roman Empire), which comes to an end about the 5th century AD, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period, which stretches from there to about the 15th century, and then Modern Civilisation. [External Link]. This last period may be what present day theorists mean by modernity.

    Foucault: Middle Ages

    External link to Fordham University's Internet Medieval Sourcebook

    James Richards (2001) of Gordon University, Georgia, maintains that European culture has a "core of recurring basic ideas, values, beliefs, and aspirations" - archive


    ARABIC CIVILISATION empire   weblinks

    26.4.571 is one date given for the birth of the prophet Muhammad

    About 570 to 632 Muhammad. The Quran, the revelations of God to Muhammad from 610 to 632, was compiled into a single book shortly after Muhammad's death. It is the primary source of Shariah law. A translation into English was made in 1734.

    11.12.630 Muhammad's army conquers Mecca, which becomes the holy city of Islam

    Pages of the Quran discovered in a Birmingham archive are written on goat or sheep skin that has been carbon dated between 568 and 645, with a probability of more than 95%.

    See The Quran: The long journey into British life

    622AD is the first year of the Hijri era used in the Islamic lunar calendar. It marks the year that Muhammad and his followers moved from Mecca to Yathrib (later Medina).

    The works of the Greeks and Egyptians originally reached Christian Europe via the translations of scholars living in muslim countries. See 8th century

    At about the time that Muhammad was born, Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms were emerging in England (external link: Anglo-Saxon Origins: The Reality of the Myth by Malcolm Todd) - archive

    Iron helmet from ship burial ground at Vendel in Uppland, Sweden. "Vendel Period" is a term used for about 550 to the Viking Age.

    Early Germanic law codes were oral compilations of custom. Under contact with Rome, and literate civilisation, these laws began to be set down from the 7th century on. (Medieval Sourcebook)

    618 Tang Dynasty in China - Wikipedia

    657 A monastery was founded at Streanohealh by King Oswiu of Northumbria. 664 Synod of "Whitby" established the Roman date of Easter in Northumbria. about 680 death of Caedmon, who gave birth to English poetry. Between 867 and 870 monestry destroyed in a series of raids by Vikings. See geology - alum - crocodile - museum

    673 to 735 The Venerable Bede of Jarrow. Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (AD 731) was the first history to use the AD dating system. Written in Latin - Five Old English manuscript translations survive from the tenth and eleventh centuries. Bede's World), a theme park in Jarrow, closed from 12.2.2016 for lack of funds. Internet archive.

    Sometime in the 8th century AD The Vespasian Psalter. Latin to which an Old English translation was added in the ninth century. Old English cirican, which developed into church used: Latin "In medio ecclesiae laudabo te" translated as "in midle cirican ic hergo oe". (Psalm 22:22 translated "in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee" in 1611). See 597 and 900

    30.4.711 Islamic leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad landed at Gibraltar and by the end of the campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula was under Islamic rule. An Islamic presence continued until 1492 when Muhammad 12th surrendered Granada.

    10.10.732 The Battle of Tours or Poitiers (Christian) or Battle of Court of the Martyrs (Muslim) held Muslim advances and helped lay the foundations of the Christian Carolingian Empire.

    751 Battle of Talas between Abbasid caliphate and Tang dynasty. The Abbasids obtained the secret of papermaking from Chinese prisoners. See Wikipedia Islam during the Tang dynasty

    It is also suggested that the Abbasid army brought back sugar cane from northern India. See Sicily and Spain - Cyprus - Madeira islands - Hispaniola - Jamaica

    762 Abbasid caliphate established its capital at Baghdad

    Charlemagne (Charles the Great) was king of the Franks from 768 to 814

    793 to 1066. The Viking Age [See Sweden ships and iron]. wicingsceaoa is found in Anglo-Saxon glossaries from the 8th century. vikingr in Old Norse and Icelandic from the late 10th cent. Hallendorff and Schuck (page 14) define Vikings as "daring pirates and traders" sailing in "large bands" from Norway, Sweden and Denmark "to gain riches ... by peaceful barter or force of arms".
    "The Viking ship was perhaps the greatest technical and artistic achievement of the European dark ages. These fast ships had the strength to survive ocean crossings while having a draft of as little as 50cm (20 inches), allowing navigation in very shallow water". (William R. Short at Hurstwic, Massachussets.) - See Norman ship

    8.6.793 Vikings destroyed the abbey on Lindisfarne in Northumberland

    Chinese gunpowder 9th century AD? - Wikipedia - See 1044

    Under slave the Oxford English Dictionary says that the Slavonic peoples were reduced to a servile state by conquest during the 9th century.

    809 to 877 Hunain ibn Ishaq who directed the translation of numerous texts from Greek to Arabic at Baghdad

    About 820 al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wa'l- muqabala (later translated into Latin as Hisab al-jabr w'al- muqabala written by Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (780 to 850). "Al'Khwarizmi was an Islamic mathematician who wrote on Hindu-Arabic numerals and was among the first to use zero as a place holder in positional base notation." The word algorithm derives from his name and the word algebra from the title of the book. (See St Andrew's biography)

    859 The University of Al-Karaouine or Al-Qarawiyyin founded at Fes in Morocco.

    From Jeff Israel's map showing pre-colonial cultures of Africa

    The Sankofa bird recovers history
    The Ghana Empire or Wagadou Empire in West Africa existed from before about 830 until about 1235)

    The history of hourglass shaped talking drums can be traced back to the Ghana Empire. [See electric telegraph]

    The Akan have roots in ancient Ghana. They may have migrated from the Sahara into the forested region around the 11th century

    865 Mmycel heathen here (great heathen army) of Scandinavans invaded the four Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia and Wessex.

    866 Vikings captured Jorvik (York) and held it until 954. During this time that human coprolite formed. See Wikipedia - BBC - Wall Street Journal 12.10.1992
    Microscope slides reveal that thee York coprolite came from someone who mainly ate meat and bread and who was infested with worms.

    868 "the 'Diamond Sutra' is the world's earliest complete survival of a dated printed book". (British Library)

    Woodblock printing made the written word available to many more people during the Tang Dynasty (618 to 907) in China

    Wikipedia: History of printing in East Asia

    20.11.869 Death of Edmund, King of East Anglia, who became "Saint Edmund the Martyr". Killed by the Great Heathen Army. Greenstead Church booklet published about 1950: "the heathen Danes invaded... demanded that the young King, Edmund, should deny the Christian Faith. When he stoutly refused he was tied to a tree, shot with arrows and afterwards beheaded... The body of the martyred King was enshrined at Bedriceworth, modern Bury St Edmunds, and was greatly revered".
    See coins - 985 - 1003 - 1214 - Saint George

    23.4.871 - 26.10.899 Reign of Alfred of Wessex.
    877AD "This year came the Danish army into Exeter from Wareham; whilst the navy sailed west about, until they met with a great mist at sea, and there perished one hundred and twenty ships at Swanwich." (Anglo Saxon Chronicle). The Chronicle was begun in Alfred's reign (about 890- 892) and one copy continued to be updated to 1154.
    Memorial on Swanage front "In commemoration of a great naval battle fought with the Danes -in Swanage Bay by Alfred the Great. AD 877". "Erected by John Mowlem. AD 1862". John Mowlem was a builder who recycled London materials in Swanage. Alfred
    appears to have launched attacks on ships close to land, but not from Swanage. The four cannon balls that top the monument come from the Crimean War. See 1260

    before 899 to 910 or later Copper and silver coins minted with the Latin inscription Sce Eadmund Rex. Sce is taken to be an abbreviation for sanctus: saint. Rex is king.

    By 900 sugar cane was grown in Arab Sicily with irrigation that used underground tunnels (qanats). The irrigation also enabled cultivation of oranges, lemons, and pistachio. Carmen Trillo dates the introduction of "monsoon plants" to southern Spain to the same period.

    900 Approximate date for the Viking ships (used as graves) excavated in Norway at Tune in 1867, Gokstad in 1880 and Osberg in 1904

    From about 900 an English parish church was often built by the manorial lord, generally close to his house. Most would probably have been built of wood (timber), like that at Greensted in Essex whose timbers have been dated between 1063 and and 1108 (Researching the history of churches)

    907 Liao Dynasty in China - Wikipedia

    960 Song Dynasty in China - Wikipedia - Issued banknotes - established a permanent standing navy - first known use of gunpowder - discernment of true north using a compass.

    970 Abbot Brithnod of Ely, was "skilled at planting gardens and orchards."

    985 Abbo of Fleury's Life of St Edmund told the (mythical?) story of Edmund's martyrdom. See St Edmundsbury Chronicle

    987/988 Abu'l-Faraj Muhammad bin Is'haq al-Nadim's Kitab al-Fihrist "an Index of the books of all nations, Arabs and non-Arabs alike, which are extant in the Arabic language and script, on every branch of knowledge; comprising information as to their compilers and the classes of their authors, together with the genealogies of those persons, the dates of their birth, the length of their lives, the times of their death, the places to which they belonged, their merits and their faults, since the beginning or every science that has been invented down to the present epoch : namely, the year 377 of the Hijra."

    "lord and serf"
    See feudal - 1066 - and medieval
    Feudalism? Marc Bloch's Feudal Society covers the period (roughly) from the middle of the ninth century to the first decades of the 13th in western and central Europe. He divides the period into a first and second feudal age, separated by "profound and widespread changes" towards the middle of the eleventh century

    The High Middle Ages was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention end around 1500. (Wikipedia)

    The two centuries from 1000 to 1200 are a critical turning point in the Saint-Simonian system of history between the epoch with "theological" ideas and a feudal organisation of society and that with positive, scientific ideas and an industrial social organisation.

    Kalmar County Museum (Kalmar Läns Museum) in Sweden has a "Meet the Middle Ages" website that describes life in the 11th and 12th centuries.

    About 990 to 1050 Guido d'Arezzo (Guido Aretino) lived. Guido was an Italian monk trying to find ways of improving the teaching of monks to sing the Gregorian Chants that were a large part of their religious duty. He used a system of recording music as writing by arranging symbols for notes on either side of a line (later lines) so that, if you understood the notation you could sing the music. As music became writing it became possible to compose on paper instead of having to work as a group developing and transmitting it. Writing music created a system of concepts for the analysis and manipulation of a sphere of deep sensual experience believed to be sacred. It was part of the development of rational analysis out of religious tradition in Europe.

    1003 to 1013 Danish conquest of England under Sweyn Forkbeard. Saint Edmund's remains were moved from Bury St Edmunds to London for safekeeping in 1010. On the way back in 1013 they may have rested in a Saxon timber church at Greensted. The timber nave wall of the present church may be the oldest surviving wooden church in the world, but counting the rings gives a date after 1053.

    about 1008 Olof Skötkonung, he first Christian king of Sweden, baptised.

    Sweyn Forkbeard's son became King Cnut [Canute] of England, by conquest, in 1016. He went on to be "king of Denmark, England, Norway, and parts of Sweden". He established Benedictine monks at Bury St Edmunds in 1020.

    1021 Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics in Iraq.

    1044 Zeng Gongliang recorded three formulae for gunpowder in his The Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques, Each was based on saltpetre (potassium nitrate), sulphur and charcoal. Joseph Needham identified these as the earliest formulae for what we now know as gunpowder. The formula for gunpowder reached the Arab world in the 12th Century and Europe in the 14th century (source)

    1066 Norman conquest of England

    ["A Norman Ship" drawing by C.H.B. Quennell. In ships like this the last succesful invaders crossed the channel]

    See French - Latin - Old English

    A new society "knit together by the firm organisation of the
    feudal system" (Quennell 1948, vol. 1, pp 1-2)

    "After the Norman conquest" [both] "Viking raids and also peaceful emigration" [to England] "ceased" (Hallendorff and Schuck p.29)

    1073 to 1076 Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum (Deeds of the Bishops of Hamburg) written by Adam of Bremen. It includes an account the pagan temple at Uppsala, the images of three gods: Thor, Odin and Frö, and human sacrifices.

    1086 " William 1st commissioned a detailed inventory of all the land and property in England and Wales. The results of this first major statistical enumeration were set out in the Domesday Book" - First entry UK Statistical System Timeline archive

    1088 Convenience date for the foundation of the University of Bologna, Italy - the first in Europe. See L'Antico Studio di Bologna But where is it? by Mary Tolaro Noyes, January 1996 and Wikipedia article on universities
    See Paris and Oxford - 13th century - 14th century - 15th century

    Late 11th century on: European translations from Arabic into Latin of Greek authors, including the anatomist, Galen

    1095 Pope Urban 2nd called upon all Christians to join a war against the Turks. First of the Christian Crusades against the Muslims that ended in the late 13th century. See Wikipedia articles on Crusades.

    1048-1131 Omar Khayyám - Persian philosopher - Author of Al-jabr wal mugabalah of Omar Khayyam, a Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra - and of the poems known as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

    "towards the 12th century Carolingian script was replaced by a heavier, more pointed Gothic style. One of the reasons for this was that quill pens began to be cut at an angle, making it easier to produce these shapes." [External Link] . The term gothic (German) was used in the 17th century to distinguish this style of writing from the (French) Carolingian. Gothic then was applied to the architecture of the period.

    About 1120 Euclid rediscovered

    1130-1200 Life of Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi), Chinese neo- Confucian philosopher who wrote:
    "I have seen on high mountains conchs and oyster shells, often embedded in the rocks. These rocks in ancient times were earth and mud, and the conchs and .and oysters lived in water, Subsequently everything that was at the bottom came to be at the top, and what was originally soft became solid and hard"
    See William Smith 1815

    A Common Law for England: Henry 2nd (ruled 1154-1189) established royal courts at Westminster and divided England into circuits, over which his judges travelled and tried the more important civil and criminal cases in county courts. The judges did not impose a law from above, but brought together the traditional law they found in the different parts of the country to create one law that was common for the whole nation. To establish what the law of a district was, the traditional practice of trial by a jury of local people was revived. See law and crime time line

    Jews were encouraged by Henry 2nd to settle in England's towns. They were a source of finance and taxation until 1290.

    1157 Henry 2nd of England "to his justiciars, sheriffs, and all his officials in England, greeting. I command you to guard, maintain, and protect all the men and citizens of Cologne as if they were my own subjects and friends, and all their goods, merchandise, and possessions. You shall not permit them to suffer any loss or damage in their house in London, which is called their gildhall, or in their goods, or merchandise, or anything else that belongs to them, because they are faithful to me, and they are in my ward and protection. They shall have complete protection, and they shall pay only their customary tolls, and you shall not exact new tolls from them." (source)

    Before 1170? The University of Paris developed out of the Cathedral schools of Notre Dame. The short history of Oxford University says it (Oxford) developed rapidly after 1167, when Henry 2nd "banned English students from attending the University of Paris".

    1175 Ptolemy rediscovered

    Friday 2.10.1187 Fall of Jerusalem to Salah ad-Din

    1189 English king Richard 1st succeeded Henry 2nd. Time of "legal memory".

    16.3.1190 The entire Jewish community of York (about 150) died in attacks on the Royal Castle at York, where they had taken refuge.

    about 1199 Peter of Blois, archdeacon of London, stated in a letter to Pope Innocent 3rd that the City of London contained 120 parish churches and 40,000 inhabitants. (About the size of Ramsgate, Kent, in 2011). Charles Creighton in 1891 suggested that the population of London from Richard 1st to Henry 7th (about 300 years) varied between about forty to fifty thousand. See 1532 - 1602 - 1724 - 1801 - 1931 - 1945

    Mongolian peace? Genghis Khan established the Mongol Empire in 1206. It rapidly expanded by invasion and by 1300 stretched from Korea to Central Europe. Political stability re-established " silk road" trade between east and west. - 1260 - 1271 Yuan Dynasty - 1275 on: Japan resists - 1300: Marco Polo's book - 1347: plague - 1368: Ming Dynasty (end of Mongols) - 1453 (end of silk road) - 1488 sea route.

    Wikipedia timeline of the Mongol Empire

    The Early English Period in architecture was the 13th century according to Panoyre and Ryan 1958 or the reign of Richard 1st to 1307 according to the originator of the term Thomas Rickman

    "guild-masters and journeyman" - " Towns were growing rapidly... banded together in gilds [guilds] craftsmen and merchants grew powerful" (Quennell 1948, vol. 1, pp 68-2). In a craft guild, a worker started as an apprentice (unpaid trainee), might become a journeyman (paid by the day), and finally might become a master.

    Universities founded at Cambridge (1209) - Salamanca (1218) - Padua (1222) - Naples (1224) - Toulouse (1229) - Siena (1240) - Montpellier (1289) - Lisbon (1290)

    15.6.1215 King John signed the document later called Magna Charta at Runnymede, near Windsor. In 2014, barons are said to have met at Bury St Edmunds. This led to the town adopting Sacrarium Regis, Cunabula Legis "'Shrine of a King, Cradle of the Law" as its motto, possibly in 1849.

    22.12.1216 Ordo Praedicatorum (Order of Preachers), which became known as the Dominican Order or Black Friars, founded in France by a Spanish priest, Dominic de Guzman. Aquinas was a Dominican Friar.

    1220 Start of the building of the (new) Salisbury Cathedral - the one we now have. It took about hundred years to build. [external link]. The Norman Westminster Abbey was replaced in the middle of the 13th century. The oldest parts of the present building date from this period. [external link]

    about 1225: Sumer is icumen in, Lhude sing cuccu.
    Groweth sed, and bloweth med, And springeth the wude nu

    1225 to 1274 Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas created a synthesis between Christian theology and Aristotelianism. He asserted that political power is natural, as hierarchic relations already exist among the angels in heaven.

    1253 A reference to "Secole lan' extra Neugat' in suburbio London" in connection with a Charter of Henry 3rd is one of the clues that suggests coal was brought from north-east England to London by boat in the thirteenth century. See Marco Polo

    3.9.1260 In the battle of Ain Jalut (Galilee) the Muslim Mamluks checked the westward movement of the Mongols. Explosive hand cannons were used frighten the Mongol horses and cavalry.


    "To the Sheriffs of London, 23 July, 1264 Contrabreve to purvey for the King in the City of London without delay and without fail a boat- load of sea-coal and four millstones for the King's mills in Windsor Castle and convey them thither by water for delivery to the constable of the castle."

    1266 Henry 3rd of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa (merchant guild) a charter for operations in England, and the Cologne Hansa joined them in 1282 to form the most powerful Hanseatic colony in London. (Wikipedia)

    about 1270 Hasan al-Rammah described the purification of gunpowder in his Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices

    1271 Yuan Dynasty in China - Wikipedia - Established by the Mongolian leader Kublai Khan.

    1271 Last of the Christian Crusades against the Muslims.

    ["A Thirteenth Century Ship" drawing by C.H.B. Quennell. In ships like this Christians sailed to fight what they regarded as holy wars against Islam. The drawing is based on the Dover seal of 1284]

    By 1291 muslims had re-captured all the territory in Syria held by the Crusaders

    This is a war ship with castles at each end from which bowmen would shoot arrows. Quennell comments on the influence of tall Mediterranean ship design on
    northern ship design allowing archers to shoot down on lower ships. The steering is still by rowers rather than rudders.

    Early English parish chirch from Panoyre and Ryan 1958

    about 1275 "Holy church is a house of prayer, born of heaven Christ does it call, to worship therein our saviour".

    1275 to 1293 Composition of Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba, illustrated Japanese scrolls of battles with Mongolian invaders.

    In this the Mongols are believed to be using Chinese gunpowder bombs

    Lübeck's seal of the year 1280, depicted in Ernst Wallis Illustrated verldshistoria, published in Stockholm in 1882, page 333. From about 1200, Germans colonising conquered Baltic territories left from the north German port of Lübeck. It became the central Hanseatic trading city. The ship on its seal has similar features to Swedish boats 2,000 years before.

    1290 Edward 1st's Edict of Expulsion expelled all Jews from England. Jews did not return until 1657.

    1291 Fall of Crusader city of Acre to Muslims. End of Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099 -1291). Cyprus became an important Latin Centre. There is a record of the export of sugar from Cyprus (to Pisa, Italy) in 1301. Sugar was Cyprus' most profitable agricultural export from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. (Fergus Murray)

    1297 The metrical chronicle of Robert of Gloucester spoke of roses springing "of the brer". Brers (briars) were thorny tangles of wild roses, blackberries and similar plants.

    1299 Osman I declared himself Sultan. His territories became known as the Ottoman Empire. Centred in what we now know as Turkey, The (Islamic) Ottoman Empire established itself in Asia, Europe and Africa. Constantinople, the capital of the (Christian) Byzantine Empire, was captured by the Ottoman Empire in 1453

    1245-1322 Life of Ma Duanlin 1245-1322, Chinese writer who wrote the Wenxian Tongkao [Wen-tong-hian-kao]

    Universities founded at Rome in 1303 - Prague in 1348 (external link) - Krakow in 1364 (external link) - Vienna in 1365 (external link) - Heidelberg in 1386 (external link) - Erfurt in 1379 - Cologne in 1388 (external link)

    about 1300 Livres des merveilles du monde (Book of the Marvels of the World, also known as The Travels of Marco Polo.

    "31. - Stones which are burnt instead of Wood. ... throughout the whole province of Cathay," [China] "there are a kind of black stones cut from the mountains in veins, which burn like logs. They maintain the fire better than wood. If you put them on in the evening, they will preserve it the whole night, and will be found burning in the morning. Throughout the whole of Cathay this fuel is used. They have also wood indeed ; but the stones are much less expensive."

    1300 onwards Brimstone (burn stone) appears in English in the phrase "fire and brimstone". After Old French "feu et soufre", modelled on Latin "ignis et sulphur" for Hebrew of Bible. Brimstone, identified with sulphur, is the fuel of hell fire.

    Edward 2nd ruled England from 1307 to 1327

    Illustration of Reeve and Serfs in August calendar of a Psalter (now known as Queen Mary's) produced about 1310-1320 and now in the British Library.

    1324 Pope John 22nd issued the papal bull Docta sanctorum partum (Teachings of the Holy Fathers) condemning "a new school" who "trying to measure time, invent new notes"... "losing sight of the foundations of the antiphonary and the gradual" "under the multitude of notes" they "obscurate the modest ascents and fallouts of plain chant". (French Wikipedia)

    1327 Edward 3rd king of England aged 14, following his father being deposed.

    1336 Wreck of Kogge (Cog) in Flevopolder at Nijkerk. This has been reconstructed as the Kamper Kogge. Cogs were cargo ships operating from about 1200 to 1450, mainly in the Baltic and North Sea for the Hanseatic League. They could carry heavy cargoes of cloth, salt, fish, butter, wine, furs, grain, wax, beer, copper, iron, oil, flax and similar goods. (Twitter)

    1337 Conflict between Edward 3rd of England and Philip 6th of France over feudal rights in France led to the start of the "hundred years' war"

    1339 Confirmation of Hanse privileges in England and crown jewels of England pawned to Cologne merchant.

    1340 Edward 3rd of England asserted his claim to be king of France. 24.6.1340 Naval batlte of Sluys in which the English navy largely consisted of converted mercantile cogs. (Wikipedia)

    Europe: The Renaissance (cultural rebirth) is generally regarded as beginning in Florence, Italy, in the early 14th century. However, some historians speak of an earlier renaissance in France.

    "The civilisation of Greece and Rome, which ever since the fourteenth century obtained so powerful a hold on Italian life, as the source and basis of culture, as the object and ideal of existence, partly also as an avowed reaction against preceding tendencies - this civilisation had long been exerting a partial influence on medieval Europe, even beyond the boundaries of Italy. The culture of which Charles the Great was a representative, in the face of the barbarism of the seventh and eighth centuries, essentially a Renaissance, and could appear under no other form. Just as in the Romanesque architecture of the North, beside the general outlines inherited from antiquity, remarkable direct imitations of the antique also occur, so to monastic scholarship had not only gradually absorbed an immense mass of materials from Roman writers, but the style of it, from the days of Eginhard onward, shows traces of conscious imitations." (Burckhardt, J. 1960 pp 176 and 178. See also p.5.)

    Renaissance Oxford English Dictionary: Mid 19th century term for "The revival of art and literature under the influence of classical models between the 14th and 16th centuries, begun in Italy; the period of this movement". Penguin Encyclopedia: In Italy "from the death of Giotto 1337 that of Michelangelo 1564". See High Renaissance and Rinascita.


    Easter Sunday 8.4.1341 Francesco Petrarca's speech receiving a crown of laurel in Rome: "there was an age that was happier for poets, an age when they were held in the highest honour, first in Greece and then in Italy, and especially when Caesar Augustus held imperial sway, under whom there flourished excellent poets: Virgil, Varius, Ovid, Horace, and many others."

    1344 Date on this painting (The Annunciation) by Ambrogio Lorenzetti originally displayed in the Palazzo Pubblico (town hall) of the republic of Siena, Tuscany, central Italy. The traditional gold background gives a flat feeling that contrasts with the diagonals on the floor which use geometrical perspective to create depth.

    1347-1350 Black Death (Bubonic Plague) in Europe. "In England it reached a peak in July 1349"... "between a third and a half of the population died, the total falling from about 4.7 million to about 2 million, with a consequential severe shortage of labour." (Michael Warren). Further outbreaks (England) in 1361-1362, 1369, 1379-1383, 1389-1393, and during first half of the 15th century.
    ["A Fourteenth Century Ship" drawing by
    C.H.B. Quennell. In ships like this rats and fleas brought the bubonic plague] - "Europe's plagues came from China". "Plague would have reached Europe across the Silk Road".

    Lars Bruzelius (2000) writes of the "most intense development of the sailing ship" beginning when perpendicular square sails (common in northern Europe) were readopted in the Mediterranean in the mid-14th Century, in place of triangular sails. Carvel (flush, even planking) hulls replaced the northern clinker (overlapping planking) hulls.

    1349 English "Ordinance of Labourers"

    before 1350 Edward third of England founded St George's College, Windsor, attached to the chapel of St Edward the Confessor. The Order of the Garter was founded and the chapel became St George's Chapel. Part of the process by which St George became patron saint of England, displacing St Edmund

    1356 Delegates of the Hanseatic towns met in Lübeck. Taken as the formal foundation of the Hanseatic League, which made Lübeck its administrative headquarters in 1358. (Chronology - Rainer Postel - Wikipedia - Die Hanse today - Commerce)

    Ornamental gardens and civilisation

    "The creation of ornamental gardens indicates a degree of civilisation and a settled economy.... Such conditions had obtained in China long before the Christian era and also for a long time in Persia, whence they spread to Turkey about A.D. 1360." Richard Gorer The Growth of Gardens 1978, page 38.

    1362 The English Statute of Pleading required English as the language of the courts

    1362 Piers Plowman by William Langland published. New versions were published in 1377 and 1392.

    1368 Ming Dynasty in China, followed the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. - Wikipedia

    Mental Health 1377 Bethlem

    1377 - 1379 and 1381: Poll taxes (tax per person) levied in England. Imagery drawn on in 1990.

    1381 Peasants' revolt in England - See Wikipedia

    1384? Completion of the translation of the Vulgate into English now known as the Wycliffe Bible. Wycliffe Bibles are the most common manuscript literature in Middle English. Over 250 of them survive. Those who believed that the Bible could be interpreted directly by lay people, without the intervention of the church, became known as lollards.

    1387 Geoffrey Chaucer (1328-1400) started writing The Canterbury Tales. The East Midland dialect he wrote in became the basis from which standard English evolved.

    Before the age of printing
    Rhymers like Geoffrey Chaucer
    Were needed to preserve in public verse
    The life of the people.
    Whilst in the monasteries
    Chorister's memory preserved
    Plain song, whose metrical rhythm
    Underpinned the mathematics still to come.
    And in ways like this, modern science
    Was made possible by medieval poetry.

    Although she was the daughter of a town Mayor, Margery Kempe (about 1373-1438) was unable to read and write, but heard many sermons, and books read. When she came to write her book, she dictated it.

    1389 Death of Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari (born 1318), founder of the Sufi Muslim order known as the Naqshbandi.

    1397 Foundation of the Medici Bank in Florence, Italy.


      From Robin Rowles:

    "I am puzzled as to why you think that from AD1 (alleged year of birth of Jesus called the Christ) to AD99 is a century. At best it is 99 years and were Jesus to have been born in December AD1 as we celebrate it (unlikely), it is nearer 98 years. Why is the (eg) seventeenth century so called? Because it ends with 1700 so that is what it is! Mind you, this is a common mistake, after all the entire world celebrated the millennium a year early so you are not alone!"


    A schoolman is a teacher in any of the universities of medieval Europe - a medieval scholastic - someone versed in the traditional philosophy and theology of medieval scholasticism. The terms were developed in the 16th and 17th centuries to distinguish old knowledge from new knowledge.

    Scholasticism by Joseph Rickaby, Oxford, 1908

    Wikipedia article on scholasticism

    John Stuart Mill on importance of

    The ancient regime in France ended with the French Revolution in 1789. It is the revolutionaries term for the social and political order they abolished. But when did it begin? Wikipedia dates it from the 15th century. Others date it from 1610 France


    Mental Health 1409 Spain

    Universities founded at Leipzig in 1409 (external link) - St Andrews (1413) - Rostock (1419) - Leuven (1425) - Bordeaux (1441) - Barcelona (1450) - Glasgow (1451) - Greifswald (1456) - Bratislava (1465) - Uppsala (1477) - Copenhagen (1479) - Aberdeen (1495)

    1413-1415 Margery Kempe's pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
    She sailed from Norfolk to the continent in the Autumn of 1413 and followed the Rhine River to Switzerland, and then followed paths over the Alps to Italy, arriving in Venice in January 1414 and spent thirteen weeks, leaving in April 1414.
    She travelled from Venice to the Holy Land by sailing in a galley (a ship moved mainly by oars) probably to Jaffa, arriving in May. On a mule or donkey she travelled through Ramlah to Jerusalem and visited Bethlehem. Returning to Italy she stayed in Assisi before going to Rome, where she arrived in September 1414. Leaving Rome in Easter 1415, she travelled home though Middelburg (in today's Netherlands), and sailed from Zealand to England (probably Yarmouth) on a two day voyage in a small ship in mid-May 1415. (Sources 1 - 2)

    Friday, 25.10.1415 Battle of Agincourt. In Shakespeare's Henry 5th 1598, the king's 'once more unto the breach' speech concludes "Cry 'God for Harry, England, and Saint George!'"

    Ocean trade: the age of exploration

    1418 - 1419 A Portuguese expedition along the coast of Africa was blown into the open ocean and discovered the Madeira Islands.

    Ancient civilisations, like that of Greece were made possible by slavery. In western Europe this method of production gave way to feudal relations and then to free labour. But, as free labour developed in Europe, Europe developed slave labour abroad. From the 15th century, a system of colonial slavery was developed by the European powers. Transporting slaves from Africa to America began in the 16th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the theoretical analysis of slavery played an important part in the development of social science. In the 18th and early 19th century, these theoretical developments, in their turn, played an important part in undermining the colonial slavery that Europe had established throughout her colonies.
    Colonial slavery index 15th century: 1433 (Guinea) - 1447 (Pope) - 1455 - 1492 (Columbus) - 16th century:   22.1.1510 transalantic - mid century: negro and adventurers - 1562 John Hawkins - 1580 Mexico - triangular run - 17th century: 1607 Virginia - 1619 - 1627 Barbados - 1697 Bristol - 18th century: Rhode Island triangular - 1746 Bristol brass - 1791 - 1793 - 1794 - 19th century: 1802 - 1833 - 2.7.1839 - 1840 - 1863 -

    1422 to 1509 Paston family letters

    Burgess and Locke (1945) (p.20) say these give a "clear picture" of "the small patriarchal family of medieval society" in which " marriage was arranged by parents with stress upon economic rather than romantic considerations". See Die Familie (1912)

    1425 Portuguese introduced the cultivation of sugar to the Madeira islands. Expansion of the plantations began in 1445. At some time, African slaves were used.

    1433 Gil Eanes joined the service of Infante Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (died 3.11.1460. Later known as Henry the Navigator). Eanes brought slaves to Portugal from the Canary Islands. In 1434 he succeeded in sailing beyond Cape Bojador on the coast of the Western Sahara. By 1462 , the Portuguese had explored the coast of Africa as far as present-day Sierra Leone. The west African coast was known as Guiné

    1436 Four hundred years before Pugin's Contrasts.

    1447 to 1455: Pope Nicholas 5th authorised the Portuguese, and others, to make war on muslims and pagans, and to make them slaves. He applauded the trade in negroes, and hoped that it would end in their conversion.

    About 1450 Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press (but see China) - Which is probably why the middle of the 15th century is the most popular date for starting "modern history" (see above) - Another suggested start is towards the end of the sixtenth century - - Although the Penguin Dictionary of Modern History starts in 1789 (and finishes in 1945!)
    See Diamond Sutra - printed Euclid - English New Testament - printed Herbals - Copernicus - London 1635 - Beccaria: Printing enables human rights

    2.4.1453-29.5.1453 Siege and fall of Constantinople: The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror ended the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman) Empire after more than a thousand years by capturing the capital, Constantinople Consequent closure of the traditional overland route from Western Europe to the Far East. "An exodus of Greek people and works of art and literature into the Italian city-states" (Spark Notes).

    8,1.1455: Bull Romanus Pontifex of Pope Nicholas 5:

    "many Guineamen and other negroes, taken by force, and some by barter of unprohibited articles, or by other lawful contract of purchase, have been sent to the said kingdoms. A large number of these have been converted to the Catholic faith"

    In 1456 a comet appeared sufficiently brilliant for Pope Calixtus third to issue a declaration against "the Devil, the Turk and the comet". (Story possibly untrue). Detailed observations were made by Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli in Florence from 8.6.1456 to 8.7.1456. Not available to Halley, they were rediscovered in 1864 and allowed Giovanni Celoria to establish the comet's 1456 orbit with great precision. (Perihelion: 9.6.1456)

    1470/1471 Rentals (only copies now exist) of lead mines [meers=measures claimed] in Neustalls [Nestus] part owned by Henry Vernon, an ancestor of the Duke of Rutland. (Barnatt and Rieuwerts The Upper Nestus Pipes... Summer 1998) offline)

    1471 Pope Sixtus 4th donated bronze statues of symbolic significance to the People of Rome: The She-Wolf, the Spinarius (boy with thorn), the Camillus and the colossal head of Constantine, with hand and globe. The Capitoline Museums trace their history back to this. The museums are mainly from and about Rome.

    1476 William Caxton established a printing press at Westmenster in England where he first printed an edition of Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales

    1476 Fioretti di Santo Francesco d'Ascesi (Little Flowers of Saint Francis of Assisi) printed in Vicenza in the north of Italy. In this, St Francis preaches to birds and negotiates peace with a wolf. Francis of Assisi lived about 1181 to 1226 and became a saint in 1226.

    The first printed edition of Euclid was a translation from arabic into latin in 1482

    22.8.1485 Battle of Bosworth Field. Richard 3rd, last of the Plantagenets, replaced by Henry 7th, first of the English Tudor monarchs. A skeleton believed to be that of Richard 3rd was disinterred in Leicester in September 2012. Richard's identity was "proved" by his mitochondrial DNA, handed down in an unbroken chain through the female line from his sister to two living relatives.
    Death and Humility: Richard 3rd and the Historical Desecration of Corpses by Sarah Bond. "Accounts of the battle do hint at degradation of his body".

    1488 The rounding of the Cape of Good Hope by the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias was a significant step in establishing a sea route, round Africa, from Europe to India and the far east.

    1492 Christopher Columbus's first voyage to America. He visited Haiti. America

    On behalf of Spain, Columbus made four voyages to America

    ["Ship of the time of Christopher Columbus" drawing by
    C.H.B. Quennell, who argues that the "development of trade meant a corresponding improvement in ships" (p.186). Columbus's flagship, the Santa Maria, was about 93 feet long and 25 feet broad.]

    23.11.1492 "The Indians aboard call this Bohio and say it is very large and has people there with one eye in the forehead, as well as others they call cannibals, of whom they show great fear. When they saw I was taking that course, they were too afraid to talk. They say that the cannibals eat people and are well armed" [Log entry of Christopher Columbus translated by Robert H. Fuson 1992. p.115 source]

    1493 Pope Alexander 6th apportioned the non-European world west of the Azores to Spain, that east of the Azores to Portugal. Broadly, this meant Africa and Asia for Portugal and the Americas for Spain. The shape of South America, however, resulted in Portugal claiming what became Brazil. The grant was conditional on their converting the natives to Christianity.

    Marx and Engels wrote in the Communist Manifesto (1848) that "Modern industry has established the world market, for which the discovery of America paved the way". An earlier passage, however, also includes the opening of the Indian and Chinese markets.

    1494 ship of fools

    Part of the Hunt of the Unicorn tapestry, dyed with weld (yellow), madder (red), and woad (blue). Dating from between 1495 and 1505

    Bethlem 2015 "The earliest recorded uses of colour by man were from pigments from plant extracts".



    The transport of Africans to the West Indies, as slaves, began early in the 16th century.

    Early in the 16th century, Paracelsus (1493-1541) studied alchemy and chemistry at Basel University and learned the properties of metals and minerals in mines. His unorthodox mystical theories lost him the position of town physician of Basel (1526-1528), but through empirical experiment in pursuit of his dreams he made new chemical compounds and changed medicine and pharmacy. (See mental health history). Paracelsus sought to analyse matter into three elements: sulphur, the principle of colour and combustibility; mercury, the principle of liquidity, and salt, the principle of incorruptibility and consistency.

    High Renaissance 1500 to 1527: "to which belong Michelangelo's earlier works, Raphael's Roman works, and most of Leonardo de Vinci's works" (Penguin Encyclopedia)

    22.4.1500 A Portuguese fleet landed in what became Brazil. It then crossed the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean and India.

    22.1.1510 Ferdinand of Spain authorises 50 African slaves to be sent to Santo Domingo. The start of the systematic trans-Atlantic transportation. Until 1530 slaves were shipped from Europe.

    1512 Portugal discovers the Moluccas (Spice islands) in the East Indies, the source of cloves, nutmeg and mace. See 1555.

    1513 Niccolò Machiavelli's manuscript De Principatibus (About Principalities) circulating. Published in 1532 as Il Principe (The Prince)

    1517 The publication of Luther's ninety-five theses became the official launch of protestant christianity. The Bible was given priority over the church as the source of authority. The scope for religious disagreements multiplied as more and more people were able to read it for themselves. The movement for the reform of the Catholic (universal) church and the breakaway of protestant and reformed churches is called The Reformation.

    1518: Royal College of Physicians founded

    1519 Ferdinand Magellan sailed from Spain with a fleet of five carracks - large ships with plenty of room for crew, provisions and a return cargo. One ship returned in 1522, having circled the world

    1521-1530 97% of precious metal imports to Spain from America was gold, only 3% silver. Thereafter, 90% plus was silver. Most treasure before 1530 came from Hispaniola, Porto Rica and Cuba. After 1530 treasure came from the mainland of South America (Tierra Firme) and (less so) North America (New Spain) (Earl J. Hamilton 1929)

    1525 William Tyndale's The New Testament in English printed in Germany and shipped into England against official hostility

    1525 An anonymous herbal, an English translation of an unknown manuscript, published by the London printer, Richard Banckes, was the first English printed herbal. It was small, without illustrations, and therefore relatively cheap.

    about 1525 An alphabetical list of herbs 'necessary for a garden' compiled for Thomas Fromond (Surrey landowner, died 1543. Alphabetical list followed by groups of plants for specific purposes and by plants for a pleasure garden. First clear indication of gardens solely for pleasure in Britain. Amongst the plants were "Rosers" (Harvey 1989)

    1528 Copernicus finished a book arguing that the earth goes round the sun, not the sun round the earth. The first printed copy was in 1543 (see Galileo)

    1530: Juan de la Barrera of Seville transported slaves directly from Africa to the New World - See 1510.

    26.8.1531 Perihelion of a comet that had appeared in the sky above the earth. Peter Apian had observed that the comet's tail was always oriented into the direction away from the sun.

    November 1532 Bills of mortality were produced intermittently in the several parishes of the City of London during outbreaks of plague. The first bill of mortality is believed to date from November 1532. Working with the data that is available from this date, Charles Creighton in 1891 made to following estimates of the growth in London's population: 1532-1535: 62,400 1563: 93,276 1580: 123,034 1593-1595: 152,478 1605: 224,275 1622: 272,207 1634: 339,824 1661: 460,000

    Creighton (p.481) says the earlies figures (1532 and 1535) were produced to see if London was safe for King Henry 8th and his court.

    England breaks from Rome

    November 1534 Act of Supremacy established Henry 8th as head of the Church of England

    1534 - 1543 Travels around England of John Leland. "The advent of the first English antiquary... may, if we wish, be taken for a sign that the Middle Ages were indeed passing away and becoming matter for retrospect". (Trevelyan, G.M. 1942 p.99)

    1535 Coverdale's Bible. Ecclesiasticus 39:13 calls on people to flourish (flower) "as the rose garden", sing a song of praise.

    1536 Latin publication of John Calvin's Institution of the Christian religion: embracing almost the whole sum of piety and whatever is necessary to know the doctrine of salvation. French translation in 1541. Weber says that "the gracious and kindly father of the New Testament... dominates the first books of the Institutio Christiana, and behind him the Deus absconditus as an arbitrary despot"

    29.9.1538 Parish registers for every church ordered to be kept in England, recording "the day and year of every wedding, christening and burying".


    Sebastian Cabot's map of the world

    1546 Large silver deposits discovered in Zacatecas (Mexico) and Potos (Bolivia).

    1548 According to Edward Step in 1903: "The Oriental Plane is popularly supposed to have been introduced to England from the Levant by Francis Bacon, but if Loudon's statement that it was "in British gardens before 1548" rests on good evidence, Bacon's claim is dismissed, for he was not "introduced" until 1561."

    Step in 1903 suggests the oriental (eastern) and occidental (western) planes could be treated as "two varieties of one species". The form then (1903) familiar in London, known as the "Maple-leaved Plane" being a variety of the eastern whose leaves approached the form of the western. In the 1941 revision the London Plane is presented as a hybrid of the eastern and western appearing in 1670.

    Division of labour and manufacture: "That co-operation which is based on division of labour, assumes its typical form in manufacture, and is the prevalent characteristic form of the capitalist process of production throughout the manufacturing period properly so called. That period, roughly speaking, extends from the middle of the 16th to the last third of the 18th century". (Marx 1867 chapter 16). One of Marx's main examples is the division of labour in the manufacture of needles. (Compare Adam Smith and pins). See also Communist Manifesto

    1550 Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori da Cimabue insino a' tempi nostri (Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects) by Giorgio Vasari published in Florence. He wrote of a rinascita (rebirth) in the arts, and used the word Goth to describe a barbaric German style. [Go back to 376 - Gothic and 1436.

    1555 Richard Eden's The Decades of the Newe Worlde or West India..., being translations from Spanish, published. Speaks of the conflict between Portugal and Spain over the "trade of Spices". Later in the century, people also began to write about "commerce".

    1557 "Because no two things can be more equal" than two parallel line segments of the same length, Robert Recorde used the sign = for equals (As in 2+3=5). Recorde wrote all his mathematics texts in English, using clear and simple expressions. O'Connor and Robertson say that "Recorde virtually established the English school of mathematics and first introduced algebra into England". However, the = symbol was not widely used until the eighteenth century (See Euler in 1765, whe explains terms such as +, - and =)

    1558 Elizabeth 1st queen of England and Wales from 1558 to 1604, in succession to Mary. Elizabethan domestic architecture might use brick or stone or timber frames according to local materials. In London, narrow, timber framed houses commonly overhung the streets with each story wider than the one beneath.
    1559 The earliest surviving map of London depicts the crowded city and its suburbs just outside the wall.

    11.11.1563 Council of Trent doctrines on matrimony and celibacy.

    In the second half of the sixteenth century the words negro and niger entered the English language. Niger meant black in Latin. From it derived Negro as black in Spanish and Portuguese. In the 15th century this had come to mean black people, especially African people from south of the Sahara. Due to colonial slavery, negro was also used for slaves, as when a writer in 1589 writes of "Spaniards, with their servants and Negroes".

    From the mid-sixteenth century, the Portuguese attempt to monopolise the trade in African slaves and the Spanish attempt to possess all of America (apart from Brazil) - see 1493 - were challenged by French, English, Dutch, Danish and Swedish adventurers.

    1562 Commotion when a needle is lost. This tool was precious. "Until far on in the sixteenth century, there was not a needle to be had but of foreign manufacture" (Stone 1840)

    "A lytle thing with an hole in the end, as bright as any syller,
    Small, longe, sharpe at the poynt, and straight as any pyller."
    [ Gammer Gurton's Needle

    1562 to 1568 The slaving adventures of John Hawkins started English participation in the slave trade.

    from 1565 Galeón de Manila across the Pacific. from 1566 Flota de Indias Spanish West Indies Fleet across the Atlantic.

    1566 to 1568 Start of "the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain" - The Dutch Revolt or Eighty Years War - To 1648

    Adler von Lübeck (Eagle of Lübeck), a galleon, was the world's largest ship when launched in March 1566. The flagship of the Hanseatic League , it could carry 1,000 men and had 138 cannons to protect the Baltic trade.

    1570 I quattro libri dell'architettura (The Four Books of Architecture) published in Venice by Andrea Palladio (1508-1580).

    Palladio derived laws of architectural proportion for the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. He set out the principles for buildings in the "classical era" which has been dated as between 1620 and 1800 in England.

    According to Zygmunt Bauman and Timothy May, "It was roughly towards the end of the sixteenth century that in parts of western Europe" a picture of the social world as naturally ordered "began to fall apart". (Bauman, Z. and May, T. 2001 p.117) - See nature and culture. Before this time, they say, is "often referred to as 'pre-modern'. The modern period "established itself in the western world approximately three centuries ago" (1700), so the 17th century is their century of transition.

    In th history of social theory, we could relate the transition between "pictures of the social world" to the publication of Bodin's Six Livres de la Republique.

    1577 Jean Bodin published Six Livres de la Republique, the first major systematic treatment of politics since Aristotle. He argued that property and the family form the basis of society. His arguments from the material world (in contrast to Aquinas who argues from theology) make him a founder of the philosophical approach to social theory known as state of nature theory.

    Marx and Engels argued that one of the qualifications required by science is that its theories should start from material premises rather than theological ones. In this sense, Bodin is one of the earliest founders of social science.

    13.12.1577 Start of pirateering journey that was to become Francis Drake's circumnavigation of the world. Plymouth - San Julian (South America) - Strait of Magellan - Mocha Island - coast of California (17.6.1579) - Moluccas - Cape of Good Hope - Sierra Leone (22.7.1580) - Plymouth (26.9.1580). Brought back a cargo of spices and captured Spanish treasures. Although Drake's journey was hailed as a circumnavigation of the globe, the details were made a state secret, for fear of Spain.

    1578 There is a series of tables showing weekly christenings and burials (from plague and other causes) in London for the five years from 1578 to 1582. Creighton (p.479) says "everyone was christened in church under Elizabeth, and there were no Dissenters' burial grounds".

    1579 The Shepheardes Calender with twelve pastoral poems, one to each month, by Edmund Spenser. Woodcut for May. In the woodcuts, astrological signs represent heaven above the earth. See 1597 and 1632.

    1580 to 1640 Indigenous populations in Mexico declining due to new infectious diseases. Africans brought to Spanish colonies in deals with the Portuguese, who controlled the African slave market. See "The black people 'erased from history'" and Afro-Mexicans

    1584 to 1604: Long war between England and Spain. June to September 1588: Spanish Armada

    Filmer (author of Patriarcha) and Thomas Hobbes (author of Leviathan) born

    1593 to 1597 Richard Hooker published the first five volumes of his
    Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity. These argued that the Bible is not the only guide to truth that God has provided, because God has established the universe according to laws and provided human beings with reason by which they can discover those laws. Three other volumes were published after Hooker's death. Locke's arguments in his Two Treatises of Government, and elsewhere, have strong similarities with Hooker's.

    1592: Bernard Ericks of Holland taking part in the slave trade.

    1594: L'Espérance of La Rochelle, France, taking part in the slave trade.

    Rene Descartes born

    1597 William Shakespeare, in Merchant of Venice describes the music that the heavenly spheres create as they circle the earth. See Copernicus

    1597 John Gerard's (1545 - 1611 or 1612)'s Great Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes. Enlarged and revised by Thomas Johnson (Died 1644, probably aged under 44) in 1633 (also re-published 1636).

    1598 In Catholic France, Henry 4th enacted the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to the Protestants. He was assassinated by a Catholic in 1610. France

    1598 James 6 of Scotland (James 1 of England) published The True Law of Free Monarchies. Theories from this and other writings of the king were used by Filmer.

    1598 First publication of John Stow's A Survey of London - See mental health timeline


    In his play, As You Like It, William Shakespeare said that the whole social world is a stage on which the same people play different parts at different times. This is the basic idea of role theory, later developed by social scientists. The same passage defines the "seven ages of man".

    In Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar, Cassius says "Men at some time were masters of their fates. The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, But in ourselves that we are underlings."

    John Donne "To his mistress going to bed", sometime late 16th century

    "In this love's hallowed temple, this soft bed.
    "... thou, Angel, bring'st with thee
    "A heaven like
    Mahomet's Paradise;

    "License my roving hands, and let them go
    "Before, behind, between, above, below.
    "O my America! my new-found-land,

    The late 16th century is a possible beginning for the triangular trade or run with slaves as the middle run. The first leg of the run was of manufactured goods (see Bristol 1746) from European ports to the west coast of Africa, to be bartered for slaves and other produce. Then, with slaves packed in the cargo holds, across the Atlantic (the Middle Passage - where some cargo died) to colonies in the Caribbean and on mainland America. Slave were there auctioned and mainly became plantation workers. The ships returned to their European home with goods like cotton, sugar, coffee and tobacco.


    See Social Science History, chapter two:
    Hobbes, Filmer and Locke:
    17th Century Models for a Science of Society

    about 1600 First alum mines in England opened, based on alum-stone at Belman Bank, Guisborough. See Tees wildlife - East Yorkshire Coast Geology - Whitby walk (7: Alum) - Wikipedia and Whitby

    1600 William Gilbert in De Magnete coined the word "electrica" for "quae attrahunt eadem ratione vt electrum" (that which attracts in the same manner as amber). His word referred only to the property of attracting lightweight objects, which we now call static electricity. As the science of electricity developed, so the word took on expanded meaning.

    1601 Elizabethan Poor Law under which each parish was responsible for looking after its own poor.

    1603 Death of Elizabeth 1. James 6 of Scotland became James 1 of England

    Brick replacing timber: English Heritage describe brick buildings being built in 17th century London as small groups of two or three in streets, yards, and alleys, and as ribbon development along the main raods. They were not just houses, but workshops, offices, shops, and taverns, each with a rear private space used either as a garden or as a backyard for trade or washing. Few survive. See 1666

    The stars and human history: See Shepheardes Calender - Shakespeare - 1607 comet - 1611 Bible

    1603 Christopher Heydon's A Defence of Judicial Astrology argued, against John Chamber's A Treatise Against Judicial Astrology (1601), that astrology is a valid science, supported by experience. Natural astrology argued that the position of the stars influenced nature, judicial astrology that they influenced individuals and society. Astrology adopted the idea of crises:

    "When the moon comes to the 22 of Gemini, she shall there begin to work a dangerous crisis, or alteration .. so preventing her ordinary working" (Heydon)

    1603 Shakespeare's The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice includes the phrase "making the beast with two backs"

    1604/1605 Shakespeare's All's Well that Ends Well. Critics have never been sure if it ends well or badly. It includes a weaving analogy

    "The web of our life is of a mingled yarn, good and
    ill together: our virtues would be proud, if our
    faults whipped them not; and our crimes would
    despair, if they were not cherished by our virtues."

    Shakespeare's Macbeth, cannot be dated precisely, but appears to many to be celebrating King James's ancestors and the Stuart accession to the throne in 1603. Some have suggested their are allusions to the Gunpowder plot. (Wikipedia)

    The character of Lady Macbeth was used by Lombroso in 1876 as evidence for his conclusion that "violent women far exceed men in their ferocity and cruelly".

    1606 An essay of the meanes how to make our travailes, into forraine countries, the more profitable and honourable, by Thomas Palmer, divided the "fuitfullness of the soil" into things that live and move on the surface (plants and animals) - "things as are hid in the wombe and veines of the earth" "mines of mettals and fossiles" - and the "plentie of rivers and ports". See Noah - fossils 1736 - William Smith - census fossils - vestiges of creation - Coprolite - Mortillet

    Johannes Kepler recorded his observations of a comet at Prague from 26.9.1607 to 26.10.1607 and Christian Longmontanus at Malmo and Copenhagen from 1.10.1607 to 26.10.1607. (Perihelion: 27.10.1607 at at 2 16' Aquarius). These observations were later used by William Halley.

    The summer of 1607 by Able Grimmer of Antwerp

    1609 Comentarios Reales de los Incas by Garcilaso de la Vega (1539-1616) published in Lisbon. Garcilaso de la Vega was the son of a Spanish conquistador and an Inca noblewoman and his book is based on stories he had been told by his Inca relatives.

    21.3.1610 Speech to Parliament in which King James said "kings are not only God's lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon God's throne, but even by God himself they are called gods". (external link)

    14.5.1610 Francois Ravaillac assasinated Henry 4th of France. Henry's widow initially acted as Regent for their son, Louis 13th. Under the guidance of his minister, Cardinal Richelieu, Henry 13th consolidated his royal power. An "absolute monarchy" was established in France in his reign and that of his son, Louis 14th. France

    1611 Official (King James or Authorised) version of the Bible in English published. [See 393] The Bible story is largely chronological - beginning with the genesis of the world and ending with divine revelation of its end. It provided the framework for many historical explanations of nature and society. Usher gave it precise dates. For generations this book, more then any other, provided the English speaking peoples with poetry, history, religion, politics, ethics, names, imagery and visions, as well as a framework for natural and social science. Its downfall as the basis of science in the 19th century was a cultural cataclysm. However, the Bible, critically read, continued to be a major source of material for emerging social sciences such as anthropology.

    The Westminster Confession (1647/1648) effectively, although only for a short time, set the Bible up against the King: Which was not what James had intended!

    In the first book (Matthew, chapter 2) of the Christian part of the Bible, the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem is marked by "wise men from the east" who have "seen his star". Bethlehem as the birth place is corroborated by Jewish "priests and scribes" by reference to the "prophets".

    1613 Francisco de Suarez, a Spanish Catholic theologian, published Defensio Fidei Catholicae, criticising James 1st's theory of the divine right of kings. Saurez's book was burned in London.

    1613 Samuel Purchas in Purchas his pilgrimage; or, Relations of the world and the religions observed in all ages and places discovered transmitted knowledge of the lazy animal to the English saying, "There is a deformed beast of such slow pace, that in fifteen days it will scarce go a stones cast. It liveth on the leaves of trees, on which it is two days in climbing, and as many in descending, neither shouts nor blows forcing her to amend her pace. The Spaniards call it (of the contrary) the light dog. The Portugals Sloth. The Indians, Hay. Some have written that it lives of air: and seldom or never have it been seen eating". (Second edition, enlarged 1614 Chapter 4: America: Brazil, page 835) (Internet Archive) offline)

    1614 In France, the Queen Regent called the States General (a representative body like the English parliament) together in an effort to counter the power of the nobility. It was dismissed in 1615, and did not meet again until 1789 France

    1618 Start of the thirty years war that concluded with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648

    1618 Company of Adventurers of London Trading to the Ports of Africa granted a charter. Developed into the Company of Merchants Trading to Guinea in 1631. Known as the Guinea Company/)

    Inigo Jones finished the Queen's House in Greenwich, England, in 1619

    Picture from Panoyre and Ryan 1958 p.118, who date the "buildings of the classical era" (in Britain) from 1620 to 1800

    1620 Francis Bacon published Novum Organum, one of the works in which he publicised his new method of gaining knowledge (science) by a process of induction.

    Francis Bacon was the Lord Chancellor of England from 1617 to 1621. On 16.6.1620 he and others recommended that the Attorney General, Henry Yelverton, should be tried in the Star-chamber on the ground of having officially passed a charter to the city of London containing unauthorised provisions. "James 1 was always in want of money, and not over nice in his methods of raising it" (Edward O'Donoghue 1914)

    1621 Oxford Physic Garden founded by Henry Danvers, Earl of Danby, See 1632. Renamed the Oxford Botanic Garden in 1840.

    12.9.1621 A light display in the sky witnessed by Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) and Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) led them to use the term aurora borealis: northern light or northern dawn. The next one so far south was in 1716.

    1623 Probably after this date that Hobbes translated several of Bacon's essays into Latin and took down his thoughts as Bacon dictated them.

    See Social Science History, chapter one:
    John Stuart Mill and his problems with Francis Bacon

    1623 Devotions upon Emergent Occasions by John Donne: "No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friend's or of thine own were: any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee." (Meditation 17)

    1624 Njinga Mbandi (born 1581) took power and became queen of Ndongo and Matamba. She "defined much of the history of seventeenth- century Angola". Her tactics in warfare and espionage, her diplomatic skills, her ability to forge numerous strategic alliances, and her knowledge of trade and religious issues served her well in tenaciously resisting Portugal's colonialist aspirations until her death in 1663" (UNESCO "Women in African History: An E-Learning Tool", launched 12.11.2013)

    1625 Charles 1st succeded James 1st. See Richard Cust The Personality and Political Style of Charles 1. "His reform of the royal court ... introduced a style of ritual similar to Louis 14th's Versailles in an attempt to create an ideal society for his subjects to emulate" [That is, the dramaturgical procedures of the English court preceded those of the French]

    1625 De Jure Belli ac Pacis (On the Law of War and Peace) by Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) published. "He wrote this volume while the Thirty Years' War raged around him in the hope that rational human beings might be able to agree to legal limits on war's destruction."


    17.3.1628 Benjamin Rudyerd in the English House of Commons: "This is the crisis of Parliaments: we shall know by this if parliaments live or die. If we persevere, the King to draw one way, the parliament another, the Commonwealth must sink in the midst."


    Charles 1st decided to rule without Parliament. Parliament was not recalled until 1640

    1629 John Parkinson's Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris Or A garden of all sorts of pleasant flowers which our English air will permit to be nursed up. With a kitchen garden of all manner of herbs, roots and fruits, for meat or sauce used with us, and an orchard of all sort of fruitbearing trees and shrubs fit for our land. Together with the right ordering, planting and preserving of them and their uses and virtues Collected by John Parkinson Apothecary of London.


    In Italy Galileo published his A Dialogue on the Two Principal Systems of the World-Ptolemaic and Copernican.   See Ptolemy and Copernicus. Notes on Hobbes and Galileo and Hobbes on Deductions from simple axioms

    The Latin edition (engraving left) was published in 1635, making the book international. In the engraving, Aristotle discusses with Ptolemy (holding an earth centred universe) and Copernicus (whose earth circles the sun)

    If Copernicus was right, where is heaven?

    1632 Inscription on the new gate to the Oxford Physic Garden "Gloriae Dei optimi maximi Honori Caroli I. Regis in Usum Academiae et Reipublicae Henricus Comes Danby, Anno 1632". [To the glory of God and the greatest honour of King Charles I Henry Earl of Danby for the use of both the University and the state in the year 1632]. (source)

    1632 John Locke (author of Two Treatises of Government) born

    1633 In Johnson's edition of Gerard's Herbal he describes two small plants of the American or Western (Occidental) Plane growing in John Tradescant's garden in Lambeth. (Louden 1836). It has been inferred that Tradescant (the younger?) brought seed to England about 1630. See 1670


    In 1635 there were twenty two master printers of London - Some licensed, some not survivors' history

    31.7.1635 Royal proclamation "For settling of the letter Office of England and Scotland". Origin of the public post office in Britain.

    1637 In France, René Descartes published Discourse de la méthod, a slim book in which he argued reason as the foundation of knowledge and the source of certainty. He also reviewed his previous argument that the body is a machine which, in humans, but not animals, is directed by the soul.


    November 1640 Hobbes left England to live in Paris because he thought parliament might arrest him as a supporter of the king's powers against parliament.


    Newton born


    Saint Simon refers to "the two English revolutions of the 17th century". One I take to be the civil war and the other the bloodless revolution of 1688 [See revolution]

    November 1642 English civil war began between Charles 1st and parliament over the power of each. [See Hobbes, Filmer and Locke]

    1643 Filmer arrested by Parliamentary forces and kept for several months in Leeds Castle, Kent. It is not clear how much of 1643-1647 he was imprisoned, but he was at liberty in 1647

    In 1644 the seven General Baptist churches issued the London Confession which said that men must be allowed to obey their own conscience and understanding. At this time, George Fox (Quaker) was "in great trouble" and desperately seeking spiritual help. In 1647, however, Fox began preaching under the conviction of the "inner light". The civil war, and the republican Commonwealth that followed it, were a period of intense religious ferment, individual thought and social disorder. Knowledge by the inner inspiration of God was known as "enthusiasm". Locke's Essay on Understanding (1690) sought to establish science as a common knowledge that could control the divisiveness of enthusiasm.

    1644 Qing Dynasty in China


    19.2.1645 New Model Army Ordinance. "The scoutmaster-general ... was responsible for reconnaissance and collecting intelligence on enemy movements".

    1646 In Paris Hobbes became mathematical tutor to the exiled Prince of Wales (later Charles 2nd)

    May 1646 King Charles 1st surrenders himself to the Scottish Covenanters, who ally with the English Parliament in the summer. He is still King - But from now on he is a king under duress. From June 1646 he was held by the army. He is still free enough (in prison on the Isle of Wight) to initiate a new civil war by a concluding a military alliance with the Scottish Covenanters that threatened the English Parliament - 1647/1648. (See Open University Civil War Timeline) - archive

    1647/1648 The Westminster Confession: An official document (no longer official in England after 1660) specifying the Bible as a foundation of belief superior to (though not, presumably, contradicted by) nature. [External link to Michael Marlow's introduction]

    1648 Filmer published political pamphlets in support of absolute monarchy and the divine right of king's

    30.1.1648 End of the war between Spain and the Netherlands. Treaty of Münster signed 15.5.1648 (first of the Peace of Westphalia treaties). Karl Marx referred to "the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain" as the "only model" for the English revolution of 1648. The revolt had begun in 1566/1568. [See revolution]

    May to October 1648 Peace of Westphalia - It is argued that the peace treaties recognised the territorial integrity of nation states.


    17.8.1648 - 19.8.1648 Battle of Preston (Lancashire). The New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell defeated the Royalists and Scots commanded by the Duke of Hamilton. End of the Second English Civil War.

    6.12.1648 Begining of "Pride's Purge" removing members of Parliament sympathetic to King Charles and leading to the declaration of a republic. Karl Marx refers to an "English revolution of 1648" in which "the bourgeoisie was allied with the modern aristocracy against the monarchy, the feudal aristocracy and the established church." [See revolution]. The purged parliament is known as the Rump Parliament.

    30.1.1649 Execution of Charles 1st.

    From a German engraving published in 1649.
    Abolition of the monarchy and the House of Lords in England. Commonwealth established. Under the Commonwealth Filmer lost some of his property as a result of his loyalty to the king

    The Interregnum (period between reigns) was a republican period in the England, Ireland and Scotland, ending with the restoration of Charles 2nd in 1660

    1650 Rene Descartes died

    Between 1650 and 1654, James Usher's Annales Veteris at Novi Testamenti (years of the old and new testaments) dated the events in the Bible. The creation was fixed as taking place in 4,004 BC. Usher's dates were not only printed in the margins of many Bibles, but were accepted as scientific for a long time. See 2 - 3 -

    April 1651 Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan or The Matter, Form and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiastical and Civil published in London (Hobbes still in France). It distressed some of his previous supporters because it defended absolute rule, but not necessarily monarchical rule.

    Lecture notes on Hobbes
    Social Science History, chapter two: Hobbes, Filmer and Locke
    Extracts from Leviathan
    Hobbes weblinks

    Louise 14th and absolutism France
    7.9.1651 Procession to mark the formal ending of the minority of Louis 14 of France. Hobbes watched the procession from his window. From 1661, when he threw his chief minister into prison, until his death in 1715, Louis 14 ruled personally. "L'etat c'est moi" (I am the state), he said.
    See his system of power and Wollstonecraft's comments

    imitation materials Roland Barthes (1955): "the first vestimentary postiches date back to the rise of capitalism". Postiche (false) can be used for a hairpiece. Louis 14 used hairpieces to supplement his thinning hair, before having his head completely shaved and wearing a wig.

    End of 1651 Hobbes returned to England


    Quaker disturbances in north-east England. George Fox and others drawing people out of the national church and setting up an alternative organisation.

    1652 - 1674 Anglo-Dutch Wars


    20.4.1653 Oliver Cromwell, Commander in Chief of the Parliamentary Army, dissolved Parliament.

    30.5.1653 Sir Robert Filmer died

    16.12.1653 Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector under a constitution that combined his rule with a Parliament. First volume of Biblia Sacra Polyglotta published. It hadthe support of Cromwell.

    1654 Community care under the Old Poor Law

    1657 Sixth volume of Biblia Sacra Polyglotta. The six volumes included texts in Latin, ancient Greek, Arabic, Chaldean, Hebrew, Ethiopian, Persian, Samaritan and Syriac. Italian Wikipedia. Included Onkelos Targum.

    1658 The Annals of the World by James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh. Church of Ireland. London. Printed by E. Tyler, for F. Crook, and G. Bedell. 1658 Available online.


    1660 Restoration of English monarchy under Charles 2nd, who attempted to unify the country around a common religion. Charles landed at Dover on 25.5.1660 (Pepys). From then to 1662 there was a period attempting to include moderate puritans (not baptists, ranters and quakers) in the established church.

    " In the reign of Charles II. a degree of licentiousness was deemed the characteristic of a liberal education. It was connected, according to the notions of those times, with generosity, sincerity, magnanimity, loyalty, and proved that the person who acted in this manner, was a gentleman, and not a puritan" Smith, A. 1759

    Mary McIntosh (1968) says "there was no homosexual role, with its associated preclusion of heterosexual activity and justificatory belief systems" before this. The homosexual role "did not emerge in England until towards the end of the late 17th century."

    28.11.1660 Meeting that decided to start a "College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning" which led to the "The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge" (the Royal Society). John Locke became a member 26.11.1668. Isaac Newton became a member 11.1.1672. Thomas Hobbes did not become a member.

    External link to Royal Society web:. This includes a history of the Society and (via library and archives) information on its members.

    Trailblazing timeline 1650-2005 To celebrate the 350th anniversary in 2010 - Articles published by the Royal Society. - See Philosophical Transactions

    18.12.1660 Charles 2nd granted a charter to The Company of the Royal Adventurers into Africa.


    1.1.1661 to 4.1.1661 Venner's Rising.


    19.5.1662 Act of Uniformity requiring the use of the Book of Common Prayer and an oath of allegiance.

    Act of Settlement said one acquired a right to relief in a parish by being born there, married there or serving an apprenticeship there. Adam Smith later (1776) criticized this Act for interfering with the mobility of labour.

    Ed Stephan's A Sociology Timeline begins with the birth of John Graunt on 20.4.1620. In 1662 Graunt published his Observations on the Bills of Mortality which drew social conclusions from the tables of London deaths (See words). The time line concludes with Ed Stephan's own The Division of Territory in Society in 1995.

    "We have (though perhaps too much at Random) determined the number of the inhabitants of London to be about 384,000"

    1662: Simon Patrick in Brief account of the new sect of Latitude Men, together with some reflections on the New Philosophy argues that the mechanical idea of the world will mend a clock, but the scholastic will not. A fashionable version of the mechanical philosophy is that everything is the result of the inter-action of atoms. There was a hope (soon to be disappointed) that microscopes would reveal this. - See external link Atomism in the 17th century

    1662 Anonymous publication of The Port Royal Logic: La logique, ou l'art de penser (logic or the art of thinking), by Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694) and Pierre Nicole (1623-1695) of the Jansenist convent of Port Royal just outside Paris. Written in everyday French, and translated into everyday English and other modern languages, it popularised "the art of using reason well in the acquisition of the knowledge of things". (See Mill A System of Logic)

    29.1.1663 Death of Robert Sanderson who is said to have planted the London Plane trees at Buckden Towers in Cambridgeshire.

    12.10.1663 Abbortive plot "to re-establish a gospel ministry and magistracy; to restore the Long Parliament; to relieve themselves from the excise and all subsidies and to reform all orders and degrees of men, especially the lawyers and clergy" did not storm Leeds in Yorkshire. Distancing Quakers from the plotters, Francis Howgill said of one of them, Reginald Fawcett "has been disowned by us these six years, nor do I believe he hath pretended to come among us these two years".

    1663 Shecinah: or, A demonstration of the divine presence in the places of religious worship by John Stillingfleet, rector of Beckingham, Lincolnshire (died 1687) defended the church against the Quakers.

    February 1665 Announcement at an ordinary meeting of the Royal Society of the publication of Philosophical Transactions, which the society claims as the "world's first and longest-running journal of science".

    Philosophical Transactions was initially a project of Henry Oldenburg (born about 1619, died 5.9.1677) who was secretary to the Royal Society and its foreign correspondent. The early journal consisted of letter-excerpts, reviews and summaries of recently-published books, and accounts of observations and experiments from European natural philosophers (scientists). After his death it continued to be produced by a succession of individual proprietors until 1752, when the Royal Society took over financial responsibility for it.

    See Royal Society events to mark 350th anniversary and Philosophical Transactions: 350 years of publishing at the Royal Society (1665 - 2015) and 350 year birthday

    Sunday 2.9.1666 for five days: Fire of London.
    Bethlem rebuilt. and Quakers re-located. - See St Paul's 1697

    Brick was widely adopted as a London building material after the great fire. See Plough Court. - five ways the fire changed London

    Fire insurance: Nicholas Barbon's "Fire Office" established in 1667. Sun Fire Office established in 1710. See insurance history.

    15.12.1666 three ships come sailing in

    1667 First edition of John Milton's book long poem Paradise Lost in which he sought to "justify the ways of God to men". See text.

    About 1670 Henry and Flood (1919) suggest the possible origin of the London Plane tree in the Oxford Physic Garden as a hybrid between the Oriental and Occidental Plane. See Platantus. But see Buckden Planes - The Ely Plane is consistent with this date.

    about 1670 Maypole song

    1672-1678 Franco-Dutch War

    1673 The first of the letters from Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632- 1723) to the Royal Society, in which he described what he saw through his single lens magnifier (microscope). Amongst the small living things he looked at were sperm, blood cells, bacteria, algae (spirogyra) and protozoa (vorticella). See external link


    9.10.1676 From Leeuwenhoek: "In the year 1675 I discovered living creatures in rain water, which had stood but few days in a new earthen pot... those little animals appearing to me ten thousand times less than those called water fleas... which may be perceived in the water with the naked eye. The first sort by me discovered ... I.. observed to consist of ... clear globules... When these animalcula or living atoms did move, they put forth two little horns, continually moving themselves... " [Animalcula: diminutive of animal. Little animal. Wikipedia and Gilbert and Sullivan.

    1679 Thomas Hobbes died.

    1680 Patriarcha by Sir Robert Filmer (died 1653) published. This supported absolute divine right of kings.

    1680 Possible date for planting of the Ely Plane. The Plane at Barn Elms (In the Ranalagh Club grounds in 1919) was considered by Henry and Flood to be the same size and so they suggested the same date. It is known to have existed in the mid-eighteenth century.

    22.1.1680 Locke bought a copy of Patriarcha. It was probably at this period that Locke wrote the first treatise on Government (published 1689/1680), criticising Filmer. If so he would have kept it secret for fear of the king's police.

    March 1680 London Penny Post introduced by William Dockwra. (Link to British Postal Museum and Archive). The service used coffee houses and similar places as collecting points. "... the coffee houses in their golden age between 1680 and 1730" (Habermas, J. 1962/1989 p.32).


    Nehemiah Grew Musæum regalis societatis; or, A catalogue and description of the natural and artificial rarities belonging to the Royal Society and preserved at Gresham Colledge 1st edition. "The Sloath" [is] "An Animal of so slow a motion, that he will be three or four days, at least, in climbing up and coming down a Tree".


    Between 26.8.1682 and 10.9.1682 Edmund Halley observed the comet which was later to be named after him. (Perihelion: 15.9.1682 at 2 53' Aquarius), and noticed how similar its path was to the recorded movements of comets seen in 1531 and 1607.

    Late November 1682 Notices in London Gazette the (private) Penny Post having been closed as unlawful, government officers would take it over, employing the same staff and using the same receiving houses, from Monday 11.12.1682.

    Summer 1683 For his safety, Locke left England to live in Holland.

    7.12.1683 Algernon Sidney beheaded for High Treason, partly as a consequence of a book he had written (not published) criticising
    Filmer's Patriarcha

    1685 James 2nd English king. He tried to enforce Catholic toleration.

    1686 First edition, in Latin, of Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (English translation 1729). See also 1713, 1723, 1740.

    Geometry and war "The New Method of Fortification as Practised by Monsieur de Vauban, Engineer-General of France and New Treatise of Geometry were published in English in 1691. They translated a book published in French in Amsterdam in 1689.

    For a "perfect" understanding of fortifications, it was necessary to learn geometry, and the gentleman on the frontispiece (left) are pointing to geometric designs.

    The Preface to my (1762) edition says the book is designed for people "addicted to the study of this part of the Mathematics, who have not the leisure or opportunity to read over the vast systems of voluminous writers... It contains... all that is requsite for the theory and practice of a good soldier".

    November/December 1688 Glorious Revolution: William and Mary (protestants) were invited to become king and queen by the English parliament. James 2nd fled to France.   -   Constitutional monarchy - The monarch having been selected by parliament, under conditions laid down by parliament, Divine Right ceased to be the legitimating argument for monarchy. Legitimacy could be built on the consensual grounds of theorists such as John Locke. This secular (non-religious) base reduced the need for all loyal subjects to be members of the established church.

    "... after the Revolution the glory of the Court grew dim... Patronage was sought elsewhere, in the lobbies of Parliament, in the ante- chambers of Ministers, in the country houses of the... aristocracy - finally in an appeal to the educated public". (Trevelyan, G.M. 1942 p.338)

    1689 Bill of Rights and Act of Toleration

    1689/90 John Locke's Two Treatises of Government published. They were probably first drafted in 1679/1680. The Two Treatises has 1690 on its cover, but it and his Letter on Toleration were both in print by the autumn of 1689. Both were published anonymously.

    1690 Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding published. This work he signed.

    1693 Locke's Thoughts Concerning Education published

    January 1693 Edmund Halley's "An estimate of the degrees of the mortality of mankind, drawn from curious tables of the births and funerals at the city of Breslaw; with an attempt to ascertain the price of annuities upon lives" published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London


    Mary Astell's A serious proposal to the ladies, for the advancement of their true and greatest interest. By a lover of her sex. Part 1. London:

    "The Incapacity, if there be any, is acquired not natural; and none of their follies are so necessary, but that they might avoid them if they pleased themselves."

    27.9.1694 Royal Charter establishing "The Governor and Company of the Bank of England", with the exclusive right to issue bank notes in England and Wales, in exchange for a loan of £1.2 million to the government.


    Gregory King's manuscript Natural and Political Observations and Conclusions upon the State and Condition of England, 1696, was not published until 1801.
    King proposed using the number of houses (where available) to estimate the population. There were 6,790 houses in Norwich City. He calculated a population of 28,546. This was calculated by multiplying by 4.2. [almost!] A local population census in 1673 had recorded 28,881 residents then living in the city. Using figures like this, historians have concluded that Norwich was the second largest city in England after London.

    about 1698 "warm springs" at Matlock, Derbyshire first noticed by Rev Fern of Matlock and Mr Heyward of Cromford. They passed to a George Wragg who built a few small rooms adjoining to the bath. Smith and Penel of Nottingham bought it and built stables and made a coach road to Matlock Bridge in 1702, shortly afterwards the road was continued down the valley towards Cromford, and a passage blasted through the rock near Cromford opening communication with the southern part of Derbyshire. (Ron McKeown) - The original (Old Bath) spring had it source 100 feet above the river Derwent and (early 20th century) discharged about 10,000 gallons an hour into the swimming bath of the then Royal Hotel. The average temperature of the water is 68 derees farenheit (20 degrees celsius). By 1802 three springs had been discovered. The second supplied the New Bath and the third [Fountain] Bath. The Thermal Pool of the present Matlock Bath Aquarium is said to be fed with 20 degrees celsius water from a spring around 2,000 feet below ground at a rate of 600,000 gallons a day. See 1734 - 1787 - 1810 - 1818 - 1842 - 1844 - Peak District Information - brief history -

    1697 Britain began to keep records of the gap between its imports and its exports (the "balance of trade"). When nations kept figures from year to year (time series) in economics, weather or whatever, it made possible the production of graphs like the following which shows the British balance of trade from 1697 to 1925. Click on the picture to read the article by James Galbraith from which the graph comes.

    See also economic cycles - UK balance of payments crisis 1947 - and peaks and troughs of USA economic cycles

    1697 to 1807 Bristol (as well as London) part of the slave trade.

    2.12.1697 Christopher Wren's new St Paul's Cathedral, in the City of London, consecrated - a classical construction replacing the medieval old St Paul's destroyed by fire thirty two years before. The design for the dome was not agreed until 1697 and not completed until 1710.

    1699 Seed of a sweet scented pea sent from Sicily to England and Amsterdam. It had a small, two coloured (purple and maroon) flower, but a strong scent. Later named Lathyrus odoratus. The sweet pea self- fertilises and this led Francis Galton, in 1875 to select it for his experiments on hereditary transmission.



    Historical roots of the Public Sphere (Öffentlichkeit)

      "A public sphere that functioned in the political realm arose first in Great Britain at the turn of the eighteenth century" (Habermas, J. 1962/1989 p.57).

      "The clubs, salons and coffee-houses (there were 3000 [coffee-houses] in London in the early 1700s) supported by the growing and increasingly free press formed a critical forum, in which gentlemen independent of the court and other political institutions could get together on a basis of relative equality and discuss the great events of the day" ( Outhwaite, W. 1994 on Habermas, J. 1962).
    See Winchester Journalism on "Courants"

    1700 Mosaize historie der Hebreeuwse kerke (four volumes) by Willem Goeree (1635-1711), Dutch bookseller and theologian. Goeree beieved in God's two books: the Bible and Nature, using history, physics and geology to explian Bible stories.

    1700 Leonard Plukenet's Almagesti botanici mantissa published in London. On page 153 this contains what is thought to be the earliest written description of what we now know as the London Plane tree: "Platantus orientalis et occidentalis miedliam faciem obtinens, Amnericanus, globulis grandioribus, foliis splenidenitibus atris." [See Oxford Physic Garden

    1701 Thomas Bray founded The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, which was later abbreviated to Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

    1702 Queen Anne succeded King William as the ruler of Britain. She gave her name to a style of architecture which was to last. Picture from Panoyre and Ryan 1958 p.123, who argue that the style fitted the "classical way of building to the ordinary well-to-do gentleman's home"
    It might also be said to adapt classical principles to British rain, as the roof slopes but hips instead of gables meant a horizontal eave line could be preserved all round the building. Mathematical proportion is kept with more comfort and curvaciousness. Style and convenience suited the new "sash" windows whose "ingenious mechanism", Panoyre and Ryan say, "shows clearly the new scientific approach". These spread to domestic building for all classes in the following two centuries.

    26.11.1703 Midnight: start of the Great Storm in southern Britain. It lasted until 6am [??]. Between 8,000 and 15,000 people were killed, a fifth of the Royal Navy's seaman drowned. Thirteen navy ships were lost, as well as merchant ships. Thousands of building were damaged or destroyed, millions of trees lost and the Eddystone Lighthouse swept away.

    19.1.1704 Day of fasting in repentance for the sins of the nation that had provoked the late storm. (Declared by Queen Anne)

    28.10.1704 Death of John Locke.

    About 1705 Birth of
    Ukawsaw Gronniosaw

    1705 Edmund Halley in Synopsis Astronomia Cometicae argued that comet sightings of 1456, 1531, 1607, and 1682 were of the same comet. He predicted it would be seen again in 1758. When it was, the comet became generally known as Halley's Comet. See 1910 - 1986.


    22.7.1706 Treaty of Union between England and Scotland leading to Acts of Union (1706 and 1707) which established a common Parliament of Great Britain in London.

    30.3.1707 Death of Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban (Born May 1633) Maréchal de France and Commissaire général des fortifications from 1678 to 1703.

    Watts hymns 1707 Isaac Watts Hymns and Spiritual Songs" in three books: 1 - "Collected from the Scriptures"; 2 - "Composed on Divine Subjects"; 3 - "Prepared for the Lord's Supper" re-wrote the Jewish psalms from a Christian perspective, providing a new sung theology for the established anglican and disenting churches.


    The 1708 Parochial Libraries Act (England and Wales) sought to preserve libraries that had been established for the use of parish clergy.


    John Arbuthnot's "An Argument for Divine Providence, taken from the Constant Regularity observed in the Births of both Sexes" (external text) published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society for 1710. "... perhaps the first application of probability to social statistics and includes the first formal test of significance. In this paper Arbuthnot claims to demonstrate that divine providence, not chance, governs the sex ratio at birth." (J J O'Connor and E F Robertson)

    1710 The dome of St Paul's completed.

    This is England's only classical cathedral. It speaks of proportion and reason as well as grandeur and adoration and was the tallest building in the City.

    See maths in the city

    1710 Company of London Insurers took over the Exchange House Fire Office, established by Charles Povey in 1708. Povey's company used the Sun symbol as its firemark and was commonly known as the Sun Fire Office. In 1710 it formally became a partnership with that name. A separate department for "country" (outside London) policies was set up in 1793. Sun Life Assurance Society was founded in 1810 (as part of the Sun Fire Office) to provide life insurance. First foreign agency started 1836. Its first major overseas market was in Germany. Business outside Europe in 1863, with an agency at Smyrna in Turkey . Subsequent expansion to India, the Far East, China, Australasia, the United States, South Africa, the West Indies, South America and Canada. Became Sun Insurance Office Ltd in 1891, In 1959 merged with the Alliance Insurance Company in the Sun Alliance Group. Since 1996 part of the Royal and Sun Alliance Group plc. (Records at the Metropolitan Archives) original Sun Fire Office log
    Original logo from The Early Days of the Sun Fire Office by Edward Baumer

    Hume born

    1711 -1712 Daily London journal The Spectator sought "to bring philosophy out of the closets and libraries, schools and colleges, to dwell in clubs and assemblies, at tea-tables and coffeehouses".

    1712 Jean Jacques Rousseau (author of The Social Contract) born

    1713 Second edition of Newton's Principles contained Roger Cotes' Preface trying to show how Newton's practice was consistent with the new ( Baconian) inductive science.

    1713 Posthumous publication of Ars conjectandi (Art of Conjecturing) by Jacques Bernoulli (1655-1705), said by some to represent the "beginning of the mathematical theory of probability". A Bernoulli trial is an experiment like tossing a coin in which there are two possible outcomes. The probability of the different outcomes in a series of trials is calculated. In coin tossing, the "binomial" probability of all heads in one toss is 0.5., in two tosses 0.25, in three tosses 0.125, and so on. See Probability

    1714 First of the Georges succeded Queen Anne as the ruler of Britain. The term Georgian is applied to architecture over a long period.

    Pictures from Panoyre and Ryan 1958
    The development of terraced houses conserves space in towns
    867 to 869 High Road, Tottenham are, according to English Heritage, early eighteenth century houses. They are constructed of red brick.

    1.9.1715 Louis 15th (aged 5) King of France. Died 10.5.1774. The term Rococo "usually covers the kind of ornament, style and design associated with Louis 15th's reign and the beginning of that of Louis 16". (1835 Dictionary of the French Academy) [See Habermas]

    6.3.1715, and for three nights: Northern lights (aurora borealis) visible in London, and in Europe from Prussia to Italy. The last aurora to be seen so far south was in 1621.
    1719 Daniel Defoe, author of the account of the Great Storm of 1703, published his most famous work, the story of Robinson Crusoe. See 1722 - 1724 - 1870


    August 1720 Peak of prices in shares on the London before they fell. The burst of this "South Sea" bubble coincided with the end of the "Mississippi" bubble in Paris towards the end of the year and led to collapse in Amsterdam as well. Foucault calls this the "disaster of 1720" (Foucault The Order of Things)

    1722 A Journal of the Plague Year being observations or memorials of the most remarkable occurrences, as well public as private, which happened in London during the last great visitation in 1665. Written by a Citizen who continued all the while in London. Never made public before Signed H.F. Now attributed to Daniel Defoe.


    27.2.1723 David Hume, aged 12, started at Edinburgh University. He did not take a degree, but for two or three years was exposed to the new philosophy particularly that of Sir Isaac Newton.


    1724 First publication of Logic, or The Right Use of Reason in the Enquiry After Truth With a Variety of Rules to Guard Against Error in the Affairs of Religion and Human Life, as well as in the Sciences by Isaac Watts

    1724Immanuel Kant, author of the Critiques of Pure and Practical Reason, born.

    Between 1724 and 1727, Daniel Defoe published A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, divided into circuits or journies. "When a survey is demanded of Queen Anne's England and its everyday life, our thoughts turn to Daniel Defoe, riding solitary and observant through the countryside" (Trevelyan, G.M. 1942 p.293) [But note that the journeys were through Great Britain and so included Scotland.]

    "London was, in Defoe's day, the only town in England that could be reckoned large by modern standards. Bristol and Norwich, which came next to it in population, had in the 1720s probably no more than 30,000 inhabitants." Greater London possibly half a million. (Cole. Persons and Periods p63)


    Westwood Trust established by London Quakers for "the putting out to Apprentice such two poor Friends sons within the limits of the Monthly Meeting as are not entitled to any allowances of that sort" - See 1958

    1726 William Rufus Chetwood's The Voyages and Adventures of Captain Robert Boyle (London) contains the sentence "There may be about 20,000 Whites (or I should say Portuguese, for they are none of the whitest,) and about treble that number of slaves." [White distinguishing people by skin colour. Oxford English Dictionary entries go back to 1604]. See 1737

    1727 Isaac Newton died


    1729 English translation of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World (Published, in Latin, in 1686)

    1730 to 1740 Possibly about here that the continental word bronze was introduced into English to distinguish copper and tin alloys from the modern brass that used a zinc compound. Johnson's dictionary (1755) says brass is a "yellow metal made of copper and lapis calaminaris" [copper and zinc oxide]

    1734: The Koran: Commonly called the Alkoran of Mohammed An English translation, directly from arabic, by George Sales, a London lawyer, who included a long Preliminary Discourse explaining the history and context of Mohammed. Served for centuries its declared purpose of making the Koran (Quran) available to christians. My copy (Frederick Warne 1889), first bought for the Seafarers' Education Service, then joined the small library of Herbert Henry Moss, a primitive methodist, from whom I would borrow it in the late 1950s.

    1734 Peter Shaw's (published) Chemical Lectures distinguished between "Analytical Chemistry, or, the art of analysing vegetable, animal and mineral substances, and resolving them into different parts or principles" ("Resolution of Bodies") and "Synthetic Chemistry, or, the art of recomposing bodies".

    1734 "A significant moment in the history of tourism" when a new bath house was erected at Matlock Bath and, soon afterwards the Old Bath Hotel opened there.


    The Table of the Animal Kingdom (Regnum Animale) in Carolus Linnaeus's first edition (1735) of Systema Naturae (System of Nature) includes "Homo" (Latin: man) in "Anthropomorphia" (Latin: of human form) along with "Simia" (Latin: ape or monkey) and "Bradypus" (Latin: sloths). There are two Bradypes: Uanau being Bradypus Didactylus (two-toed) and Ai, Bradypus Tridactylus (three-toed)

    Homo is divided into European, American, Asian and African. In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae (1758) Linnaeus introduced the term Homo sapiens (sapiens Latin: wise). The full title of System of Nature (in English) is "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with characters, differences, synonyms, places". [See Race] - See Linnaeus and the New Classification


    Publication of Matthew Hale's History of the Pleas of the Crown (1736), vol. 1, ch. 58, p. 629: "But the husband cannot be guilty of a rape committed by himself upon his lawful wife, for by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract." [See domestic violence]


    Joshua Ward's Great Vitriol Works in Twickenham produced sulphuric acid on a commercial scale using a process discovered in the seventeenth century by Johann Glauber in which sulphur is burned together with saltpetre (potassium nitrate), in the presence of steam. As the saltpetre decomposes, it oxidises the sulphur to sulphur trioxide, which combines with water to produce sulphuric acid.


    John Atkins published A Voyage to Guinea, Brasil, and the West Indies 1723-35 in which he wrote "I am persuaded the black and white Race have, ab origine, sprung from different-coloured first Parents" (p.39).

    1737 In Carolina, John Wesley published A Collection of Psalms and Hymns


    11.11.1739 John Wesley preached for the first time in his new London headquarters, the Foundery Chapel. Hymns and Sacred Poems published, including reference to Shecinah.

    1740 David Hume's Treatise of Human Nature. Hume attempted to be the Newton of Social Science.

    See Social Science History, chapter three:
    What is science?:
    The Ideas of Locke, Hume and Wollstonecraft

    Extracts from Hume: on the origin of our ideas and on virtue and vice

    31.5.1740 to 17.8.1786 Reign of Friedrich 2nd of Prussia (Frederick the Great), who modernized the state bureaucracy and promoted religious tolerance

    1741 The Garden of the Soul, or, A manual of spiritual exercises and instructions for Christians, who living in the world, aspire to devotion by Richard Challoner, a Roman Catholic Bishop who had returned to London in 1730 and ministered to catholics in secret. In English, it was a favourite text (revised from time to time) until the mid twentieth century. Challoner's revision of the Douai Bible, published in 1752, and became the standard Catholic bible translation used in England. See Joan Hughes 1948.

    1744 Oranges and Lemons - bells of London


    1745: First edition of John Mason's Self-knowledge, a treatise shewing the nature and benefit of that important science and the way to attain it. (Google books) "One of the most popular works of moral advice and self-help of its time... By 1836 it had gone through more than twenty editions... in Britain and America, and had been translated into Welsh and several European languages". (Alan Ruston, DNB)

    16.8.1745 Charles Edward Stuart landed in Scotland beginning the Jacobite rising against the Hanovarians. March south ended at Derby on 4.12.1745, where the decision was made to retreat to Scotland. London was preparing for an invasion and even the Quakers assisted in preparations for defence.


    "The old order ends"
    16.4.1746 Defeat of the Stuart army, under Charles Edward, by the Hanovarian army at the Battle of Culloden Moor. "No individual soldier in the Stuart Army has a grave... grey tombstones have written upon them that here is the grave of the MacDonalds, here is the grave of the Mackintoshes, and so forth". (Cole and Postgate 1949, chapter one) [The photograph below was taken by Kirsty Smith 15.10.2004]
    Time and space
    "The confict between this very ancient society and the modern society which was challenging it" was settled after Cullloden. "In the language of Marxian economistss", Charles Edward had marched "with a feudal army into into a bourgeois society" (Cole and Postgate 1949, chapter one). See also George Carnegie

    1746 Abury [Avebury], a Temple of the British Druids: and some others described; wherein is a more particular account of the first and patriarchal religion; and of the peopling the British Islands ... By William Stukeley. His Stonehenge, a temple restored to the British Druids was published in 1740 - External link to Earth Mysteries website archive

    1746 Champion's Brass Works established at Warmley, near Bristol, by the Quaker industrialist, William Champion (1709-1789). It closed in 1768, and in 1769 an inventory of what was in the factory was made. This shows that everything produced was for the African trade - probably to be exchanged for slaves. (Dalrymple and Horton 14.12.2003)

    See John P. Birchall - Bristol museums - Paul Townsend


    September 1747 Engraving "The Engine to Raise Water by Fire" The Universal Magazine, volume 1, August 1747 (London, John Hinton), pp 163-165. [An engraving of Newcomen's Atmospheric Engine] (external link)


    In The Spirit of the Laws, Charles Secondat "Baron de Montesquieu" (l689-l755) explored natural and human laws in a way that enabled people to analyse society as a whole, in relation to its parts, in relation to its history and in relation to its environment. [Montesquieu's satirical Lettres persanes (Persian Letters) was written in 1721]

    Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-1751) published L'homme machine. Translated into English as Man a Machine (external link) in 1749 - See Foucault

    Eulogy on La Mettrie by Frederick 2nd (the "Great"), King of Prussia (external link)

    1749 First volume of The Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulire, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788), published. Thirty six volumes were published during his life and continued in eight more volumes after his death by his colleagues. Completed 1804.

    Bentham, (author of A Fragment on Government ) born
    Olympe de Gouges (author of Declaration of the Rights of Woman) born Marie Gouze

    1750s "Until the 1750s the Polyanthus, due to the dominance of the red gene, consisted only of red, and dull muddy or sepia flowers. At this date a new variation occurred, one which sparked off the interest of the workers in the industrial towns and became one of the most popular of flowers. Today this flower, the 'Gold-Laced Polyanthus' has almost disappeared, though due to the tenacity of an American hybridist a new strain has been introduced. The interest in the Gold Lace Polyanthus was immense, and remained so for almost a century, however by the early 1870s they had been discarded and virtually died out." John S. Harrison 1976, who speaks of "an immense following especially in the industrial areas of Lancashire, Yorkshire and the Midlands" and suggests "the anomic workers drawn into the infant conurbations by the necessity of work, gained solace from their abject misery either by indulging in gin drinking, or by creating tiny gardens of plants which represented the freshness, freedom and beauty they had forsaken in search of a living."

    Jean Jacques Rousseau's Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts.

    16.1.1750 A vivid red arch of light in the night sky, sending up wavering streams, visible throughout Britain. The "remarkable Aurora Borealis" "seems to have drawn as much attention, as that in 1716". 23.1.1750 Fiery clouds seen over Dublin and Oxford. 1.2.1750 "A prodigious tempest of thunder and lightning, with wind, rain and hail" on Bristol "overwhelming the inhabitants with consternation". 8.2.1750 London earthquake, felt in Bristol also. 8.3.1750 another, more violent, earthquake, which, being a month after the first, led to predictions (not fulfilled) of third on 8.4.1750.
    "Little philosophers, who see a little, and but very little into natural causes, may think they see enough to account for what happens, without calling in the aid and assistance of a special providence; not considering, that God who made all things, never put any thing out of his own power, but has all nature under command to serve his purposes in the government of the world." (Thomas Sherlock. A Letter from the Lord Bishop of London, to the Clergy and People of London and Westminster; On Occasion of the Late Earthquakes)

    See also See Methodist Hymns

    British Act of 1750 "for Regulating the Commencement of the Year; and for Correcting the Calendar now in Use" Time and space

    In England and Wales the day after 24.3.1750 was 25.3.1751 because, until the Act of 1750 changed this, the new year began on 25 March (Lady Day). Under the Act of 1750, the day after 31.12.1751 was 1.1.1752. So 1751 was a short year - 25 March to 31 December. See 1752

    1751 Experiments and observations on electricity: made at Philadelphia in America, by Mr. Benjamin Franklin, and communicated in several letters to Mr. P. [Peter] Collinson of London, F.R.S.. Peter Collinson was a merchant, born a Quaker, who traded with Philadelphia. America

    1751 First volume of Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, par une société de gens de lettres. Encyclopaedia or a systematic Dictionary of the sciences, arts and trades, by a society of men of letters. Put in order and published by M Diderot. The mathematical part by M. d'Alembert,

    The full set (17 volumes of text and 11 volumes of plates) was published between 1751 and 1772. It contained 74,000 articles written by more than 130 authors


    September 1752 Under the Act of 1750, Britain and her dominions "in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America" switched from the Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar. Eleven days were omitted from the calendar and the day after 2.9.1752 was 14.9.1752.

    1753 The Ruins of Palmyra, otherwise Tedmor, in the Desart by Robert Wood


    22.3.1754 Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufacture and Commerce founded in London by William Shipley [Wikipedia] and others, who "sought to promote economic, scientific and artistic progress by publicising new techniques and granting monetary and honorary awards to inventors and artists of promise". (National Archive - Green Plaque - RSA website)


    Micromégas by Voltaire, a short novel telling the story of inhabitants of the star Sirius (the brightest star in the night sky) and the planet Saturn to earth.

    Rousseau's A Discourse on the Origin of Inequality.
    Published in Amsterdam
    The cover engraving associates liberty with equality. Liberty - Equality
    lower than the brutes

    15.4.1755 First edition of A Dictionary of the English Language: in which the words are deduced from their originals, and illustrated in their different significations by examples from the best writers. To which are prefixed, a history of the language, and an English grammar. by Samuel Johnson

    Saturday 1.11.1755 The Lisbon earthquake. See Wikipedia


    William Godwin born. He was to develop a political philosophy to formalise and show the foundations of radical ones like Rousseau's preceding his.

    29.1.1756 Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia elected a Fellow of the Royal Society as the one "who first suggested the experiments to prove the analogy between lightning and electricity". Peter Collinson was one of those who proposed him America

    18.5.1756 Declaration or war between Britain and France. Official start of the global "seven years war". Spain and Portugal in war from 1762.


    14.3.1757 Execution of Admiral John Byng


    Tenth edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturae - See Wikipedia

    5.1.1758 Drawing of the "skeleton of an allegator" in the Allom Rock near Whitby, Yorkshire described in communications in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society from William Chapman, read 4.5.1758, and from John Wooler, read 23.11.1758. (online - offline 1 - 2). The fossil in 1758 was incomplete but was said to have been washed by the sea for ten years previous and parts may have been removed by "curious persons". This specimen of the Whitby crocodile may have given to the British Museum in 1781. If so, it was missing by 1842. (Penny Cyclopaedia 1842). Fortunately, other specimens were found.

    A comet that was sighted late in 1758 and, passed perihelion (closest distance to the Sun) on 13.3.1759 was named in Edmund Halley's honour. [Astronomers took considerable effort to find the comet's predicted return. The comet was eventually found by the German amateur astronomer Johann Georg Palitzsch on the night of 26.12.1758-27.12.1758. It was traced by a number of astronomers up to June 1759.


    Voltaire's Candide, ou l'Optimisme; traduit de l'Allemand de M. le Docteur Ralph Candide's optimism was qualified by (amongst other things) the Lisbon earthquake - the seven year's war - and the execution of Admiral Byng

    Adam Smith's The Theory of Moral Sentiments

    15.1.1759 The, new, "British Museum", in Montague House, opened to the public, complete with reading room, manuscripts, natural history specimens, old coins and medals, prints and drawings, and exhibits of strange objects from other cultures. museum history

    1759 Hymns on the expected invasion 1759. Published by Strahan in London. Anonymous. Written by Charles Wesley . 12 pages. With: Wesley, C. "Hymns to be used on the Thanksgiving-Day, Nov. 29, 1759 and after it": 36 pages.


    The General Subscription Library at Warrington established "without any distinction of sects or parties". See Leeds Library.


    6.6.1761 Transit of Venus -

    "Despite the fact that this transit took place during the latter half of the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), a worldwide conflict involving the major powers of the time and their colonies, it was observed by many astronomers from around sixty locations ranging from China to England and from South Africa to Norway as part of the world's first multinational scientific collaboration" (external link)

    1761 Bridgewater Canal opened to transport coal from Worsley to Manchester. See Bridgewater Foundry


    4.1.1762 Britain declared war against Spain. Part of seven years war. Portugal later joined on Britain's side. See America (Florida).

    1762 Rousseau's The Social Contract and Emile. The controversial content of Emile made life in France uncomfortable for him. In 1766 and 1767 he lived in England as the guest of David Hume. He died in France in 1778. In 1794 the remains of Rousseau and Voltaire were moved to the Pantheon in Paris.

    Engraving for Epinglier (pin) article in 1762 volume of Diderot's Encyclopédie

    1762 "The New Method of Fortification as Practised by Monsieur de Vauban, Engineer-General of France. Together with a New Treatise of Geometry. The sixth edition, Carefully revised and corrected by the Original. To which are now added, A Treatise of Military Orders, and The Art of Gunnery, or Throwing of Bombs, Balls, etc to hit any Object assigned. The whole work illustrated with thirty-two Copper Plates Published London by C. Hitch and L. Hawes, in Paternoster Row [and others] 213 pages. This is a translation by Abel Swall of late seventeenth century texts. The main part, on Geometry and Fortificatiosn, having been published in English in 1691. My copy belonged to William Fergusone who was an Ensign in the 24th Regiment.

    Economic cycles Jevons calculated that, between 1763 and 1878, commerical crises went in cycles with about 10.4. years between each. The crises were 1763 - 1772-1773 - 1783 - 1793 - 1804-1805 - 1815 - 1825 - 1836-1839 - 1847 - 1857 - 1866 - 1878
    Industrial revolution
    Steam Steam came to power the machines that were developing fast (particularly in textile industries of England and Scotland), creating factories where people worked to the rhythm of the machine. Piston steam engines had been used to pump water since the end of the 17th century. In 1763 James Watt repaired a model of a steam engine designed by Thomas Newcombe. In the 1760s, Watt created more powerful engines by condensing the steam in a vessel separate from the cylinder. These made steam engines an alternative to water wheels, and moved industry from the side of highland streams to lowland coal-fields. In 1780s America and Britain, steam was first used to power paddle boats. The first rail- running steam carriages appeared in the first years of the 19th century. The revolutionary impact of steam became clear to everyone in Britain in the 1830s and 1840s as a network of railways was constructed, affecting every aspect of people's lives. Tennyson explained it to masses of English speaking readers six years before Marx and Engels explained it to small groups of revolutionaries in Europe.

    23.12.1763 "An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances. By the late Rev. Mr. Bayes, communicated by Mr. Price, in a letter to John Canton, M. A. and F. R. S." read to the Royal Society.

    10.2.1763 Treaty of Paris concluding the seven year war


    Beccaria's Essay on Crimes and Punishment

    About 1765 Leonhard Euler's Elements of Algebra

    1766 England and Wales Precipitation (EWP) series begins. Figures now given in millimetres.


    Joseph Priestley's Essay on the First Principles of Government

    "The good and happiness of the members, that is, the majority of the members of any state, is the great standard by which everything relating to that state must finally be determined".

    1768 Leeds Library was founded.

    August 1768 Start of the scientific expedition of the Endeavour, commanded by James Cook, around the world via Polynesia and Australia.

    10.6.1768 Royal Academy of Arts founded by King George 3rd. It excluded engravers. Raymond Williams relates this to the development of a distinction between artist and artisan.


    3.6.1769 Transit of Venus (external link)

    1770 Georg Friedrich Hegel born

    The phrase sciences morales et politiques was introduced into France about 1770. It is a term representing what we might now call the social sciences. See 1795 (Porter and Ross 9.2003)

    1771 Robert Owen born

    1771 John Wesley's Sermons on Several Occasions contains his sermon "Of Hell", arguing for the reality of eternal fire as divine punishment: "during the present laws of nature, the element of fire does dissolve and consume whatever is thrown into it. But ... The present laws of nature are not immutable..." (external link). Wesley's sermons are full of references to "the lake of fire burning with brimstone,"

    Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs (Journey through various provinces of the Russian Empire), by the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas, was published in three volumes between 1771 and 1776.

    Pallas found mammoth and rhinoceros preserved in the Siberian ice, including ones with their hairy hides preserved. These beasts became known as "woolly".

    Bones of rhinos, hippos and elephants had been found in Germany and other parts of Europe. In Russia, Pallas was also shown such bones. He was inclined to explain these as remains of tropical animals washed north by Noah's flood. The ice finds were actual carcasses and their overcoat suggested they were natives of the cold. (See John J. McKay)

    1772 David Ricardo born

    22.6.1772 Lord Mansfield that "no master ever was allowed here (England) to take a slave by force to be sold abroad because he deserted from his service" - James Somerset freed. (significance)

    1772 Ottobah Cugoano brought to England from the island of Grenada by an merchant. Freed following the Somerset case, he learned to read and write and was baptised as John Stewart. He became a servant of the fashionable artists Richard and Maria Cosway.

    1772? Pageant: James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw's life narrative
    A Narrative of the Most Remarkable Particulars In the Life of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, An African Prince, As related by Himself. Bath. Price Six-Pence. (Born about 1705 - died 1775). This narrative is classified as one of Christian redemption. Ukawsaw Gronniosaw was befriended by George Whitefield.

    "It is a generally received opinion, in England, that the natives of Africa go entirely unclothed; but this supposition is very unjust: they have a kind of dress so as to appear decent, though it is very slight and thin."

    1773 James Mill born

    1774 Louis 16th king of France.

    Medical inspection of London madhouses introduced

    Joseph Priestley isolated oxygen - dephlogisticated air
    from which everything except its
    life giving properties has been removed.


    1.1.1775 "An Account of Further Discoveries in Air. By the Rev. Joseph Priestley, LL.D. F. R. S. in Letters to Sir John Pringle, Bart. P. R. S. and the Rev. Dr. Price, F. R. S." published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. This announced the discovery of a "dephlogiscated air" (later called oxygen) which was five or six times better than common air for breathing or burning.

    28.9.1775 Death and burial in Chester of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw "a blackman" - aged 70.

    1775 The thesis of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840) De Generis Humani Varietati Nativa (Göttingen) divided the human species into five races, the American, Caucasian, Ethiopian, Malay, and Mongolian, on the basis of skin colour and conformation of the head. (Oxford English Dictionary). It was published as a book (still in Latin) in 1795 - See Wikipedia.

    1776 Britain's American colonies declared themselves independent.

    David Hume died

    Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations and Jeremy Bentham's A Fragment on Government were both published in 1776

    Lecture notes on Smith
    Extracts from Wealth of Nations
    Smith weblinks
    Adam Smith revival (late 20th century)
    Lecture notes on Bentham
    Extracts from Bentham
    Brief note on Bentham - Dictionary on Utilitarianism
    Radicals, Socialists and Early Feminists
    Bentham weblinks
    crime and
timeline Bentham's
    See Social Science History, chapter five on
    the theories that Smith, Bentham, Malthus and Owen made and
    chapter one John Stuart Mill and his problems with Francis Bacon

    "Adam Smith is supposed to have brought to light the process of the increasing division of labour, Ricardo the role played by capital, and J-B. Say some of the fundamental laws of the market economy. From this moment on, political economy is supposed to have begun to exist with its own proper object and its own inner coherence." (Foucault The Order of Things)

    1778 France, Britain's traditional enemy, entered the war of independence on America's side. America
    Death of


    Luigi Galvani observed electrical current passing from a generator to a frog's leg. See Wikipedia on Luigi Galvani   Galvanic cell   Galvanism . See Frankenstein introduction

    1780 A notably dry year by the EWP series. A very dry summer (British Weather). Cold springs in Derbyshire dried up or were much diminished, but at both Matlock and Buxton the warm springs suffered no observable decrease. of their water. From this, Erasmus Darwin concluded that the sources of the warm springs were much deeper than the cold ones. "The water must first have been raised in the form of steam from those greater depths".

    1781 The Iron Bridge crossing the River Severn in Shropshire, England was made of cast iron.

    Shown here on the front of Asa Brigg's 1979 book of industrial revolution images - linking to the Crystal Palace, which was made of glass plate set in a framework of cast iron.

    1781 Immanuel Kant's The Critique of Pure Reason attempted to salvage the philosophy of science by arguing that whilst reason alone cannot establish the truth of what is, categories provided by the mind are needed for us to order our experiences. In The Critique of Practical Reason (1788) he argued that pure reason is practical when it comes to morality. Reason alone establishes what ought to be, as distinct from what is. His third major book, Critique of Judgement (1790) argued that beauty is the perfect compatibility of the forms with which we perceive with what we perceive.

    26.4.1781 William Herschel reported an observation of what he though was a comet. Later identified as a planet and later named Uranus. (Wikipedia)

    28.5.1783 Transactions of the Society, Instituted at London, for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce 1783 to 1843 available online.

    May and August 1783 "Great Fogg", a dust and ash haze from volcanic eruptions in Iceland (Eldeyjar) and Japan (Asama Yama) produced unusual skies in the northern hemisphere. A fiery meteor flashed across western European skies during the early evening of 18.8.1783. These events stirred the imagination of eleven year old Luke Howard. Convinced, later, that God had given form to everything, he classified the forms of clouds.

    3.9.1783 The American war of Independence was concluded by the Treaty of Versailles America

    Irish and Africans in Britain. The three main English ports in which Irish immigrants settled were London, Liverpool and Manchester. In the 1790s, Manchester's Irish population was around 5,000. source. The black population of London was increased considerably when soldiers who fought on the side of the British in the American Revolutionary War arrived.

    1784 Immanuel Kant's What is Enlightenment? - See Social Science History and dictionary and listen to Guy Watson in the cabbage field: "pre-enlightenment, our inability to explain natural phenomenon led to mysticism"

    Robert Alun Jones' Timeline on Durkheim (archive) begins with the appointment of Emile Durkheim's great-grandfather, Simon Simon Durkheim, as rabbi in Mutzig (Alsace) in 1784

    18.5.1784 Edict of the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph (Giuseppe) 2nd attempting to replace Latin with German as the administrative language of the empire (cancelled 28.1.1790). In this, Joseph points to the example of France, England and Russia and says the use of "Latin in public business" is prohibited among all enlightened peoples" except Hungary, [Croatia and Slavonia], the Grand Duchy of Transylvania and Poland. The reform triggered linguistic and ethnic strife in Hungary and Galicia. (See Votruba, M. 2010?)

    Bristol 10.9.1784 Letter from John Wesley, addressed "To Dr. Coke, Mr. Asbury, and our Brethren in North America", appointing Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury "joint superintendents over our brethren in North America". According to Leslie Griffiths (10.4.2016) "Nothing got Wesley into deeper trouble than these ordinations ".

    1785 A narrative of the Lord's wonderful dealings with John Marrant, a black (online), which was followed in 1790 by A Journal of the Rev. John Marrant, from August the 18th, 1785, to the 16th of March, 1790.

    28.7.1785 Jeremy Bentham left Brighton to visit his younger brother, Samuel, in Russia

    1786 An essay on the slavery and commerce of the human species, particularly the African, translated from a Latin Dissertation, which was honoured with the first prize in the University of Cambridge, for the year 1785, by Thomas Clarkson, published in London

    1786 Animalcula infusoria fluvia tilia et marina by Otto Frederik Müller

    1787: Early one morning

    1787: Thoughts and sentiments on the evil and wicked traffic of the slavery and commerce of the human species, humbly submitted to the inhabitants of Great-Britain "by Ottobah Cugoano, A Native of Africa" London. 1787

    22.5.1787 Society for the Abolition of the British Slave Trade formed in London.
    17.9.1787 The Constitution of the United States adopted. America

    The Federalist Papers, by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, established an independent tradition of political analysis in the USA.

    1787 The Simpson family opened a third bath at Matlock Bathy in 1786. They also laid out and planted a zig-zag path on the south-facing flank of Masson Hill and in 1787 advertised "walks to the Heights of Abraham". (Historic England)

    A language for chemistry provided by books like Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau Method of chymical nomenclature, proposed by Messrs. de Morveau, Lavoisier, Bertholet, and de Fourcroy. To which is added, A new system of chymical characters adapted to the nomenclature by Mess. Hassenfratz and Adet ; translated from the French and the new chymical names added to the genius of the English language by James St. John 1788. New words entering English at this time include nitrate for the salt of nitric acid and sulphate for a salt of sulphuric acid.

    See Joan Martin trace methods

    1788 The cost of the American war overstrained the resources of the French King (Louis 16th) and was a reason for his calling the States General together in August 1788. This was the French representative body (like Parliament in England). But it had not met since 1614. The King hoped that it would enable him to raise new taxes.

    The Morning Dream, A Ballad was composed and used in the campaign against slavery in 1788.

    February 1788 A society called the Friends of the Negro formed in Paris to campaign for the abolition of the French slave trade. Its members included people (like Brissot, Mirabeau, Petion, Condorcet and Abbe Gregoire) who were to become leading figures in the early years of the French revolution.


    click on Stanley Morse's
Copper to visit Crimtim: The
timeline for crime and deviancy

    click on Stanley Morse's Copper to visit Crimtim: The timeline for crime and deviancy

    1789 The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. Written by himself. Author: Olaudah Equiano, (1745-1797). Published London. (Gutenberg text).

    Other publications by people of African descent include UkawsawGronniosaw (1772?) - Phillis Wheatley (Aldgate 1773) - John Marrant (1785) - Ottobah Cugoano (London 1787)

    End of the ancient regime in France

    1789: Year of the Revolution. The States General met in May 1789. It had three parts: the first estate (clergy), second estate (nobles) and third estate (others). When it last met, 175 years before, the third estate had been overshadowed by the other two. Now the feelings of the representatives were very different. In February a pamphlet by Abbe Sieyes called What is the Third Estate? argued it was the whole nation. In other words, members of the Third Estate were claiming to represent the whole of France. The three estates sat apart, but the third estate argued that there should be only one assembly. On June 17th they took the law into their own hands and renamed themselves the National Assembly. On June 20th they resolved to go on meeting (even if the king dissolved them) "until the constitution of the realm is established" (tennis court oath). On June 27th they won: the king ordered the first and second estates to join the third.

    Karl Marx argued that in the French revolution of 1789. "the bourgeoisie was allied with the people against the monarchy, the aristocracy and the established church." [See revolution]

    14.7.1789 Fall of the Bastille. The Paris masses captured the state prison: an event that remains the symbol of the revolution and the date of the national holiday. [See Breton festivities 1909]

    17.7.1789 The beginning of the Peasants' revolt. In the countryside people began burning the records on which their lords based their claims for "feudal" dues.

    July 1789 White people from Haiti asked for representation in the French Assembly proportional to the population of Haiti, which consisted mostly of slaves. Issue of race, slavery and rights of man began to be linked in the debates of the French Assembly. America

    4.8.1789: Begining of a series of decrees abolishing feudal rights and privileges. 11.8.1789: "The National Assembly totally abolishes the feudal system"

    26.8.1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    "As the archaeology of our thought easily shows, man is an invention of recent date. And one perhaps nearing its end." (Foucault, 1970)

    September 1789 Discovery of Uranium by the German chemist Martin Klaproth. (Uranium's Scientific History 1789 - 1939) - Named after Uranus - The radioactive properties of uranium were discovered in 1896 by Henri Becquerel.

    5.10.1789 The Insurrection of the Women. Women marched from Paris to the King's palace at Versailles to complain about the lack of bread. On the 6th October they marched back to Paris - bringing the King and Queen with them. - [This event offends Burke]

    22.10.1789 People of mixed race from Haiti (not slaves) came to the French Assembly to ask it to recognise their rights as men.

    November 1789 Widespread persecution of people of mixed race began in Haiti.

    4.11.1789 In London, Richard Price delivered a Discourse on the Love of our Country to the "Revolution Society" (formed to commemorate 1688). The society sent a congratulatory letter to the National Assembly. In January 1790 Edmund Burke read a pamphlet containing the discourse, the letter and a reply from the president of the Assembly. This stimulated Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France (November 1790). Mary Wollstonecraft published a reply, A Vindication of the Rights of Man, in December 1790. Tom Paine's two part reply, The Rights of Man, was published in 1791 and 1792.

    FRENCH CONSTITUTION OF 22.12.1789: This gave the vote on the basis of taxation. Citoyens actifs were involved in direct and indirect elections to local councils and the National Assembly. Citoyens passifs had civic rights (freedom of expression etc), but no political rights. The Assembly had 745 deputies for France (colonial deputies were added later) and these represented départements according to area, population and revenue.

    December 1789
    In Paris, a play by Olympe de Gouges that attacked slavery was hissed off the stage after three performances.

    14.12.1789 Count Charles de Lameth told the National Assembly of France that although he owned many slaves in Haiti, I would prefer to lose all I possess there rather than violate the principles that justice and humanity have consecrated. I declare myself both for the admission of half- castes into the administrative assemblies and for the liberty of the blacks!

    1791 In Scotland, John Sinclair sent questionnaires to parishes about their geography and natural history - population - production, - plus some miscellaneous questions. In 1796 he sent "statistical missionaries" to follow up the completion of the questionnaires. Between 1791 and 1799 he published The Statistical Account of Scotland.: Drawn up from the communications of the ministers of the different parishes. By Sir John Sinclair bart. Edinburgh : W. Creech in 21 volumes.

    He thought this would form an account of "the quantum of happiness" of the communities of Scotland and also be a "means of future improvement".

    Sinclair's questions (queries) - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 -

    14.7.1790 William Wordsworth arrived in France
    "Among sequestered villages we walked
    And found benevolence and blessedness
    Spread like a fragrance everywhere...
    Unhoused beneath the evening star we saw
    Dances of liberty

    21.10.1790 Vincent Oge led an unsuccessful insurrection on Haiti. News of his brutal execution drew the attention of French people to the island.


    Spring 1791 Debates on a proposed Constitution for the French colonies. The Assembly heard evidence from people of mixed race.

    15.5.1791 Resolved by the Assembly that every mulatto whose parents were both free should have a vote.

    21.6.1791 Louis 16 attempted to leave France. He was stopped at Varennes and brought back to Paris. The king's flight led to popular protests calling for a new head to the executive.

    16.7.1791 Massacre of Champ de Mars: a meeting in Paris calling, in effect, for the king's abdication, was dispersed by the National Guard. About 60 petitioners were killed and 200 arrested.

    22.8.1791 Uprising of the slaves in Haiti. Toussaint L'Ouverture joined the uprising after about a month. As a result of the slave uprising the supply of sugar to France was cut off, leading to food riots in Paris in January 1792.

    Some historians wish to make 23rd August "Slavery Remembrance Day" - See weblinks Wilberforce No Way! - UNESCO - Petition

    24.9.1791 The decree of 15.5.1791, which gave a vote to some people of colour, was rescinded by the Constituent Assembly.

    Social Science History links: pars
    76; 81; 83;

    September 1791: French Constitution of 1791 adopted. This gave a vote to men with a minimum of income/property.

    Olympe de Gouges published her Declaration of the Rights of Woman, dated 14.9.1791   in French   in English   Social Science History   (weblinks)

    Talleyrand proposed a system of state education in France that would be confined to boys. This appears to have been the spur for Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman, written in three months and published January 1792.   See Social Science History   (weblinks). The first chapter is about being human and how we know what is right and true. See Social Science History - What is science?

    25.9.1791 French Penal Code

    October 1791 Meeting of Legislative Assembly. Brissot agitated for war.

    November 1791 Commissioners arrived in Haiti to restore order. Slave leaders tried to bargain their freedom for the re-enslavement of their followers. When the white colonial government refused the bargain, Toussaint L'Ouverture resolved to fight for complete liberty for all.

    January 1792
    Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman published. On 14.1.1792 Talleyrand arrived in London on an unsuccessful diplomatic mission. Whilst in London he called on Mary Wollstonecraft.

    March 1792 The Paris Commune opened its galleries to the public, which made it more exposed to popular pressure.

    20.3.1792 to 23.3.1792 Formation of a new French ministry led by Brissot. On 24.3.1792 the Legislative Assembly, by a large majority, passed a decree giving full political rights to free men of colour in the colonies. This became law on 4.4.1792.


    20.4.1792 France declared war on Austria. This led to war with Prussia as well. Once France was at war, the influence of the streets on government became more powerful because of popular fear of traitors within the country.

    10.8.1792 Paris masses stormed Tuileries and imprisoned the royal family.

    Early September 1792 The election of the Convention, by almost universal male suffrage, took place at the same time as the defeat of the French army at Verdun and at the same time that crowds massacred over 1,000 prisoners in Paris.

    18.9.1792 Three commissioners from France arrived in Haiti to enforce the decree of 4.4.1792

    21.9.1792 Meeting of Convention which (on 22.9.1792) abolished the monarchy and established the Republic. The Republican calendar started Year One here.

    Early October 1792 News of the imprisonment of the king reached Haiti, where the French fell out over it. On 12.10.1792 the Commissioners dissolved the Colonial Assembly and assumed full control over the colony. Haiti was becoming increasingly split by internal war and, secretly, the British government began to consider taking it over.

    December 1792. Mary Wollstonecraft moved to France to experience for herself the revolutionary civilisation. At the time she went political forces in France were moving against the people she sympathised with (The "Girondins") many of whom went to the guillotine whilst she was there. She returned to England in 1795.

    19.11.1792 A decree of the Convention offered help to all peoples wishing to recover their liberties.

    1792 Ambulator... a Tour Round London described the ornaments on the gothic orchestra in the Grove at Vauxhall Gardens as "plastic, a composition something like plaster of Paris, but known only to the ingenious architect who designed and built this beautiful object". Something plastic (mouldable) could be shaped when wet, but set hard when it dried. Synthetic plastics were developed from the nineteenth century onwards. See polymer - cellulose - Parkesine - polyvinyl acetate - Bakelite - shelf appeal - PVC - polystyrene - polythene - vinyl - plastic toys - polythene pipes - Plastic House - 1976 - Anthropocene 2016


    21.1.1793 Execution of Louis 16th.

    1.2.1793 France declared war on Great Britain. War with Spain followed in March and also civil war (the revolt of the Vendee from March to December 1793). Spain invaded Haiti early in the war. At first, Toussaint L'Ouverture and other black leaders fought for Spain against the French Republicans and in defence of the kings.

    Spring 1793 to summer 1794 Period known as the reign of terror in France. The Oxford English Dictionary dates it from March 1793 to July 1794. It is in relation to this that the word "terrorism" was formed. In a 1900 Dictionary "terrorism" is still defined as "A system of government by terror".

    May/June 1793 Paris insurrection and downfall of the Girondins. Rule of the Jacobins.


    June 1793 French Constitution of 1793 adopted. This gave the vote to every adult male, apart from domestic servants, but it was never put into practice. [Social Science History link: par. 93]

    19.6.1793-20.6.1793 In Haiti the Republican French Commissioners quashed a revolt of the poor whites by sending armed free coloureds and slaves into the capital, Le Cap, which was destroyed in the fighting. For many colonists the destruction of Le Cap symbolised the end of white supremacy, and a mass migration followed. The main slave armies, however, were still fighting for the Spanish in defence of the kings.

    30.7.1793 A French Commissioner reported from Haiti that The slaves remaining in the party of kings march in company with a great number of white emigres

    29.8.1793 To secure some support from the slave armies, Sonthonax, a French Commissioner, declared the abolition of slavery in Haiti, but the slave armies continued to fight against him.

    3.9.1793 White Royalists in Haiti asked for British intervention. An army left Jamaica (a British slave colony) and landed in Haiti on 19.9.1793.

    16.10.1793 Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, guillotined in Paris

    31.10.1793 Brissot and twenty other Girondins guillotined in Paris

    3.11.1793 Olympe de Gouges guillotined in Paris

    8.11.1793 Madame Roland guillotined in Paris

    December 1793 In the cause of the kings, Toussaint's slave army occupied central Haiti after a series of victories.


    4.2.1794 Slavery abolished in French colonies.

    30.2.1794 French celebrated the emancipation of slaves in the Temple of Reason.

    Early May 1794 News of the abolition of slavery by France reached Toussaint in Haiti and on 6.5.1794 he and his army deserted the Spanish to join the French.

    July 27/28 1794: Fall of Robespierre and Jacobins. End of the reign of terror in France.

    1794 École normale supérieure established in Paris. "it was intended to provide the Republic with a new body of teachers, trained in the critical spirit and secular values of the Enlightenment" (Wikipedia)

    1794 The École centrale des travaux publics [Central school of public works] founded in Paris. Renamed "École polytechnique" [School of many arts] in 1794. In London, the Royal Polytechnic opened in Regent Street in 1838


    1795 In England the parish of Speenhamland, in Berkshire, adopted a system of paying workers an allowance from public funds, on top of their wages, graduated according to the price of bread. Similar schemes were adopted by many other parishes. One of the consequences of welfare policies like these was that the money paid out on Poor Law soared.

    7.4.1795 Metric system of measurement adopted in France
    External link: Important dates in the history of the modern metric system

    25.10.1795 The Convention adopted a resolution establishing the Institut National des Sciences et Arts, which became the Institut de France in 1995. (website). This had three parts (classes), the second of which was the Classe des Sciences Morales et Politiques (see above). This covered the analysis of sensations and thoughts, ethics, social science and legislation, political economy, history and geography. The first class was the Classe des Sciences Mathématiques et Physiques and the third the Classe de Littérature et Beaux-Arts (External links: 1 - 2 - 3

    The Classe des Sciences Mathématiques et Physiques ceased to exist in a reorganisation of 1803, but was revived as l'Académie Royale des Sciences Morales et Politiques in 1832. It ceased to be Royal between 1848 and 1850

    20.3.1796 Mulattoes in Haiti, led by Vilate, revolted against the French General Laveaux. Toussaint rescued Laveaux and crushed the rebels.

    1.4.1796 Toussaint was proclaimed Lieutenant Governor

    1792 Mary Wollstonecraft Letters written during a short residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark   [on jellyfish]

    "Sometimes, to take up my oar once more, when the sea was calm, I was amused by disturbing the innumerable young star fish which floated just below the surface; I had never observed them before, for they have not a hard shell like those which I have seen on the seashore. They look like thickened water with a white edge, and four purple circles, of different forms, were in the middle, over an incredible number of fibres or white lines. Touching them, the cloudy substance would turn or close, first on one side, then on the other, very gracefully, but when I took one of them up in the ladle, with which I heaved the water out of the boat, it appeared only a colourless jelly."

    In Forces of Nature: Natural(-izing) Gender and Gender(-ing) Nature in the Discourses of Western Culture (2009) Bernadette H. Hyner and Precious McKenzie Stearns suggest a move was taking place towards seeing "creatures as the jelly fish as closest to the mysteries of the origin of life"

    1797 Napoleon Bonaparte given command of the French army against England.

    1797 English Bank Restriction Act suspended the convertibility of Bank of England banknotes into gold, to halt a flight of capital due to the war. Originally for six weeks, suspension lasted twenty four years. (French Wikipedia)

    1797 Baron Hume's Criminal Law of Scotland first published in which he wrote "the husband... cannot himself commit a rape on his own wife, who has surrendered her person to him" [See domestic violence]

    10.9.1797 Mary Wollstonecraft died.

    1798 Thomas Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population contained the law that population increases much faster than subsistence unless checked by famine, war or vice (birth control). This was Malthus's refutation of the idea of people like Wollstonecraft and her husband, William Godwin that an unlimited improvement in the human condition was possible. It became very popular as a refutation of the philosophy behind the French Revolution.

    9-10 November 1799 Coup d'etat of 18 Brumaire. Napoleon Bonaparte, hitherto a military leader, became, by conspiracy and a "wiff of grapeshot" fired to disperse a crowd, the political and military leader of France. Under a new constitution he was First Consul of France. See 1804, 1806, 1815,




    1800-1828 Robert Owen ran a model factory community at New Lanark in Scotland, demonstrating, he thought, that people respond to good treatment by becoming good people. This was a refutation in practice of Malthusian pessimism.

    Extracts from Owen   Radicals, Socialists and Early Feminists discusses Owen and Bentham in relation to Thompson and Wheeler. Social Science History, chapter five on the theories that Smith, Bentham, Malthus and Owen made discusses Owen in relation to the poor law.   Lecture notes   Owen weblinks

    Possibly at the turn of the century that this house was built by Quakers to guard the new entrance to their main London graveyard. It became known as the "caretaker's cottage"

    A hipped roof, oriel sash windows and symetrical proportion show the Queen Anne style as a standard of restrained middle-class domestic architecture.

    Monday 10.3.1801: First British Census
    The 1801 census recorded the number of people in each parish, the inhabited and uninhabited houses, and classified occupations into agriculture, manufacturing, commerce and handicrafts.
    Population of England and Wales: 8,893,000; Scotland: 1,608,000

    The censuses of 1801, 1811, 1821 and 1831 were purely numerical. Names were first recorded in 1841. See 1851 - 1861 - 1871 - 1881 - 1891 - 1901 - 1911 - 1921 - 1931 - [There was no census in 1941] - See 1951 - 1961 - 1971 - 1981 - 1991 - 2001 - 2011 -

    See index history of statistics - Vision of Britain - Karen Berry's history

    " London had nearly 900,000 inhabitants, more than ten times the population of its nearest rival in England, Manchester-Salford. Already there were were 123,000 people living in the five outer parishes of Kensington, Chelses, St Marylebone, Paddington and St Pancras, which a hundred before had been semi-rural villages with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants between them. By the year of the Great Exhibition, the population of the present area of the County of London had risen to 2,363,341." (R.S.R. Fitter 1945 p.63)

    October 1801 Having established the preliminaries of peace with the British, Bonaparte began preparation for a military expedition to Haiti to restore white rule. War between French forces and Toussaint.

    March 1802 to April 1803 Peace of Amiens

    1.5.1802 Toussaint surrendered to the French and retired to private life on his estates.

    About 7.6.1802 Toussaint arrested and taken on board a frigate waiting in harbour at Le Cap to go to France.

    July 1802 News arrived in Haiti that the French had restored slavery in Guadeloupe. Bonaparte formally restored all the mulatto discriminations of the Old Regime.

    24.8.1802 Toussaint imprisoned in Fort-de-Joux in the Jura mountains

    October 1802 Armies of Mulattos and ex-slaves rebelled against the French in Haiti

    1802 The Mineralogy of Derbyshire: With a Description of the Most Interesting Mines in the North of England, in Scotland, and in Wales by John Mawe


    Second edition of Malthus on population

    April 1803 Resumed war between Britain and France

    Autumn 1803 French forced to evacuate Haiti by the black led armies

    Immanuel Kant died

    1.1.1804 First ever black republic established. Called Haiti as it had been before European conquest.

    7.3.1804 The British and Foreign Bible Society formed in London at a meeting of members of both the Church of England and dissenting denominations. It sought to make cheap (1611) bibles available in Britain and other countries "without note or comment". The society was concerned about "recent attempts which have been made on the part of Infidelity to discredit the evidence, vilify the character, and destroy the influence of Christianity".

    21.3.1804 The French civil code promulgated. Became the Napoleon Code in 1807.

    "My true glory will not result from the forty battles that I have won. These will fade away because of Waterloo. My true glory will reside in my Civil Code, which will never be forgotten. It is my Civil Code, which will live eternally" (Bonaparte on Sainte-Hélène. See Catherine Delplanque)

    May 1804 Napoleon became Emperor.

    8.10.1804 The black leader of Haiti, Dessalines, crowned himself emperor as Jean Jacques 1st.

    1805 Thomas Malthus became the first Professor of Political Economy

    The Little Woman and the Pedlar In 1805 Mary Jane Godwin and William Godwin opened M.J. Godwin & Co. Juvenile Library, a bookshop and publisher of mainly children's books. They were joining a growing market. Their significant contribution, along with Mary and Charles Lamb, was to publish books that fed children's delight in fiction and imagination.

    1805 Collection at Lund University (Sweden) divided into natural things, which became the foundation for the Zoological and Botanical Museums; and ethnographic and archaeological artefacts, which became the foundation of the Historical Museum. Lund was "the centre of gravity in scientific archaeology in Sweden" until the middle of the 19th century. (Gräslund, p.14). See Bror Emil Hildebrand


    1806 A portraiture of Quakerism : as taken from a view of the moral education, discipline, peculiar customs, religious principles, political and civil oeconomy and character of the Society of Friends by Thomas Clarkson published in London.

    20.5.1806 John Stuart Mill, co-author of the future of the labouring classes, born. (early life) Harriet Taylor was born 10.10.1807 (life and ideas).

    Napoleon enters Berlin October 1806, Napoleon won the battle of Jena against the Prussians. Hegel described him as "the soul of the world"

    The picture (1810) by French artist Charles Meynier of Napoleon's entry in Berlin is described by Rene Girard as the symbolic beginning of the Franco-German enmity - See symbolic end

    20.11.1806 Humphry Davy's Bakerian lecture to the Royal Society in which he described the decomposition of matter into its elements by electricity. The Institut de France awarded him a prize of 3000 francs for the most important research in electricity that year.


    22.5.1807 Oldsagskommissionen (The Antiquities Commission) established in Denmark. Members of the (University) library commission were begining to organise a collection of antiquities in the roof of Trinitatis Church, Copenhagen. They were allowed to start a collection rune stones at the Round Tower. These were steps towards a future "Nazionalmuseum". (See Thomsen). Det Kongelige Museum for Nordiske Oldsager opened to the public in 1817.
    In 1832 the museum moved to Christiansborg Palace and later moved it to the Prince's Palace. The Nationalmuseet, incorporating the collections, was established by Royal Decree of 28.12.1892.

    25.3.1807 British Parliament prohibited slave trade. (1807 Abolition of the Slave Trade Act became law) - National Archives weblink - Wikipedia

    4.6.1807 Demonstration of gas light in Pall Mall.
    In Thomas Rowlandson's cartoon (from which the pictures are taken), a gentleman explains that coal is steamed, producing tar or paint for the outside of houses, and then the smoke is passed through, removing its substance and then burns "as you see".
    A Quaker comments that it is all vanity: "what is this to the inward light?" and a lady of the night (possibly a brothel keeper) and her male colleague complain that lighting streets will put them out of business. "Not a dark corner to be got for love or money."

    1808: John Dalton (another Quaker) published A New System of Chemical Philosophy argued that all matter consists of a range of elemental atoms (indivisible particles) each of which has a distinct atomic weight.

    The chemical combination of different atoms in different proportions producing substances qualitatively different from each other - although the constituent atoms remain the same. The experimental power of this theory (related to the calculation of weights) laid the foundations of modern chemistry - And put an end to any idea that qualities can only be explained as a result of the merging of constituent qualities. (external link)   a precise and beautiful theory

    1808 Charles Fourier Théorie des quatre mouvements et des destinées générales - (Theory of the Four Movements and General Destinies) "As a general thesis: Social progress and historic changes occur by virtue of the progress of women toward liberty, and decadence of the social order occurs as the result of a decrease in the liberty of women." (external source - See Engels and Marx 1845 - Compare with John Stuart Mill)

    1809 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's Philosophie zoologique, ou exposition des considérations relatives à l'histoire naturelle des animaux. (Zoological Philosophy. An Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals) - One of the books in which Lamarck set out his theory of evolution. - External link to extracts in English


    12.2.1810 French Code pénal de 1810

    9.6.1810 [London and Westminster Chartered] Gas Light and Coke Company established to supply gas to the Cities of London and Westminster, the Borough of Southwark, and the adjacent precincts and suburbs. On 31.12.1813 Westminster Bridge was lit by gas; the old oil-lamps were removed from St. Margaret's parish, Westminster and gas lanterns substituted. General lighting of London with gas began on Christmas-day, 1814. By 1815 30 miles of gas main had been laid in London. (See Grace's guide)

    1810 Sun Life Assurance Society founded as part of the Sun Fire Office to provide life insurance. It became part of Friends Life in 2010.

    1810 Great Rutland Cavern - at Matlock Bath opened to the public as a tourist attraction. Developed from part of the Nestus Mine, which has written records from the 15th century. The Duke of Rutland owned mineral rights in the area. The Great Masson Cavern was opened in 1844. Rutland remained (1920s) the largest of the Matlock caverns open to the public, it had room for a thousand people and was "extremely rich in fossils and minerals". At some stage, after 1838, it was gas lit. Its "Roman Hall" claimed to show traces of Roman lead mining.

    March 1811: Percy Byshee Shelley, a young aristocrat, expelled from Oxford University for publishing a pamphlet on The Necessity of Atheism and challenging the clergy to debate it with him. In the following years he distributed pamphlets to the working class calling for revolution in the cause of liberty, equality and justice.

    Monday 27.5.1811: Second British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 10,165,000; Scotland: 1,806,000
    Owen in 1815 notes proportions employed in trade and agriculture

    The first two volumes of Barthold Georg Niebuhr's Römische Geschichte (Roman History) were published in Berlin in 1811-1812. The full three volume set was published in Berlin between 1811 and 1832. They were translated into English from 1827 onwards.

    1811 Antiqvitetskommissionen (Antiquities Commission) for Norway established. This was the origin of the Oldsaksamlingen (Antiquities Collection) at the University of Oslo. (Norweigan Wikipedia)

    1811 Joseph Anning found the scull like a crocodile in the rocks at Lyme Regis. In 1811 Mary and Joseph found the rest of the body. In 1814 named Proteosaurus and from 1817 Ichthyosaurus. See 1820 - 1823 - 1828 - Dorset page - Bristol - Torrens


    1812 to 1814 Robert Owen wrote his four Essays on the Formation of Human Character

    1812 Étienne-Géry Lenglet's Introduction à l'histoire, ou Recherches sur les dernières révolutions du globe et sur les plus anciens peuples connus (Google books   offline) - (Introduction to History, or Research on the recent revolutions in the globe and the oldest known peoples). Révolutions du globe (upheavals of the world?) referred to cataclysmic events that may have structured the earth's geology. These might include Noah's flood, but the theorising is much broader.

    1812 Recherches sur les ossements fossiles de quadrupèdes (Researches on quadruped fossil bones), by Georges Cuvier introduced the big beast (extinct) or Megatherium, reconstructed for the Royal Gabinete de Historia Natural [Wikipedia] from bones found in 1787 by Father Manuel Torres, the parish priest of Lujin, near Buenos Aires in Argentina. [See prehistoric Argentinian mammals]
    Mega = great or big. Therium = beast. Cuvier identified the beast as a prehistoric sloth. Megatherium was followed by Megalosaurus, the big reptile (dinosaur) and Megaloceros, the big horned animal. In the 1854 Sydenham display, Megalosaurus dominated the secondary island, Megatherium the tertiary island and Megaloceros the quaternary island.


    1813 First edition of James Cowles Prichard's Researches into the Physical History of Man

    1813 Essay on the Theory of the Earth translated from, the French of M. Cuvier, by Robert Kerr with Mineralogical Notes, and an Account of Cuvier's Geological Discoveries, by Professor Jameson. Edinburgh. Cuvier text is a translation of the Discours preliminaire . . . from Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles . . . Paris .. Second edition (1815) online.

    End of the Napoleonic Wars

    April 1814: Napoleon abdicated

    Restoration of monarchies throughout continental Europe. Louis 18th King of France.

    18.6.1814 The Czar of Russia and King of Prussia, Britain's allies against Napoleon, were received at the Guildhall in London. A reenactment, called 'End of the Great War', concluded the history of London and Empire in the 1911 Pageant of London. "The world believed that the war had come to an end". [See 1910 and First World War]

    July 1814 Mary Shelley elopes: She journeys through France, Switzerland, Germany and Holland

    Humphry Davy patented the miners' safety lamp

    1814 Jacob Berzelius' "Essay on the Cause of Chemical Proportions, and on Some Circumstances Related to Them; together with a Short and Easy Method of Expressing Them" in the Annals of Philosophy laid the basis of using letter, or letter combinations, derived from Latin names, as chemical symbols. For example, Pb from Plumbum for lead. See Peter van der Krogt

    1814 First edition of The Matlock, Buxton and Castleton Guide, containing concise accounts of these and other remarkable places and objects, chiefly in the northern parts of the interesting County of Derby, by Rev. Richard Ward who was the Anglican minister at Cromford from before 1799 to 1839 and lived in Matlock (See Oakhill). Second edition 1818. Sixth edition 1825. In 1818 the three caverns near Matlock Bath are Rutland, Cumberland, and Fluor. By 1825, Devonshire and one at the base of High Tor had been discovered. Devonshire, like Great Masson discovered later, was a natural cavern.(See John Mawe 1828).

    1815 Napoleon returned, but was defeated at Waterloo (18.6.1815).

    Marco d'Eramo After Waterloo - offline
    notes on Wellington's surgeon, John Hume
    Honeymoon trips and lakeland bonfire

    The journey from London to Paris was calculated (Observer, 18.8.1816) to take 73 hours, consisting of 12 hours to Dover, an average of seven hours waiting at Dover, six hours crossing the channel and then 48 hours to Paris.

    Marx identified the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1815 with the class victory of landed capital.

    1815 Corn Law. During the Napoleonic Wars farmers flourished because corn from abroad could not undercut their prices. Once the war was over foreign corn could come in and bring down the price of corn. To protect the rents of the landed aristocracy Parliament passed the Corn Law (repealed 1846) which put taxes on imported corn. This rise in the price of the people's staple food coincided with a period of widespread poverty and unemployment, following the end of the war. The cost of poor relief soared, leading to a movement to reform the Poor Laws

    1815 William Smith's map A Delineation of the Strata of England and Wales with part of Scotland was the first geological map to identify the layers of rock based on the fossil they contained rather than on their composition. (external link) - See Zhu Xi

    18.8.1816 The Observer reported a project in which a balloon the shape of a dolphin, powered by steam and with wings that would act as rudders would "carry the nobility and gentry to Paris, and subsequently elsewhere" in ten hours or less. [I do not know what happened]. Balloons for flight, carrying humans, had been demonstrated in France in 1783, and used by Napoleon as military observation platforms.

    1816 Christian Jürgensen Thomsen (29.12.1788 - 21.5.1865) appointed head of the antiquarian collections which developed into the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen. He classified exhibits by the three age system: stone age - bronze age - iron age. (See 1824-1825). Work developed in Sweden by Bror Emil Hildebrand and Oscar Montelius. From written sources it was long clear that ancient Rome belonged to the iron age. From classical sources, Thomsen concluded that the iron age in Scandinavian countries began about the time of the birth of Christ. See 1849

    1817 Ricardo's Principles of Political Economy and Taxation published. People, like Malthus and Ricardo, who wanted to abolish any form of poor relief were known as the Abolitionists. They argued that poor relief perverted the market, undermined incentive, reduced the mobility of labour and encouraged overpopulation. Such arguments were at the strongest about 1817. Between 1817 and 1834, when the Poor Law Amendment Act was passed, they were modified considerably.

    Wealth and Poverty: Malthus and Ricardo

    Major writings of Saint Simon L'Industrie (1817), L'Organisateur (1819), Du Systeme Industriel (1821), Catechisme des Industriels (1823), and Nouveau Christianisme (1825).


    Chapter 18: Victor Frankenstein and Henry Clerval travel from London to Scotland, avoiding "the great road to Edinburgh" in order to visit Windsor, Oxford, Matlock, and the Cumberland lakes. The country around the village of Matlock "resembles, to a greater degree, the scenery of Switzerland; but everything is on a lower scale, and the green hills want the crown of distant white Alps ... We visited the wondrous cave, and the little cabinets of natural history, where the curiosities are disposed in the same manner as in the collections at Servox and Chamounix. ... From Derby, still journeying northward, we passed two months in Cumberland and Westmoreland. I could now almost fancy mr self among the Swiss mountains.

    Karl Marx, joint author of The Communist Manifesto was born in Germany in 1818; Friedrich Engels in 1820.

    1819 Our Village sketches by Mary Mitford in The Lady's Magazine. Idyllic pictures of an English village, its cottages and gardens and village green. Book form 1824 - 1826 - 1828 - 1830 - 1832. John Clare's Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery was published in 1820 and his The Village Minstrel, and Other Poems in 1821.

    1819 Adam Sedgwick (1785- 1873), newly appointed Woodwardian Professor of Geology at Cambridge and John Stevens Henslow (1796-1861) , newly graduated, went on a geological walking tour of the Isle of Wight, during which they conceived a project to institute a society in Cambridge "as a point of concourse for scientific communication". On their return they founded the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Henslow became Professor of mineralogy in 1822 and of Botany in 1825, combining this with being a vicar from 1832. From 1837 he was Rector of Hitcham in Suffolk, where he lived from 1839. See 1842. An account that the Isle of Wight Philosophical Society was founded in 1810 and established a collection in 1819 is referenced to work by Jackson in the 1940s. The Isle of Wight Tourist, and Companion at Cowes (1830) by "Philo Vectis" says the society was formed about 1822. Martin Munt (2008) says "Collecting of geological specimens for museum collections is documented as early as 1825". A history was provided as part of the Portsmouth Symposium's field excursion to the Isle of Wight on Saturday 2.9.2000.

    16.8.1819 Peterloo. Troops fired on demonstrators in Manchester. (External Link- Spartacus schoolnet)

    The Times, 10.10.1819 page 4.

    1819 Act for the Resumption of Cash Payments led to bank notes being convertible to gold from 1.5.1821. Convertibility had been suspended in 1797. It was fully resumed over a period of three years (1821- 1824)


    James Mill's Essay on Government first published in the supplement to the Encyclopedia Brittanica. See 1825

    1820 Trial and acquital of Saint Simon

    the owl of Minerva 25.6.1820 The owl of Minerva does not fly until the evening - Hegel argues that we only understand history after it has happened.

    1821 London sale of Anning fossils raised up to £400, which rescued the family.

    Monday 28.5.1821: Third British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 12,000,000; Scotland: 2,092,000

    1821 Discovery of Kirkdale Cave [Wikipedia] - 1822 "Account of an Assemblage of Fossil Teeth and Bones of Elephant, Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, Bear, Tiger, and Hyaena, and Sixteen Other Animals; Discovered in a Cave at Kirkdale, Yorkshire, in the Year 1821: With a Comparative View of Five Similar Caverns in Various Parts of England, and Others on the Continent" by William Buckland. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Volume. 112 (1822), pp. 171-236. Available online - (offline) - "many small balls of the solid calcareous excrement of an animal that had fed on bones". Discussion - Buckland: See Anning - 1823 - 1825 - 1828 - 1829 - 1845

    1822 John Stuart Mill and his friends formed a Utilitarian Society (broken up 1826). Utilitarianism was the dominant theory of Social Science in nineteenth century Britain. It was challenged by the French Sociologist, Emile Durkheim, in the 1890s.

    July 1822 Lyell wrote to Mantell with details of the "anticlinal axis and order of superposition of the strata at Sandown Bay" and their correspondence with the wealden and cretaceous systems of Sussex and Surrey with "a section from Culver Cliff to Shanklin Down" and a "suite of specimens". (Mantell 1847)


    David Ricardo died

    About 1823 John Stuart Mill allegedly arrested distributing birth control leaflets to working class women. [I heard he was dropping them into the "areas" of rich people's houses, where the servant girls would pick them up.] See 1886 - 1934 - 1950s - 1957 - 1961 - 1964 - 1987 - 2008

    See Whitby and Lyme lias and Oxford oolite

    1823 Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society in with the prime purpose to setup a Museum. George Young (1777 1848), a Presbyterian minister, and John Bird (1768-1829: artist), two members, published A geological survey of the Yorkshire coast : describing the strata and fossils occurring between the Humber and the Tees, from the German ocean to the plain of York in 1822 (online offline), with a substantial revision in 1828 (online offline). John Bird became the museum's first curator. (website) Among the specimens was Teleosaurus chapmani catalogue

    A second Whitby crocodile like fossil was found in the lias between Staiths and Runswick in 1791, and better skeleton in the alum-shale of the lias at Saltwick in 1824. This was eighteen feet long and became one of the best known exhibits in the museum.
    The drawing "Teleosaurus Chapmanni: Crocodilian remains from the Lias at Whitby", of the specimen discovered in 1824, is from Buckland's Bridgewater Treatise (1835), plate 25, but based on John Bird's drawing in the 1828 edition of the Geological Survey (Plate 16. Two page spread. Hand coloured). Buckland's notes say this appears to be the same species as that presented to the Royal Society in 1758, and so Mr. Konig [of the British Museum] "has applied to it the name of Teleosaurus Chapmanni".
    10.12.1823 Mary Anning discovered a fossil with a "remarkable long neck and a small head", not resembling an Ichthyosaurus. 26.12.1823 Letter with sketch suggests it is a Plesiosaurus (nearer to a saurus). Plesiosaurus was 9 feet long, but its head was only 4 to 5 inches long. Plesiosaurus and Ichthyosaurus appear to do battle in sketch for the 1854 exhibition
    On 20.2.1824 a Geological Society meeting heard a report on this find and one from William Buckland on his Megalosaurus. The three images below, from the Oxford Museum of Natural History, show Megalosaurus developing from a waddler to a runner.


    German historian Franz Leopold Ranke (21.12.1795 -23.5.1886) wrote that rather than "judging the past" would seek "only to show what actually happened" (wie es eigentlich gewesen)

    1824 Comte and Saint-Simon fell out over the way Comte's Systeme de Politique Positive was to be presented in Saint- Simon's Catechism Des Industriels

    Finance capital, insurance, statistics and economic cycles Early in 1824 the Alliance British and Foreign Life and Fire Assurance Company was founded with four banker presidents: Moses Montefiore, Nathan Rothschild, Samuel Gurney and Francis Baring (link to another member of the family) and one MP: John Irving. In part, formed to take advantage of the mathematical abilities and knowledge of probability theory of Benjamin Gompertz (1779-1865), the company's actuary. Thomas Fowell Buxton, M.P. was one of the auditors. On 24.6.1824 the company secured an Act of Parliament breaking a monopoly on marine assurance and allowing the Alliance Marine Insurance Company to be formed with Gompertz as chief manager. The formation of the Alliance has been described as "an initial event in a speculative mania as exciting as the South Sea Bubble" - leading to the crash in December 1825. The work of Benjamin Gompertz was important in the development of statistics - See also external link and Wikipedia

    Charles Babbage (1791-1871) thought of the idea of a machine considerably more complex than an abacus to calculate and print mathematical tables in 1812. He wanted to eliminate the inaccuracies of hand calculations by large numbers of human "computers". Cogs would be more reliable. He began his first machine in 1824 and it was put together in 1832 by Joseph Clement, a skilled toolmaker and draughtsman. It was a decimal digital machine - the value of a number represented by the positions of toothed wheels marked with decimal numbers.

    about 1824-1825 Organisation of Antiquities in Copenhagen on his three-age- system, by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen completed. The system was described in 1836


    1825 Michael Faraday isolated and identified benzene from the oily residue derived from the production of illuminating gas. He called it bicarburet of hydrogen. In 1836, the French chemist Auguste Laurent named it phéne. This is the word root of phenol and phenyl. [See phenothiazine]. Phenol is also known as carbolic acid.

    1825 James Mill's Essay on Government (1820) distributed in a free edition with other essays. William Thompson's Appeal on Behalf of Women written in collaboration with Anna Wheeler criticised this essay. . Thompson and Wheeler were Irish Owenites who developed socialist theories from Benthamism. See Radicals, Socialists and Early Feminists and Thompson and Wheeler weblinks

    December 1825: Two Lombard Street (London) banks failed with consequent failures of country banks. Over one hundred banks failed in a few weeks. The bank crisis was stabilised by greater reliance on gold, but this was the start of the first world wide economic depression.
    "From the time of the resumption of cash payments by the Act of 1819, and especially since the commercial crisis of 1825, the favourite explanation of every rise or fall of prices has been 'the currency;'" (Mill, J.S. 1848 book three, chapter 8 "Of the value of money, as dependent on demand and supply".

    1825 Reverend Gerard Smith recovered fragments of fossil bones of reptiles from Sandown Bay on the east of the Isle of Wight. In 1829 James Vine found many near Brook Point on the south-west coast, at the other end of the same iron-stone strata. They were numerous at "Bull-face Ledge", where "the iron-stone is abundantly loaded with prostrate trunks of fossil trees". (fossils sent to the collection of the Geological Society of London). In 1834 John Smith, of Yaverland Farm, near Sandown,collected several large vertebrae of the Iguanodon, portions of two thigh bones, and many fragments of smaller bones, which were presented to the Oxford Museum. (Buckland 1829 and Mantell 1847)

    1826 Benjamin Disraeli's Vivian Grey explored the relation of birth, wealth and intellect to power, stating that "to enter into high society, a man must either have blood, a million, or a genius". Vivian Grey regrets that he is not the "son of a millionaire, or a noble". The word millionaire had entered English from French in the late 18th century. Here it is associated with the new rich finacial and industrial classes. See also Marx and Engels 1848 paragraph 1.9 and cotton millionaires in 1850.

    Sometime in 1826: "Breast-feeding mother" by Willem Bartel van der Kooi (1768-1836), a Dutch artist famous for pictures of family and childhood. The mother is a Frisian woman from the countryside.

    23.1.1826 "The Last Man by the author of Frankenstein published

    John Stuart Mill's melancholy winter of 1826/1827. Autobiography paragraphs 5.2c - 5.6

    9.4.1827 was the end of the Liverpool Tory Government (The only English government to last longer than Mrs Thatcher's).

    30.4.1827 A foundation stone laid in Gower Street of what became London University, the first "godless" university in England. Although many who supported it were very religious, the University was founded on the principle that religious tests would not be required of staff or students. For the first time, dissenters and jews (in particular) could study for a degree without travelling to Scotland or continental Europe. (external link) - The first academic sessions started in October 1828 - On 28.11.1836 the university, renamed University College, was united with King's College as the University of London. King's College was a rival university founded by the established church. The North London Hospital was opened opposite the university in 1834. It became University College Hospital in 1837. See 1840s - 1846 - 1869 - 1871 - 1878

    Michael Farady succeeded Humphry Davy in the chair of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. He published the first edition of Chemical Manipulation

    August 1827 First edition of Popular Lectures on the Study of Natural History and the Sciences, Vegetable Physiology, Zoology, the Animal and Vegetable Poisons: And on the Human Faculties, Mental and Corporeal, as Delivered Before the Isle of Wight Philosophical Society edited by William Lempnere (a vice-President). A second edition was published in 1830. The curators of the museum were Delabere [Pritchett] Blaine, author of the Encyclopiedia of Field Sports, who died in the Isle of Wight on 1.4.1845, aged 74 and Rev Edmund Kell (born 18.1.1799, died 17.1.1874) Unitarian Minister at Newport since 1823. The Society met monthly during the winter season, when a lecture was usually delivered at the Townhall by one of the members upon any subject of natural history, or of general literature. It was linked to the Portsmouth Philosophical Society. See 1847.

    1828 John Stuart Mill established contacts with Saint-Simonians at the London Debating Society.

    26.10.1829 Death of John Mawe (born 1764) minerologist owner of a "Free Museum" at Matlock Bath. See Wikipedia. The second edition of The Panorama of Matlock and its environs: with the tour of the Peak was published in 1828. The Matlock Tourist in 1838 says Mawe wrote this. The Panorama says the Devonshire Cavern "on the Heights of Abraham, (Mount Parnassus)" was "discovered about four years ago" (page 18). "It is visited by every curious resident; and, on comparison with the others, is greatly preferred, being a natural cavern, and of very great extent, and presenting an ininite number of 'water icicles', (a most appropriate local term,) some of which line the sides, and others are pendant from the roof" "The Proprietor" had "been at considerable expense" to provide easy access and "driving a gallery through it to the open air".

    winter 1828 Mary Anning discovered the first British example of a "flying dragon" or Pterodactylus, which caught the public's imagination more than any other of her finds. Dimorphodon macronyx (Buckland, 1829) PV R 1034 - Two articles by William Buckland in Transactions of the Geological Society of London, followed one another: "On the discovery of a new species of pterodactyle in the lias at Lyme Regis" and "On the Discovery of Coprolites, or Fossil Faeces, in the Lias at Lyme Regis, and in other Formations" in 1829. (In series 2, volume 3, 1835, see pages 217-240 and plates at end). (offline)

    "In the same blue lias formation at Lyme Regis, in which so many specimens of Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus have been discovered by Miss Mary Anning-, she has recently found the skeleton of an unknown species of that most rare and curious of all reptiles, the Pterodactyle, an extinct genus, which has yet been recognized only in the upper Jura limestone beds of Aichstedt and Solenhofen, in the lithographic stone, which is nearly coeval with the chalk of England"

    Buckland thought the Pterodactyle might be able to fly, swim, creep, or climb, or suspend itself from trees. He compared it to Milton's description of the devil: "The Fiend, O'er bog, or steep, through straight, rough, dense, or rare, With head, hands, wings, or feet, pursues his way. And swims, or sinks, or wades, or creeps, or flies." Paradise Lost, Book 2. line 947. #


    1829 Thomas Babington Macaulay's review of James Mill's Essay on Government criticised it for using deduction rather than induction.

    1829 John Stuart Mill read Comte for the first time.

    1829 Robert Owen returned to England to find he is a guru of the labour movement.

    May 1829: The British Association for Promoting Cooperative Knowledge founded in London.

    4.12.1829 William Buckland read a paper "On the discovery of Fossil Bones of the Iguanodon, in the Iron Sand of the Wealden Formation in the Isle of Wight, and in the Isle of Purbeck" Finds (by local fossil collectors) helped to connect "the geological structure of ... parts of the Isle of Wight and Isle of Purbeck ... with the Weald of Sussex and Kent".
    Two views (drawings) of Metacarpal bone of Iguanadon from Sandown Bay, Isle of Wight. The vision of Iguanadon was initially deduced from such pieces. Mantell used the proportions of eight different fossil bones compared with those of "the recent Iguana" to calculate prehistoric Iguanadon's as 70 feet long (including 52.5 feet of tail) and 14.5. feet in body circumference.
    Mantell, in 1847, noted that "the largest toe-hone of the Iguanodon now in my possession was obtained from a row of stones placed round the flower-plot of a cottage near Brixton". Swanage, in Dorset, is located where iron-sand divides the Purbeck limestone to the south, from the greensand and chalk of Ballard Down to the north. From Swanage bay. a Rev. F.O. Bartlett and Colonel White had collected bones of fossils for Bartlett's museum, including ones from Iguanodon, Plesiosaurus, crocodiles, and possibly Megalosaurus. Washed from cliffs, the fossils had been rolled up and down the beach and partially eroded.


    July 1830: Revolution in France - Marx identified the revolution of 1830 with the class victory of finance capital. [See revolution]

    Eugène Delacroix's painting "Liberty leading the people" shows her bare-breasted, possibly symbolising that she breast feeds the people.

    1830-1842: Auguste Comte's Cours de Philosophie Positive (six volumes), published. The first volume is believed to have only been published (1830) in Brussels, probably due to the revolution. It was re- published in Paris later. Volume two was published in 1835 - volume three in 1838 - volume four in 1839, volume five in 1841, volume six in 1842.

    1830 Volume one of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, Being an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth's surface, by reference to causes now in operation with plates, illustrations and maps. Volume two in 1832. Volume three in 1833

    5.7.1830 Start of French invasion of Algiers. "The invasion marked the end of several centuries of Ottoman rule in Algeria and the beginning of French Algeria" (Wikipedia). This is considered te beginning of the second French Empire. The occupation of French Indo-China took place under Napoleon 3rd. See Roland Barthes the signification.

    9.8.1830 Louise Philippe proclaimed king of France. On 16.8.1830 ex-king Charles 10th left for exile in England.

    what about the workers? 28.8.1830 First threshing machine destroyed in the "Swing Riots" in England.

    15.9.1830 Railway opened between the port of Liverpool and the cotton town of Manchester.

    George Stephenson (9.6.1781 - 12.8.1848) constructed the line and his son Robert Stephenson (16.10.1803 - 12.10.1859) designed and built the steam locomotives.

    The painting (a detail) of open carriages on the first day was painted by A.B. Clayton in 1830 (Wikimedia Commons)

    Charles Tayleur and Company at Newton Le Willows opened in 1832 to produce girders for bridges, switches and crossings, and other ironwork following the opening of the railway. Robert Stephenson was a partner for a few years. Became The Vulcan Foundry Company in (or by) 1847. [See mythology Vulcan]

    See 1854 - 1899 - and Festivalof Britain 1951 and Vulcan 1951 - before 1960.

    15.11.1830 was the end of the Wellington Tory Government in the United Kingdom. 17.11.1830 was the start or Grey's Whig Government.

    1830: Royal Geographic Society founded. It incorporated the African Society (founded in 1788), in 1831. From 1830 to 1840 it met in the rooms of the Horticultural Society. [external link to history]. The National Geographic Society of the United States was founded in 1888.

    1830 At Lund, Bror Emil Hildebrand arranged exhibits according to Christian Jürgensen Thomsen's three age system. He did the same at Stockholm between 1831 and 1837. Rudolf Keyser applied the system in Christiania (Oslo), Norway, between 1833 and 1836. So, by the time Thomsen published his guide to the system in 1836, it was already known and accepted in Scandinavia. (Gräslund, p.20).

    what about the workers? 1831

    James Clark Ross reached the magnetic north pole in 1831
    1831 to 1836 Charles Darwin's voyage on the Beagle
    In 1831, Patrick Matthew (1790-1874) published a book on On Naval Timber and Arboriculture (Edinburgh and London) the appendix to which outlined the idea of evolution by natural selection.
    1831 to 1834: Eduard Rüppell travelled to Ethiopia where he encountered the gelada monkeys and from which he brought back precious manuscripts of Ethiopian Christianity.
    Monday 30.5.1831: Fourth British Census
    Population of England and Wales: 13,897,000; Scotland: 2,364,000

    See the formation of statistical societies in 1833

    September 1831 British Association for the Advancement of Science founded. A brief (pdf) history on the British Association's website implied that an objective was to make science more open, and less elitist. The focus of the Association's activities was its Annual Meeting "which was an important forum for major scientific announcements and debate". - There is now a web brief history. (archive)

    Major scientific announcements the brief history lists are "Joule's experiments on the mechanical equivalent of heat in the 1840s, Bessemer's steel process (1856), the discovery of the first of the inert gases, argon, by Rayleigh and Ramsay (1894), the first public demonstration of wireless transmission over a few hundred yards by Sir Oliver Lodge (1894), and J. J. Thomson's discovery of the electron (1899)." It also mentions the debate on Darwin's theory in 1860. As can be seen, the emphasis is on the natural sciences, and the new statistical section (1835) was told not to be political.

    The Spirit of the Age

    Georg Friedrich Hegel, the philosopher of history as the development of ideas, died in Germany in 1831.

    German "idealism" and French "positivism" provided English speakers with alternative approaches to social science to utilitarianism.

    John Stuart Mill's articles on the Spirit of the Age (1831) showed the influence of Saint-Simon in his explanation of the way different ideas fit different periods of history. Mill was a utilitarian arguing that there is a cultural difference in what gives pleasure. He adapted utilitarianism to the philosophy of history.

    Thomas Carlyle argued against utilitarianism in a fiction called Sartor Resartus (Latin for "clothes maker repaired"), which he wrote in 1831 (published later). This argued for a social science based on the analysis of symbols. Clothes are typical social symbols. We are naturally naked, but in society we use clothes to convey meaning to one another. Although the movement of planets may be described on the model of a machine, Carlyle said social science requires the analysis of meanings. Religion had provided this, but, like old clothes, it no longer fits. The times require new clothes. Utilitarianism will not do, because it removes the significance of symbolic meanings, reducing them all to degrees of pain and pleasure in an effort to imitate the machine model used by physics.

    what about the workers? 1832

    1832 Michael Faraday (England) Joseph Henry (USA) reported their separate conversion of electricity into magnetism and back into electricity.
    Faraday sent a current through a coil of wires, creating a magnetic field which induced a momentary current in a second coil.
    This discovery of electromagnetic induction led to the development of electric motors, generators and dynamos.

    1832 Friends Provident Institution founded, on the proposal of Samuel Tuke and Joseph Rowntree, "to provide the security of life assurance" to Quakers. Office above a sweet shop in Bradford. See online history.

    1.2.1832 Royal Commission on the Poor Laws appointed. It reported in 1834

    14.4.1832 Robert Owen's penny paper The Crisis began publication. "It is now evident to every one who observes passing events .., that a momentous Crisis is at hand".

    June 1832 Insurrection républicaine à Paris en juin 1832 - Wikipedia

    6.6.1832 Jeremy Bentham died. He left his body to medical science and you can still visit his corpse at the University of London.

    30.6.1832 Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge announced planned publication of a Penny Cyclopaedia. When it commenced (1833?) there were six penny numbers per month. On 13.11.1833 these were offered bound together in cloth at 7/6d as Volume 1 - A to Andes. Price and numbers later increased but the same publication plan continued until completion in 1843/1844. (See article by James Carlile Open Court 1919)

    In 1832 a Whig Government passed a Parliamentary Reform Act (Royal Assent 7.6.1832). This did not add many voters, but it spread the vote more evenly over the country. There was a marked shift in the balance of power from the landed aristocracy to the urban middle classes.

    what about the workers? 1833

    Emancipation of Slaves: In August 1833, the British Parliament passed an Act prohibiting slavery in British colonies. This Act came into force on Friday 1.8.1834, which was treated as a day of celebration by the people of Britain. As in France in 1794, the common people of the slave-owning country identified with the freedom of the slaves. This is how the novel John Halifax, Gentleman (D.M. Craik, 1856) described the celebrations:

      "what a soft, gray, summer morning it was, and how it broke out into brightness; how everywhere bells were ringing, club fraternities walking with bands and banners, school-children having feasts and work-people holidays."

    Slave owners and compensation (examples): see Dr Thomas Turner and Robert Gordon

    1833 The Swedish chemist Jacob Berzelius coined the term polymer (many parts), originally for a compound with a formula that was a multiple of another. (A definition still used in dictionaries). It has evolved into a word for a compound with a large number of similar units bonded together, with special reference to plastics, resins and rubbers formed of such organic compounds. See nylon.

    1833 A Topographical Dictionary of Great Britain and Ireland: ..., Volume 1 Compiled by John Gorton. "Bristol, until eclipsed by Liverpool, was the principal port on the western coast of England. Its lead-branch of foreign commerce is with West Indies, which it supplies with every sort of article necessary to the black and white population; and receives back vast quantities of rum, cotton, sugar, and other West India produce in return. Sugar is the most important article,"

    Franz Bopp's Comparative Grammar was published in Berlin in six part in 1833, 1835, 1842, 1847, 1849 and 1852. The full title being Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen, Lateinischen, Litauischen, Gotischen und Deutschen (Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Gothic and German). It is the comparative study of languages that is thought of as the origin of scientific as distinct from literary philology and linguistics.

    May 1833 "Joseph Whitworth, Tool-Maker from London" established in Manchester. Whitworth produced the machine tools which made the development of railways and steamships possible. "He is best remembered for his promotion of true plane surfaces and the Whitworth screw thread. His promotion of standard measures and interchangeability brought about an engineering revolution". (Whitworth Society)

    Statistical Societies formed

    Members of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, meeting at Cambridge in the summer of 1833, formed a statistical section. - See history on website of the Royal Statistical Society). The Belgian mathematician Quetelet was invited and presented a paper on the relationship between the statistics of crime and age in France and Belgium to a small private meeting which included Thomas Malthus and Charles Babbage. Crime statistics were figures that European states had only recently begun to generate. State generated numbers opened a bright new window through which society could be looked at scientifically. Babbage proposed a statistical section of the British Association (section F) and this was agreed on the condition that it was non-political.

    Manchester Statistical Society was established before the end of 1833.

    1833 In volume three of Principles of Geology, Charles Lyell compared the fossil record in succesive strata of rocks to the records in a succesion of registers left by census officials:

    "Let the mortality of the population of a large country represent the successive extinction of species, and the births of new individuals the introduction of new species. While these fluctuations are gradually taking place everywhere, suppose commissioners to be appointed to visit each province of the country in succession, taking an exact account of the number, names, and individual peculiarities of all the inhabitants, and leaving in each district a register containing a record of this information. If, after the completion of one census, another is immediately made after the same plan, and then another, there will, at last, be a series of statistical documents in each province. When these are arranged in chronological order, the contents of those which stand next to each other will differ according to the length of the intervals of time between the taking of each census." (Lyell, C. 1833, p.32)

    what about the workers? 1834

    The Statistical Society of London, which had been projected at
    Cambridge, was established in the spring of 1834, and

    "since that time the pursuit of this science has extended very rapidly". Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol.1, no.1 May 1838 p.4

    The decision to found was made at a meeting at Babbage's house on 21.2.1834 and the society held its first meeting within two weeks, setting down its aims as 'the collection and classification of all facts illustrative of the present condition and prospects of society, especially as it exists in the British Dominions'. The Council was elected at a meeting on 3.5.1834. (Archive)

    9.4.1834 Start of the second revolt of the canuts and la semaine sanglante (week of blood) in France. (external link)

    1834 POOR LAW

    1834 Poor Law Amendment Act. By this Act a Poor Law Commission was created to regulate the poor law centrally. Under its influence local authorities were encourage to build workhouses and to refuse poor people any welfare payments unless they left their home and lived in the workhouse. The Act was hated by the working class who called workhouses the English "Bastilles". To erect some workhouses the government had to provide an army guard. Malthusianism was blamed for the New Poor Law. So evil were its motives thought to be that many thought they would be poisoned in the workhouse to control population.

    See Social Science History, chapter five:
    Social Science and the 1834 Poor Law
    The Theories that Smith, Bentham, Malthus and Owen made

    England's Poor Law Commissioners and the Trade in Pauper Lunacy 1834-1847
    Mental Health, for the effect of the Act on the growth of asylums.

    The Bridgewater Treatises On the Power Wisdom and Goodness of God As Manifested in the Creation - published in volumes between 1833 and 1836

    1833 Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847), On the Power, Wisdom and Goodness of God as Manifested in the Adaptation of External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Constitution of Man - John Kidd (1775-1851), On the Adaptation of External Nature to the Physical Condition of Man: Principally with Reference to the Supply of His Wants and the Exercise of His Intellectual Faculties - 3 William Whewell (1794-1866), Astronomy and General Physics Considered with Reference to Natural Theology Internet Archive offline - Charles Bell (1774-1842), The Hand: Its Mechanism and Vital Endowments in Evincing Design

    1834 Peter Roget (1779-1869) Animal and Vegetable Physiology: Considered with Reference to Natural Theology - William Prout (1785-1850) Chemistry, Meteorology, and the Function of Digestion: Considered with Reference to Natural Theology

    1835 William Kirby (1759-1850) On the Power, Wisdom and Goodness of God as Manifested in the Creation of Animals and in Their History, Habits and Instincts

    1836 6. William Buckland (1784-1856) Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology online Internet Archive plates offline plates

    what about the workers? 1835

    The first volume of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America published in French. The second volume was published in 1840. John Stuart Mill wrote a review in The Edinburgh Review, vol 72, 1840. Tocqueville's Recollections were written in 1850/1851. His The Ancien Regime and the French Revolution was published in 1856. He died in 1859

    1835 Adolphe Quetelet published his conception of the qualities of an average person as the central values of measurements grouped in "curve of possibility" - which we now call a "normal curve".
    This bell shaped picture drawn by Quetelet illustrates a distribution according to laws of probability. Quetelet showed that the distribution of naturally occurring features, such as the heights of adult men, approximated to the same shape. So, there would be very few very short men (left), large numbers of medium height men (around the central axis) and very few very tall men. Hidden in this picture was the possibility of measuring normality and abnormality (deviance) "scientifically". This external link illustrates the relation between the normal curve and probability - archive

    Farr in "Mortality of lunatics" has the idea of a natural death rate as something distinct from the (statistically) normal death rate - without using these words

    1835 Roderick Impey Murchison and Adam Sedgwick's "On the Silurian and Cambrian Systems, Exhibiting the Order in which the Older Sedimentary Strata Succeed each other in England and Wales" since described as the germ of the modern geological time scale.

    what about the workers? 1836

    James Mill died

    1836 The post of Registrar General (births, deaths and marriages) for England and Wales created by the Births, Deaths and Marriages Registration Act. Registration began in 1837. William Farr was appointed (first) Superintendent of the Statistical Department in 1838. The Registrar General was responsible the census in England and Wales from 1841,

    1836 Contrasts by Augustus Welby Pugin published. Asserted that only a Roman Catholic Society could produce a truly Gothic style.

    Bridgewater Foundry built beside the Bridgewater Canal and the Liverpool to Manchester Railway. The foundry had a railway running through it which moved the heavy engineering goods it made from one point to another as they were worked on.

    1836 Edouard Biot (1803-1850) [in French] "The Population of China and its Variations since the year 2400 BC, until the thirteenth century AD"

    1836 Christian Jürgensen Thomsen's Ledetraad til nordisch Oldkyndighed. Published in English as Guide to Northern Archaeology in 1848

    what about the workers? 1837

    1837 A Descriptive and Statistical Account of the British Empire: Exhibiting its extent, physical capacities, population, industry, and civil and religious institutions by John Ramsay McCulloch assisted by numerous contributors, published in two volumes under the superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. (Read online). The chapter on "Vital statistics, or, The statistics of health, sickness, diseases, and death" was written by Wiliam Farr. ["Vital Statistics" means "life statistics"]

    1837 to 1839 Thomas Carlyle's two volume The French Revolution established him amongst the chief writers of the day.

    February 1837 Digging began on the Clay Cross Tunnel in Derbyshire, to enable the Leeds to Derby railway to pass under Clay Cross Hill. It was was completed in August 1839. Coal and iron deposits discovered during the digging were the basis of the rapid expansion of Clay Cross as a mining town. Its geology inspired the coal formation feature at the 1854 Sydenham display. (History - Domesday - Clay Cross walk

    May 1837 William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented their electric telegraph which used a battery to send an electric current down five wires to five needles which pointed to letters and numbers on a panel. It was first used by the Great Western Railway. [See drum telegraph]

    1.7.1837 Registration of births, deaths and marriages in England and Wales required by law. - External link to General Register Office

    Poor Law Commission decide to extend the law to the north. Opposition spread faster than the Commissioners. An Anti-Poor law campaign and a campaign to control factory working hours merged with the campaign for the Charter. The Charter called for a vote for every adult male. Chartists believed that if the working class could gain control of Parliament they would gain control of the welfare system and of the economy. Tied to the Charter was a plan to bring it about. A large demonstration would present a monster petition to Parliament asking that all men should have a vote. They would wait outside Parliament and when the petition was rejected they would declare themselves a National Convention -a kind of People's Parliament which would take over from the official Parliament - To enforce their will they would call a sacred month or national strike of the working classes. The use of the word "Convention" was seen as deliberate reference to the French Revolution. The idea of the "sacred month" was common amongst the Owenites.

    Aborigines' Protection Society (London) founded in the aftermath of British emancipation of slaves. The Ethnological Society of London was founded in 1843

    20.6.1837 Victoria became Queeen on the death of her uncle, William 4th.

    French Wikipedia (in English) The Victorian era (L'époque victorienne) in the United Kingdom marks the height of the British industrial revolution and the British Empire. Queen Victoria reigned for 1837 to 1901, but some historians prefer to start the Victorian period at the Reform Act of 1832. The Victorian era is preceded by the Georgian and followed by the Edwardian era. - See also German Wikipedia - Victorian America - 1865

    A young portrait of Victoria was used from her first coins of 1838 until 1887 for gold and silver coins, but continued in use until as late as 1895 on some bronze coins.

    Victorian (and subsequent) pennies were legal currency in the United Kingdom until 1971. The early Victorian ones were worn very thin by over a century of use.

    Isambard Kingdom Brunel (9.4.1806 - 15.9.1859) designed the first steamship purpose-built for regularly scheduled trans-Atlantic crossings. The ship was part of a project that would link London, England to New York in the USA. This was completed on 30.6.1841 when the Great Western Railway from Paddington to Bristol opened.
    The Falmouth Art Gallery has this wood engraving by W. Serjent

    "The Great Western Steam Ship of Bristol"

    Listen to the news on the day the Great Western Steamship (archive - new) was launched at Bristol. It left on its first voyage for America in 1838. There is also a feature on the lunacy commission described in the news bulletin.

    Hegel died in 1831.

    The Doktorklub, later renamed Die Freien of Young Hegelians met in Berlin in the late 1830s and early 1840s

    This cartoon of Die Freien is by Engels. I do not have a date.

    what about the workers? 1838

    1838 The Principles of General and Comparative Physiology by William Benjamin Carpenter. Developed in different formats over many years. 1846 A Manual of Physiology, including physiological anatomy Second edition 1851 [Internet Archive] refers to "green scum, which floats upon ponds, ditches... which consists of the cells of a minute Cryptogamic Plant". [Cryptogram = non-flowering. We would now call the green scum green algae]. He considered the chemical processes triggered in this by light, uniting carbon and hydrogen and releasing oxygen. Carpenter carried out microscopical studies of the Foraminifera, minute shelled creatures found in surface waters and oceanic (and geological) deposits. In the 1860s he was involved in the debate over 'dawn life' fossils Eozoon canadense.

    Objective statistics In an 1820 paper to the Royal Society, Benjamin Gompertz criticised life assurance societies for selecting mortality tables that they hoped would be favourable to them, rather than seeking objectivity. In 1838 he was a member of a committee formed by seventeen assurance offices to pool information in the search for reliable statistics.

    1838 William Ewart Gladstone The State in its Relations with the Church "We have no fear for the Church of England in her competition with the denominational bodies around her."

    1838 Anselme Payen, a French chemist, isolated cellulose from plant matter and determined its chemical formula. The purest natural form of cellulose is cotton fibre. Explosive "gun cotton" was made by treating cotton with nitric acid. This "nitrocellulose" formed the basis of early synthetic plastics from 1862. Registered as Celluloid in 1870. Celluloid film became the basis of home photography (1889) and cinema (1895). Cellulose from wood (mainly) was the basis of the artificial fibre industry that came to be known as rayon (1900).

    One spring morning 1838 A mirror image of Boulevard du Temple, Paris at "huit heure du matin" (8 a.m.) captured by Louis-Jaques-Mandé Daguerre using a light-sensitised silver plate. The plate was exposed in a camera for about ten minutes to take the picture. Moving objects were not recorded but a shoe-shiner and his customer were still enough to be immortalised.
    photograph - photo 1856 - cabinet cards 1863 - street scene 1865 - film 1895 - film 1900 - photo 1905 - passing life 1909 - forgotten grief 1916 - working class families 1920s - Picture Post

    September 1838 The London to Birmingham Railway opened. The first main line in the world. [See steam and commerce] the train from

    In October 1838, Charles Darwin read Malthus on Population. This eventually led to his theory of evolution by natural selection.

    23.11.1838 A "Natural-History Society" established in Warrington, which "is already in possession of a Phrenological Society".

    1838 Charles Lyell The Elements of Geology - Originally planned as volume four of Principles

    1838 The Matlock Tourist, or guide through the Peak produced, in connection with the Centre Museum of J. Valence and Benjamin Bryan of the Devonshire Cavern. Of the caverns of Matlock the guide says "so rich and rare an assemblage of Minerals, Fossils, Ores, Stalactites, and Crystals, in an almost ininite variety of formation, is not to be met with in any other part of the kingdom". Rutland, at this time, used candles to illuminate its roof. Bengal lights (blue flares) were used in Devonshire.

    what about the workers? 1839
    In volume four of Cours de Philosophie Positive, Auguste Comte coined the word Sociologie. In 1843, this entered English as Sociology.

    The speed of the train may annihilate distance: The first volume of The Quarterly Review (January-March) for 1839 started with an article in which the author suggested the current speed of possibly 30 miles per hour might increase to sixty or even a hundred.

    "It will be evident that the first effect of this increasing series is the gradual annihilation, approaching almost to the final extinction, of that space and of those distances which have hitherto been supposed unalterably to separate the various nations of the globe; and that in proportion as this shall be effected, the centralisation, whether for weal or woe, of the human family, must be accomplished. For instance, supposing that railroads, even at our present simmering rate of travelling, were to be suddenly established all over England, the whole population of the country would, speaking metaphorically, at once advance en masse, and place their chairs nearer to the fireside of their metropolis by two-thirds of the time which now separates them from it; they would also sit nearer to one another by two-thirds of the time which now respectively alienates them. If the rate were to be again sufficiently accelerated, this process would be repeated ; our harbours, our dock-yards, our towns, the whole of our rural population, would again not only draw nearer to each other by twothirds, but all would proportionally approach the national hearth. As distances were thus annihilated, the surface of our country would, as it were, shrivel in size until it became not much bigger than one immense city, and yet by a sort of miracle every man's field would be found not only where it always was, but as large as ever it was!"

    7.5.1839 First presentation of the Charter to Parliament.

    12.5.1839 La Société des saisons launched an usuccesful republican revolt against the July monarchy (French Wikipedia)

    9.7.1839 Completion of thirteen miles of electric telegraph between the Paddington and West Drayton stations of the Great Western Railway.

    10.9.1839: John Frederick William Herschel to William Henry Fox Talbot: I have not tried Daguerre's process - But I yesterday succeeded in producing a photograph on glass ... The process ... consists in depositing on the glass a perfectly uniform film of Muriate of Silver - dry (by subsidence from water) - drying it - then washing it with Nitrate to render it sensitive... When placed glass foremost in the focus of a Camera This takes the image with much greater sharpness than paper." See also Fox Talbot's paper based salt print method.

    what about the workers? Hungry Forties
    The Hungry Forties; life under the Bread Tax was the title chosen by Jane Unwin, in 1904, for a collection of documents from the 1840s. The term caught on as the British labour movement of the early twentieth century recounted to itself the struggles of its predecessors, and British communists studied the Communist Manifesto and tried to relate it to the decade that gave birth to it.

    The "hungry forties", when a large part of the Irish peasantry starved to death and the condition of the English workers was also miserable, had a strong effect on the ideas about society of people of many different political persuasions.

    But the date 1840 is artificial, the period really begins in the 1830s. The 1830s and 1840s were a period of rapid industrial development, social distress and the emergence of open class conflict. A period when Britain came nearer to revolution than at any other time in recent history.

    It was also a period when people were thinking about how society is structured and how society changes. There was a great deal of political and theoretical discussion, not only about class, but also about how we should think about men, women and children and their position in society.

    what about the workers? 1840

    1840: "In all ages woman may lament the ungallant silence of the historian" . The art of needle-work from the earliest ages : including some notices of the ancient historical tapestries by Mrs Elizabeth Stone, edited by Mary Margaret Stanley Egerton, Countess of Wilton. London: Henry Colburn 1840. ix and 405 pages. 1841 edition available at Project Gutenberg

    12.6.1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention opened in London. Its decision not to recognise women delegates (from America) sparked the women's rights movement. America

    December 1840 An article by Lord Ashley in the Tory Quarterly Review, discussed the employment of children in factories, and argued that society and the family in Britain were being destroyed by the industrial revolution. The way to restore a healthy society was for the rich to concern themselves with the welfare of the poor.

    Brief note on Ashley
    Ashley's writings
    Ashley in the 1830s and 1840s
    Ashley as a Lunacy Commissioner

    what about the workers? 1841

    1841 Ludwig Feuerbach, in The Essence of Christianity argued that Christianity is a necessary phase of human culture whose essence is to understand human potenial in a heavenly rather than an earthly form.

    Feuerbach's earth-centred (rather than heaven-centred) view of religion has been described as anthropological and as humanist

    1841 A Huntley and a Palmer (both Quakers) became partners in biscuit making in Reading. This advertisement is before 1846. (See Reading Museum). Huntley had sold biscuits to travellers on (horse drawn) coaches since 1822. Tins to preserve them were manufactured by one of his sons from 1832. The square shape of the tins had to be modified when they were sent by the new trains. More about biscuits

    1841 Statistical Society resolves to collect lunatic asylum statistics. 15.4.1841 William Farr's "Report on the Mortality of Lunatics". (See also Mental Health History timeline for 1841). William Far also produced an English life table predicting the life spans of 100,000 people born alive in 1841. The longest lived women was predicted to die in 1945 - when I was one year old.

    23.2.1841 The Chemical Society of London held its first meeting. In 1980, the Chemical Society merged with the Royal Institute of Chemistry, Faraday Society and the Society for Analytical Chemistry to become the Royal Society of Chemistry.

    15.4.1841 Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain founded by leading London chemists and druggists "for the protection of their general interests and the advancement of the art and science of Pharmacy." Proposed by William Allen, who became its first President.

    Sunday 6.6.1841/Monday 7.6.1841: Fifth British Census
    This recorded names for the first time. People over 15 years old had their age recorded to the lowest term of five. The place a person was born in was partially recorded: Y for born in the same county, N for not. S for Scotland, I for Irelend. For the first time, householders could complete their own forms if they were able to. (Census layout - external)
    Population of England and Wales: 15,914,000; Scotland: 2,620,000

    Suicide statistics: Emile Durkheim's table of "Stability of suicide in the principal European countries (absolute figures)" has time series starting in 1841 for France, Prussia, Saxony and Denmark, in 1844 Bavaria, and in 1857 for England.

    Chesnais (2003) says that "some countries have time series stretching back to the 18th century and in some cases, point observations dating as far back as the 13th century". However, to "To ensure coverage of a sufficient range of countries" he uses data starting between 1845 and 1855.

    July 1841 Following on the Crocodilia, Richard Owen introduced the Dinosaurians (fearfully great lizards) in his "Report on British fossil reptiles" to the British Association in Plymouth. There were, he said, similarities in the "gigantic Dinosaur to the crocodilian structure". "Owen used three genera to define the dinosaurs: the carnivorous Megalosaurus, the herviborous Iguanodon and armoured Hylaeosaurus" (Wikipedia).

    September 1841 (London) Voice of Jacob launched by Jacob Franklin. October 1841 Jewish Chronicle launched by Isaac Valentine. The two papers merged in a complicated history.

    what about the workers? 1842 No gloomier year

    Poems by Alfred Tennyson published. One that was soon popular (Locksley Hall), celebrates science and the march of mind and industry as the spirit of the age in Europe and contrasts it with the savagery of dusky races. (The words are Tennyson's, not mine).
      "Here about the beach I wander'd, nourishing a youth sublime
      With the fairy tales of science, and the long result of Time;

      When I dipt into the future far as human eye could see;
      Saw the Vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be -

      In the steamship, in the railway, in the thoughts that shake mankind.

    Tennyson dreams of having children with a "savage woman" so that they are supple-sinewed, leaping brooks rather than poring over books, but recoils. "I the heir of all the ages, in the foremost files of time - Let the people spin for ever down the ringing grooves of change. Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay."

    Compare with Barry Cornwall

    The poet recognises mind in women as well as men: "Women is the lesser man, and all thy passions, match'd with mine are as moonlight unto sunlight, and as water unto wine". In 1847 Tennyson published a poem in which a royal princess founds a women's university. She falls from the chastity of thought when she falls in love, but the dominant image is that European men and women are both to be engaged in the adventures of science and thought.

    But the march of mind and the march of hunger are in competition. In the immediate present "all things here are out of joint, science moves, but slowly slowly, creeping on from point to point: Slowly comes a hungry people, as a lion, creeping nigher". (Quotations all from Locksley Hall)

    May 1842 Second presentation of the Charter to Parliament.

    May 1842 John Bennet Lawes, of Rothampsted, applied for a patent for "chemically decomposing for purposes of manure by means of sulphuric acid of Bones, or Bone Ash or Apatite or Phosphorite or any other substances containing phosphoric acid". (Patent 9353, granted November 1842).

    sometime 1842 Fossils thought to be coprolites (fossilised dung) discovered at Felixstow, on the Suffolk coast, by John Stevens Henslow, rector of Hitcham, leading to the development of extraction for phosphatic fertiliser. See 1843 - 1845 - 1861 - 1872. See Friends of Darwin - O'Connor 1993 - Berridge Eve 2004

    1842 The railway from Derby opening as far as Ambergate made day trips from Midlands' industrial towns to Matlock Bath in the Peak District possible. From Ambergate, visitors were taken in boats along the canal to Cromford. They then walked a mile to Matlock Bath. Many factories organised excursions on the annual works holiday. Sometimes parties of as many as 500 people. (Fact Sheet)

    7.6.1842 Lord Ashley introduced a bill intended to ban women and children from working in coal mines.

    10.8.1842 Coal Mines Act became law.

    Summer 1842 Plug riots. English workers, striking for the Charter, roamed the Midlands and North of England setting light to rich men's houses and pulling out the plugs of factory boilers. Parliament thought that the revolution was upon them.

    1842 Volume 24 of the Penny Cyclopaedia (Taiwan to Titlarks) included a long article on Teleosaurus that starts "Since the article Crocodile was written" Owen's Report on British Fossil Reptiles has covered a "family of extinct crocodilians" divided into two genera: Teleosaurus and Stensosaurus.

    what about the workers? 1843

    Blackwood's Magazine volume 53, p.397 "These are to constitute a new science, to be called Social Ethics, or Sociology" - First use recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary.

    1843 The Zoologist - A popular miscellany of natural history a monthly magazine edited by Edward Newman founded. Newman was editor in chief until his death in 1876.

    February 1843

    Ethnological Society of London founded by members of the Aborigines' Protection Society. To be "a centre and depository for the collection and systematisation of all observations made on human races". Divided over racialist issues from early days, it split into an Ethnological Society and an Anthropological Society in 1863. Merging in 1870, it became The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland in 1871. (Royal from 1907). Now The Royal Anthropological Institute (Link goes directly to its website)

    29.3.1843 Colchester railway station opened. This was the then eastern terminus of the Eastern Counties Railway from London (Shoreditch/Bishopsgate) passing through Stratford, Romford, Brentwood, and Chelmsford.

    Spring 1843 A System of Logic, by John Stuart Mill, published. Mill defended deductive theory against induction, and induction against deduction, arguing that science needs both. He suggested how psychology (the study of mind) could become a science of experiment and observation, and discussed the foundations of a science of society (sociology). The argumant of the book is outlined under John Stuart Mill defends deductive theory in Social Science History, chapter one:
    John Stuart Mill and his problems with Francis Bacon

    1.7.1843 Gardeners Chronicle Advertisements for Guano and for J.Lawes's Patent Manures. Deptford Creek factory, opened 1843, later moved to Barking Creek. Initial phosphate production from bones, but Lawes' patent gave him a monopoly of manufacture from the new coprolite.

    Autumn 1843 John Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert established the Broadbalk experiment on Lawes' Rothamsted Estate in Berkshire. This was the first of the long- term "classic experiments", and it still exists today. A winter-wheat crop was first sown in the autumn of 1843. A control strip has received no fertiliser or manure since 1843. Other strips have received farmyard manure or inorganic fertiliser. Lawes was the pioneer of artificial fertilisers having established the manufacture of superphosphate at his factory in Deptford, England in 1842. See 1919

    Rothamsted Experimental Station
    1986 Institute of Arable Crops Research: See Long Ashton Research Station
    1999 Rothamsted Research

    October 1843 Henslow had "called attention to the occurrence of phosphate of lime in pebbly beds of the red crag at Felixstow, in Suffolk; these nodules, though extremely hard, presented external indications of an animal origin, and yielded, upon analysis, 56 per cent. of phosphate of lime...

    In 1843 Edward Packard made a bone-based superphosphate at Snape in Suffolk, and shortly after used local coprolites, ground in a mill, as a base. In 1847 he took over an old flourmill on the quay at Ipswich, first grinding coprolites, later treating them with acid, but the fumes were unpopular, so in 1851 he moved to a site between the navigation and the railway at Brantham. (bagseals and O'Connor).

    Christmas 1843

    The Song of the Shirt Surrounded by comic characters, a poem about the misery of a dressmaker appeared in the Christmas number of Punch, or the London Charivari on 16.12.1843.

    19.12.1843 A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost-Story of Christmas by Charles Dickens published as an (expensive) gift book. Scrooge is visited by the spirit of the past, of prisons, workhouses and asylums - and the humanity within them. Then by the spirit of the present: a jolly one with food and drink. Finally, the spirit of things to be calls on him to change his selfish ways. (Wikipedia)

    20.12.1843. Completion of the Penny Cyclopaedia of the society for the difussion of useful knowledge (Volume 27, 10/6d bound in cloth. Wales to Zygophylacea) London: Charles Knight. Begun 1833. Copies at Hathi Trust

    what about the workers? 1844

    1844 A natural cavern at Matlock Bath opened to the public, called Great Masson. (See Devonshire). Owned by Greatorex family in the 19th century. Entered by 400 yards of an "old Roman lead mine". The natural cavern had been discovered "in following a vein of lead". Sides and roof covered with fossilshells and encrusted with crystals of dog-tooth and flour spar. See also Rutland mine.

    21.12.1844 The Rochdale Equitable Pioneers Society opened a shop "selling pure food at fair prices and honest weights and measures". (Link to museum)

    what about the workers? 1845

    1845 Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (external link - archive)

    " Fifty years ago, science possessed no facts regarding the origin of organic creatures upon earth ... all was a blank antecedent to the first chapters of what we usually call ancient history". [Since then] "researches in the crust of the earth" [have shown that]... "strata of various thickness were deposited in seas... The remains and traces of plants and animals found in the succession of strata, show that, while these operations were going on, the earth gradually became the theatre of organic being, simple forms appearing first, and more complicated afterwards. A time when there was no life is first seen. We then see life begin, and go on ; but whole ages elapsed before man came to crown the work of nature. "

    1845 Johannes Japetus Steenstrup (1813-1897) On the alternation of generations, or, The propagation and development of animals through alternate generations : a peculiar form of fostering the young in the lower classes of animals. Translated from the German version. [Internet Archive - offline] "I presuppose that my readers are acquainted with the animals vulgarly termed jelly-fishes or sea-nettles and in scientific language Medusa". See Darwin on jelly fishes - Wikipedia jellyfish - Primordial soup.   Thomas Huxley's paper "On the Anatomy and the Affinities of the Family of the Medusae" was published in 1849. [Royal Society - offline]

    Tuesday 14.6.1845 at the 15th Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, at Cambridge, Section C: Geology and Physical Geography. Paper from Professor Henslow "On Nodules, apparently Coprolitic, from the Red Crag, London Clay, and Greensand" about potential source of phosphate, which occurred near the surface over many square miles in the vicinity of Cambridge in strata never more than a foot thick. Buckland doubted the coprolitic origin of the nodules. (Report in The Atheneum)

    1845 The Claims of Labour. An Essay on the Duties of the Employers to the Employed, published anonymously, argues for a new order of society based on benevolence of employers towards the employed.

    John Stuart Mill's review of The Claims of Labour in the Edinburgh Review argues that a new moral order based on benevolence would undermine the independence and self- determination of working class people

    Summer 1845 Engels: The Condition of the Working Class in England

    October 1845 Beginning of the Great Famine in Ireland. Potato blight destroyed three-quarters of the crop.

    what about the workers? 1846

    26.6.1846 Repeal of the Corn Law

    In Dickens' 1838 satire on the Poor Law, Oliver Twist caused a sensation by asking for more food. In 1846 it seemed the satire had come true. It was revealed that in Andover Workhouse the residents were so hungry that they fought over rotten bones. The scandal of Andover led to the replacement of the Poor Law Commissioners, in 1847, by a Poor Law Board responsible directly to Parliament and, under new management, the poor law became the centre of a remarkably extensive pauper welfare state. Poor law hospitals laid the foundations for the National Health Service - and many are still in use.

    12.8.1846 Term "folklore" suggested for the culture and traditions of ordinary people

    Winter 1846/1847: John Stuart Mill laid aside work on the Principles of Political Economy to campaign for land reform in Ireland.

    what about the workers? 1847

    27.1.1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers founded at a meeting at the Queen's Hotel, Birmingham. George Stephenson elected first President. The 70 founder members included representatives of nine different railways. The Vulcan Foundry was represented by Edward Tayleur and Henry Dubbs. (Vulcan Magazine Volume 2, Number 4, Winter 1951-1952, p.18)

    9.6.1847 Warrington Council met for the first time. [See rail]. Its first Mayor, William Beamont (1797-1889), became the first chairman of the Museum and Library Committee in 1848.

    July 1847 Poem Song of the Famine in Dublin University Magazine

    November 1847 origins of the Communist Manifesto - In November/December, Marx said that achieving the Charter would make the English working class the "saviour of the whole human race"

    1847 Ridderstolp House

    1847 Tancred; or, The New Crusade, a novel by Benjamin Disraeli, in which Sidonia says that "All is race; there is no other truth". England

    "A Saxon race, protected by an