Part of the Asylums Index
A Middlesex University resource provided by Andrew Roberts

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    Part of the Asylums Index

    This is no more than a developing appendix, so you will almost certainly be better off clicking on the above link and going to the main index.

    The table is arranged geographically:

    London Pauper Farms

    Analysis based on the work of Elaine Murphy - Murphy, E. 2001a - Murphy, E. 2001b - Murphy, E. Murphy, E. 10/11.2002


    Pauper flax mill



    Sutton City Farm House



    Tipples - Queen Street and Hoxton

    Hughes and Philip's

    Tower Hamlets

    Barclay's, later Byas's, Grove Hall

    Deacon's, Mile End and Old Ford
    1820: Sarah Jillson sent by St Martin Vintry "being insane". She died a year later. (Murphy, E. 2001b p.414)

    Sykes and Newall, Mile End

    Overton's, Mile End

    Pond-side House, Bethnal Green

    Cadmer's, Minories


    Showell's, Bear Lane
    During the period 1818 to 1837, received several supposedly insane from St Anne Blackfriars. (Murphy, E. 2001b p.415)

    Willis' worsted manufactury, the Borough, later Willis and Fry, then Fry and Fitch

    Witney, Oxfordshire
    The asylum at Witney and the one at
    Hook Norton are the subjects of a special study by William Parry-Jones (1972 chapter six). Page numbers below are to this.
    12.4.1823 Advertisement that Edward Batt (1774-1827) surgeon, had opened "a house for the reception of persons labouring under diseases of the mind" near his home in Witney. Licensed originally for up to ten patients (p.141).
    1824 Edward Augustine Batt, nephew of Edward, became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons.
    16.11.1825 Marriage of Edward Augustine Batt and Elizabeth Bush at Witney, Oxford.
    1827 Rebecca Batt, widow of Edward, succeeded her husband as proprietor. License increased to up to twenty-five patients including not more than six paupers (p.141).
    1829 16 patients: The largest number recorded in surviving records (p.141).
    15.7.1829 Christening (Witney, Oxford) of Augustine Batt, son of Edward Augustine Batt and Elizabeth Bush
    1832 Paupers no longer received (p.141)
    1842 Death of Rebecca Batt. Her nephew Edward Augustine Batt succeeded her as proprietor, but her sister in-law Jane Batt acted as Resident Superintendent from 1842 to 1849.
    1844 Report
    1844 John Bush, brother of Eliza Batt, the wife of Edward Augustine Batt, moved from working in the Witney Asylum to being proprietor of Clapham Retreat.
    1849 Following the death of Jane Batt, Edward Augustine Batt and family moved into the asylum. "His wife, Eliza, played and active role in the management of the female patients"
    1853 On her husband's death, Eliza Batt continued to run the house until it was closed down in 1857
    1881 Census: Eliza Batt (aged 74) and family
    1886 Death of Eliza Batt
    Help with this history from Judith Batt, a descendent.

    Reading, Berkshire
    1815 list: Reading: Pope

    Denham Park, near Uxbridge, Buckinghamshire
    not on 1815 list
    opened May 1838 and owned by Messrs Horner and Harper.
    Resident Director and Physician was
    William Ellis, but he moved to Southall Park in September 1838.
    11.3.1840 Suicide of Edward Perceval
    1844 Report

    David Irish "practitioner in physick & chirurgery" advertised, in his 1700 book, that he "doth and will (if God permit) instruct his son in the best and speediest way of curing melancholy and madness. And likewise, those lunatics which are not curable, he will tale them for term of life, if paid quarterly; such, and all others, he takes on reasonable terms, allowing them good fires, meat, and drink, with good attendance, and all necessaries far beyond what is allowed at Bedlam, or any other place that he has yet heard of and cheaper, for he allows the melancholy, mad, and such whose consciences are oppressed with a sense of sin, good meat every day for dinner, and also wholesome diet for breakfast and supper, and good table-beer enough at any time. They have also good beds and decent chambers, answerable to their abilities; all of which necessaries are daily allowed and given them according to agreement during the time agreed for; they are all carefully looked after by himself at his house in Stoke near Guildford in Surrey, being a pleasant place and good air; and such as please to be at Thorp, his son looks after them by his father's directions, who comes every Tuesday to see them, and instruct his son in the true method of curing such distempered people."

    16.2.1681 The will of Edward Friend, Yeoman of Thorpe, Surrey. He owned Thorpe House, which he left to his wife Anne. (External link. Domestic buildings, parish of Thorpe). In 1688, a David Irish, professor in physic, of Thorpe in Surrey, married an Anne Friend of Petworth (which is in West Sussex). The will (12.3.1806) of Henry Irish, Surgeon of Greenwich, Kent, says he was a son of a David and Anne Irish. He had a brother David and nephew Thomas and another brother. Henry's great nephew was Robert Stracey Irish. Henry Irish wanted to be buried in the family tomb at Greenwich in Kent. "Most of the Irish family are in the family crypt at Greenwich Parish Church - The maritime church St Alfege" (Church history - External link). A David Irish (surgeon) of Farnborough died in 1793 (will). A David Irish (believed to be the above) had a son Thomas Irish of Great Foster House who pre-deceased him in 1773. Thomas's wife and daughter were both called Frances. His son was Robert Stracey Irish (surgeon) whose will was proved 8.7.1831. It may be Robert Stracey and his mother or sister Frances who opened the Frimley asylum in 1799/1800. In 1789 there was a David Irish of Frimley in Bagshot, Surrey, "yeoman" whose wife, Mary (christened 3.12.1738 at Eartham, Sussex), was the only surviving daughter and heir at law of Samuel Howard (and Mary) of Sebbedge in Eartham, warrener, deceased. She inherited an interest in Sebbedge Farm, which David and she sold to the Duke of Richmond in 1789 for £408. Robert Stracey Irish (died 1831) married Jane Willis in Egham on 6.1.1801. They had four sons: Henry Willis Irish, christened 13.5.1802 [not 1803?] in Frimley - a gentleman farmer of Frimley - Robert Stracey Irish, born 1806, a surgeon - Marmaduke Irish, born 1811, a publican - Edward Charles Irish, born 1815, a publican and great, great grandfather of Pamela Sharp-Popple who has provided much of the information about the family. Son Marmaduke Irish may have married Ann Russell at Hawley in Hampshire on 22.5.1833. He was at The White Hart, Maidenhead, Berkshire in 1852 (external link on White Hart) and may have died aged 57 in Reading about March 1866. 1881 Census: Ann Irish born Egham. E.C. Irish was at the Black Horse, Marsh Gate, Richmond in 1855.

    QS5/5/3 in Surrey History Centre: 4.10.1774-31.5.1813 begins with "the orders of the Court granting licences to Richard Brown to keep Foster House in Egham and to Mary Street and Mary Jellyman to keep a private asylum in Stoke-next-Guildford"

    QS5/5/10 in Surrey History Centre: 1832-1851 Book of entry of patients admitted into Great Foster House, Thorpe, Egham - Lea Pale House, Stoke next Guildford; and the house of George Stilwell, Church Street, Epsom

    External links to ancient manors of Egham and Thorpe, with sketch maps
    Egham-by-Runnymead Historical Society
    Egham Historical Information
    External link to Great Fosters Hotel history.
    Great Fosters Hotel appears to be close to Thorp. In 1700, David Irish, junior was treating patients at Thorp. The name "Thorpe House" is used in the will of Edward Friend (1681). According to the Great Fosters Hotel history (above), Great Fosters House was never owned by a member of the Irish family. However, Thomas Irish's will (below) shows that he was living there. Frederic F. Turner, 1926 Egham, Surrey: a history of the parish under church and crown Egham: Box & Gilham, says a Dr Irish was using it as a lunatic asylum from 1767 [Barry Wintour, librarian of the Oliver Collection]

    Thorpe House
    Possible location of an asylum in 1700
    External link - (archive) - Map to 18th century Thorpe House

    Egham, Surrey
    House known as Fosters, then Great Fosters from 16th/17th century. map to Egham - map direct to hotel
    "Great Fosters lies about a mile away," [from Egham Green] "this is a fine Elizabethan brick house whose gables are topped by little pinnacles and was turned into a hotel. Nearby an inscribed stone shows the position of the old Roman road that let to London from Silchester, and the stone itself is reputed to be at least 17 centuries old" (external link)
    11.2.1736 Will of Bulstrode Peachey Knight of Saint Ann Westminster , Middlesex
    1736 On the death of one Madam Knight, Great Fosters House, Egham, passed to Thomas Brodnax, alias May, alias Knight. (Hotel history)
    "In 1756 a Mr James Whadcote paid the rates" (Turner, 1926)
    23.3.1763 Will of James Whadcoat, Gentleman of Egham , Surrey
    "in 1767 a Dr. Irish kept it as a private lunatic asylum, as did Dr. Furnivall" (Turner, 1926)
    Will of Thomas Irish, Gentleman, of Great Foster House, Surrey, proved 22.4.1773 places his estate in trust with his father, David Irish (surgeon, Kent), and brother in law, Robert Gale (London) for the benefit of his wife, Frances Irish, (until her death or re-marriage) and then (when they come of age) his daughter, Frances Irish, and son,
    Robert Stracey Irish. David Irish died in 1793.
    1773 John Chapman (became a sugeon) born. Died 23.7.1849, Chertsey, Surrey.
    Surrey History Centre: Private Asylums: Great Fosters, Egham first noted 1774 last noted 1865/1866
    Hervey, N.B. 1987 says the patients were about 20, male and female. Numbers remained about the same until about 1853, when they were reduced. He also says that "until 1816 the business was shared between the Irish family and a local surgeon Richard Brown".
    1786 Son of Thomas Brodnax sold Great Fosters to Richard Brown, who sold it to Furnival in 1818. (Hotel history) OR "it was not until 1787 that one of Sir Thomas" [Foster's] great grandsons sold the property to a Mr Wyatt for £700". (another part of Hotel history)
    1800 Four patients moved to Frimley ( Hervey, N.B. 1987)
    1807: Proprietor Richard Browne, surgeon.
    Surrey magistrates required removal of chains
    1815 list: Egham: Chapman and Co.
    1816 Business sold to a consortium of surgeons, Sir John Chapman, George Furnival and Charles Summers. They formed a limited company and then employed a succession of resident medical officers to run it ( Hervey, N.B. 1987:)
    1817-1835: Thomas Phillips Resident Medical Officer
    5.2.1818 Will of Richard Brown, Surgeon of Egham , Surrey
    1818? Great Fosters sold to George Frederic Furnival (surgeon). [ Hotel history].
    "It is believed, although not confirmed by Windsor Castle records, that Great Fosters was where King George 3rd was housed when he was being treated for his insanity".
    Pictures in the Oliver Collection (external link) at Royal Holloway Library:
    Great Foster House, Egham near Windsor. A retreat for the mentally afflicted. Engraver on stone: Fr. Reeve. [43]
    Great Foster House Asylum for the reception of lunatics, Egham, Surrey. Photograph of an engraving dated 1820 in the Oliver Collection in Chertsey Museum. [1385]
    4.2.1825 Frederick James Furnivall (see Wikipedia) born to Sophia Furnival (born Hughes) and George Frederick Furnivall. The Wikipedia article says that George Frederick "made his fortune from running the private lunatic asylum at Great Fosters", but that Frederick James lost it in a financial crash in 1867.
    1836-1853 Rees LLoyd Resident Medical Officer
    1841 Census: B. Lloyd, age 35, medical superintendent. David Lloyd aged 40 (watchmaker) was a visitor. Matron: Mary Ann Gwillion? aged 50. Eighteen male patients and four female patients (no occupation shown). Most of the men are "Gentleman". There are two clergymen, one draper and one butcher. Also a gentleman's gardener (aged 55) and an agricultural labourer (aged 60). [I suspect the two working class patients were paid for by their employers]. There are seven [male] servants and nine female servants.
    1844 Report
    Proprietor Sir J. Chapman and Co. surgeons
    1.1.1844: 19 patients
    The report contains (pages 148-149) the account of a "gentleman" brought to the house in "a state of violent excitement". To "some extent in deference to popular opinion" he was not restrained mechanically, but had two attendants in his bedroom to control him. This continued for seven nights, during which "neither he nor they had any sleep". Then "muffs" were put on him and he soon after fell asleep.
    1846 John Furnivall retired
    23.7.1849 John Chapman died
    1854-1855 J S Alger Resident Medical Officer
    1855-1860 Henry Roberts Resident Medical Officer
    6.9.1857 Probate of Will of George Frederick Furnivall of Egham, Surrey.
    1860 Edward James Furnival Resident Medical Officer
    1860-1866 Henry William Reid Resident Medical Officer
    1866 Manor of Egham special court Baron. Admission of Mary Ann Pitt under bargain and sale from devisees for George Frederick Furnivall deceased.
    "On Dr Furnivall's death, his children sold Great Fosters to Colonel Halkett, a Baron of the Kingdom of Hanover who expended large quantities of money on its repair."

    Frimley, Surrey (map)
    External links to Frimley Green - Frimley -
    Kent archives have a reference to a John Hubbard of Frimley Lodge - reference EK-U1453/B3/15/999 - date: 1790-1800
    Surrey History Centre: Frimley Lodge, Frimley first noted: 1799 last noted: ?
    Hervey, N.B. 1987: Opened in 1800 by Robert Stracey and Frances Irish "It catered for male and female private patients, averaging between three and five patients at one time. Four of the original inmates were transferred directly from Great Fosters, and the certificates of several patients admitted subsequently were signed by surgeons who were in the group which owned Great Fosters".
    28.6.1806 Will of Frances Irish, Widow of Frimley, proved.
    Surrey Record Office, Quarter Sessions 5/3/3, Minutes of the Visiting Magistrates 28.10.1807: The proprietors of Great Foster House and the Frimley House had both used chains to restrain patients and were required "to pledge themselves that such practice should be discontinued and the staples and chains removed within one week from the time of granting licences". Parry-Jones (1972 p.173)
    1815 list: Frimley: Irish
    Hervey, N.B. 1987: in 1824 the Irishes gave up their licence
    1920 Surrey History Centre: Frimley Lodge and Bedford's Farm: sale particulars

    Guildford, Surrey
    Surrey History Centre: Lea Pale House, Stoke next Guildford first noted: 1774 last noted: 1879
    Hervey, N.B. 1987 suggests that this was the house David Irish advertised in 1700. In 1773 Thomas Irish was "of Great Foster House"
    1774 licensed to Mary Street and Mary Jellyman, who Nic Hervey says were spinsters. He also mentions a John Randall as licensee. "In 1774 it contained nine female private patients, and from then until 1793 when it closed down temporarily the numbers gradually decreased to 3."
    1798 Re-opened under the ownership of James Stilwell, taking both male and female private patients, with numbers fluctuating between 2 to 6.
    1815 list: Guildford: Stilwell

    James Stilwell christened 24.2.1771 at Compton Near Guildford, was the son of James and Elizabeth Stilwell. James Stillwell married Ann Chuter on 13.10.1796 at Stoke Next Guildford. James Stilwell christened 27.4.1798 at Stoke Next Guildford, was the son of James and Ann Silwell. Arthur Stilwell, born 16.12.1813, christened 16.2.1814 Stoke Next Guildford. Parents: James and Ann Stilwell. A James Stilwell married Ann Foreman on 11.2.1812 at Willingdon in Sussex. A James Stilwell married Ann Foreman on 5.10.1828 at Stoke Next Guildford
    Possibly 1817 or 1828 that James Stilwell moved to Moor Croft, Hillingdon?
    "In 1817 the license passed to a Thomas Jenner Sells who was in practice with Caleb Woodyer and James Stedman in Guildford, and these gentlemen together with Randall remained connected with asylum until the 1850s. It was James Stedman who was generally the licensee however."
    By 1826 "the numbers had gone up to nine, but in the 1840s there were generally only 4 or 5 inmates and the proprietors were taking more male than female patients, a trend which continued in the 1860s".
    1841 Census: Lea Pale House Lunatic Asylum. Superintendents: Stephen (aged 50) and Louise (aged 45) Golding. Patients: Jn. Smith aged 55 and A.W. Fitzroy, men, of independent means - F. Williams? aged 40, Farmer - Frances Seckitt? aged 25, lady. Staff: Sarah Simon? of "unknown" age, nurse - Ann Powett? aged 20, female servant - Thomas Franks aged 60, keeper. All born in Surrey.
    "In the 1840s Silas Stilwell Stedman was signing admission certificates for both Lea Pale and Church Street, Epsom and there was a Robert Stedman providing certificates for George Stilwell at the latter house. James Stedman of Lea Pale also signed certificates for George Stilwell."
    1844 Report
    Proprietors James Stedman MD and others
    1.1.1844: 3 patients
    1867 Lea Pale House near Guildford: T.J. Sells and W.S. Wilson (surgeons)
    1879: Closed
    Surrey History Centre has a file "Site of Guildford Telephone Exchange; incl. Lea Pale House in Lea Pale lane, 15-17 Lea Pale Road, 9-13 Haydon Place, printing works of Messrs Biddles Ltd and 3 Martyr Road, deeds Place Stoke next Guildford. Start 1794 End 1957"

    Stilwell's, Epsom [See above]
    13.4.1833 George James Stilwell, son of George and Jane Catherine Stilwell, christened Ewell, Surrey. He became the person in charge of
    Moor Croft
    3.5.1837 Jane Catherine Stilwell, daughter of George and Jane Catherine Stilwell, christened Epsom
    21.9.1841 Ann Louisa Stilwell, daughter of George and Jane Catherine Stilwell, christened Epsom
    7.1.1849 Birth of Charlotte Anne Stilwell, daughter of George and Jane Catherine Stilwell. Christened Epsom 9.4.1849
    1846 Church Street, Epsom first licensed. Licensee George Stilwell
    6 or 7 female patients. "mostly of the nervous variety". Stilwell and his family lived on the premises and his house is always described as having a domestic quality, the ladies associating together as one family. The only criticisms from the Lunacy Commission seem to have been about the adequacy of Stilwell's medical recording.
    "Arthur Stilwell sent a certain number of patients from Moorcroft House to George's house at Epsom."
    1867 Surrey Church Street Epsom; G. Stilwell (surgeon)
    1881 Census: Ann Louise Stilwell (aged 39) and Charlotte A. Stilwell (her sister, aged 30), both born Epsom. Both "Proprietress of Private Lunatic Asylum"
    1881 Census: George Robert Stilwell, aged 13, born Beckenham, Kent, a scholar at Epsom Downs Royal Medical Benevolent College
    1889: Closed

    Hawkhurst, Kent
    1844 Report

    Goudhurst, Kent
    1844 Report

    Ringmer, near Lewes, Sussex
    1825 a licensed house established at Balsdean, Rottingdean
    Patients moved to Ringmer 1829
    In 1830 it was the only asylum in Sussex that received paupers. It had about twenty patients.
    1831 "Dr James Ivory ran a private lunatic asylum at the former Royal Horse Artillery barracks (now the Southdown Hunt Kennels)" (external link)
    1832 Only four patients, all private. Remained at about this level until the house closed in 1855.
    1844 Report: Proprietor: W. King MD
    1.1.1844: three private patients (no paupers), of one of whom the 1844 Report (page 39) complained "a female is permitted to be almost without clothing". It added "although the patients seem to be kindly treated, the house requires great improvement".
    Closed 1855

    Ticehurst Asylum, Sussex   an elite house
    Hospital database says the asylum was founded in 1763 and located at The Vineyard, Ticehurst before 1793
    Opened 1792 Priory Group website says Samuel Newington opening Ticehurst House near Wadhurst in 1792 "coincided with strong public interest in the care of the mentally ill sparked off by King George 3rd's insanity". I think public knowledge that the King was mad has yet to be demonstrated, but his insanity may have had some more private influence.
    1829 Views of Messrs. Newington's private asylum for insane persons, Ticehurst, Sussex 4 leaves, 8 plates and 4 plans. Includes reports of visiting magistrates
    May 1832 to early 1834, John Perceval a patient, having been moved from Brislington House
    1844 Report
    Proprietor of "Asylum" and "Highlands" at Ticehurst: C. Newington, Surgeon.
    1.1.1844: combined total of patients: 59
    1870 licensed to Dr Samuel Newington
    1881 Census: Ticehurst Asylum, Ticehurst, Sussex
    1901 Census: Ticehurst House Asylum. Consisting of? The Establishment, Highlands, Vineyards, Quarry Villa and Ridgeway. St Mary the Virgin, Ticehurst
    1986 Charlotte MacKenzie's thesis A Family Asylum dealt with the history of Ticehurst from 1792 to 1917. Developed into a book (1992) Psychiatry for the rich
    Ticehurst became part of the Priory Group sometime between 1980 and the present.
    Now: The Priory Ticehurst House, Ticehurst, Wadhurst, East Sussex, TN5 7HU. The Priory Ticehurst House website (no longer there and not archived)
    Now (2014): The Priory Hospital Ticehurst Priory Hospital Ticehurst website

    High Beech, near Epping, Essex
    1844 Report

    Aspall Hall, near Debenham, Suffolk
    1844 Report

    Wherstend Road, Ipswich, Suffolk
    1844 Report

    Heigham Hall, near Norwich, Norfolk
    1844 Report

    Heigham Retreat, near Norwich, Norfolk
    1844 Report

    Loddon, Norfolk
    1844 Report

    Stoke Ferry, Norfolk
    1844 Report


    Springfield House, Kempston, Bedford
    Opened 1837 Purpose built. Closed 1963
    1.1.1844: 25 patients
    1844 (and long before) Proprietor J. Harris, Surgeon
    James Harris was also the superintendent (non-resident) of Bedford County Asylum. On 4.11.1844, the chairman of the Bedford Visiting Committee, Mr Pynn, called on the Lunacy Commission "to ask the opinion of the Commissioners relative to the necessity of the Resident Medical Officer being Superintendent as laid down in the General Rules prepared by the commissioners. Robert Gordon, who was chairing the Board, said that "under the particular circumstances of the Bedford Asylum and considering Mr Harris's position and long connection with the institution, Commissioners did not wish to insist upon the Resident Medical Officer being nominated Superintendent. The Board, however, were of the opinion that it was highly desirable that Mr Harris should make arrangements for residing in the asylum instead of living as at present in his private asylum at Springfield. Mr Pynn stated that the Visitors concurred in theses views and hoped the arrangement suggested might ultimately be carried out"
    Link to archives

    Dorset and Hampshire

    Portland House, Halstock, Dorset
    1844: Proprietor J. Mercer.
    1.1.1844: 10 patients, all private

    Cranbourne, Dorset
    1844: Proprietor W. Symes (sugeon)
    1.1.1844: 6 patients, all private

    Westbrook House, Alton, Hampshire
    Alton map
    4 private patients in 1844
    Proprietor C.M. Barnet. surgeon
    1867 Proprietor Mrs E. Burnett
    July 1873: J. Hawkes, MD, FLS. Assistant Medical Officer to Hanwell appointed Resident Medical Superintendent of Westbrooke House Asylum, Alton
    1919 Post Office Directory: Lunatic Asylum, Private: Mrs E.E. Warrilow, 76 High Street, Alton
    [Present address of Westbrooke House is 76 High Street, Alton, GU34 1EN. (multi-map)

    Richard Henderson's
    This may be the house that
    Fox bought
    Parry-Jones (1972 p.172) says that Hanham House, near Bristol was kept by Richard Henderson and was said to be at "Clare Hill". He thinks this is likely to be the house later owned by E.L. Fox at Cleeve Hill, Downend, Bristol, and quotes Clover Hill and Clewer Hill as other different renderings of the name.
    Paul Cheshire has a website about William Gilbert, a one time patient.

    multimap links:
    to Downend and Cleeve Hill and to Downend and Hanham, apparently at some distance from one another. Also showing Brislington and Fishponds

    English Heritage: " Brislington House, Bristol, the earliest purpose-built private asylum, 1804-1806, and influential on the structure of later county asylums." The asylum was built by Edward Long Fox, to replace Cleve Hill. It remained in the ownership of the Fox family, some of whose members were:

    Dr Edward Long Fox, FRCP London: born 26.4.1762, Falmouth, Cornwall. Married Catherine Brown in 1784. Then Isabella Ker in 1805. He died 2.5.1835 Brislington.
    Isabella Ker, born 1780, Blackshells, Scotland (which is where they married) died 10.4.1861 at Brislington
    Dr Francis Ker Fox, a son, born Bristol, St James, about 1805. Married Mary, born about 1813, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire
    Dr Charles Joseph Fox, another son, born Brislington 21.1.1806. Married Ellen Lucas in 1834.
    Ellen Lucas born about 1813 in Brislington
    Charles Edward Fox
    Edward Long Fox, FRCP London: 1832-1902. Grandson of founder. (external biography)
    Dr Charles H. Fox: born about 1838
    Dr Bonville B. Fox, son of above, born about 1853,

    Edward Long Fox (1761-1835) was, a Quaker, but his asylums were not Quaker asylums in the sense that the The Retreat in York was. Instead of being mainly for members of the Religious Society of Friends, Brislington (at least) was mainly for people who could afford (and wished) to pay for their relatives to be confined in good conditions.

    Cleve Hill, Downend, near Bristol    an elite house
    1794 to 1806 See Henderson

    Run by Edward Long Fox (1761-1835) MD Edinburgh,
    Catherine Allen was a nurse before she went to The Retreat. Anne Digby (1985 p.23) says that "Dr Fox thought highly of her, and local Friends found her very good natured and agreeable, although her dress was thought to be too smart for a member of the Society of Friends."

    Brislington House, near Bristol   an elite house
    [A Sarah Rutherford case study]

    Purpose built by Edward Long Fox. Not far from Cleve Hill. Construction begun in 1804 "on former common land close to the village of Brislington" to the south-east of Bristol. Opened 1806. Prospectus now known through reprints.
    It cost about £35,000 to build and equip.
    Architect and landscape designer unknown
    Early colony plan?
    Designed as a group of detached houses. The buildings were later joined together. Some detached houses on the estate were used for "members of the nobility". Staircases, doors, joists and window frames were all constructed of iron to minimise the risk of fire.
    external link: medical heritage
    Spring 1809: Fox provided advice on the construction of Nottingham County Asylum
    1809 1806 Prospectus reproduced in full with Robert Reid's Observations on the Structure of Hospitals for the Treatment of Lunatics which was published together with Reid's proposed designs for the new Edinburgh asylum.
    1810 1806 Prospectus a "valuable authority" icited n the second edition of William Stark's Remarks on the Construction of Public Hospitals for the Cure of Mental Derangement. Here Stark republished his proposals for the construction of Glasgow asylum, and expressed his regret at not having known of Fox's pamphlet for the first edition in 1807, as "it would have supplied me with much valuable authority respecting many of the statements contained in my former Report".
    1812 Praised by George Onesiphorus Paul
    1813 Fox provided advice on the construction of Gloucester County Asylum (Gloucestershire RO, HO 22/1/1, Horton Road asylum, Visiting Committee minutes, entry for February 1813)
    1815 Edward Wakefield described Brislington House as "delightfully and cheerfully situated" and said that little or no coercion was used and the benefits of occupation, amusement and exercise were stressed. Some female patients had silver pheasants and doves in their courtyards and greyhounds were kept for the patients' amusement. (Select Committee)
    On 29.4.1828 Edward Fox petitioned the House of Lords against the provisions of the Madhouses Bill. Fox gave extensive evidence to the 1828 House of Lords Select Committee Inquiry relating to lunatics and asylums.
    1825: The Committee at Bedford County Asylum (13 years after its opening) were informed of the arrangements adopted in the airing courts at Brislington House, and altered their own airing courts to include mounds allowing patients to see the views beyond the airing courts. (Bedfordshire RO, LB 1/1, Bedford asylum, Visiting Committee minutes, entry for July 1825)
    1828: Resident medical officer required by law in houses with over 100 patients
    1829 Management passed to two sons: F.K. Fox MD and C.J. Fox MD
    1830s W.A.F. Browne commended favourably in print upon the structure of Dr Fox's Brislington House and his therapeutic regime.
    1831: 124 patients
    January 1831 to May 1832. John Perceval a patient. (Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p. ) says he was kept on straw for two weeks because of incontinence. (This is not in the extracts). About the beginning of 1832, Perceval says he recovered from his delusions, but was detained for a further two years because he was intent on legal action against his family. From this point, he says, Dr Fox's house was a "madhouse, for to call that, or any like that, an asylum, is cruel mockery and revolting duplicity", he wrote in 1838. In May 1832 he was moved to Ticehurst in Surrey.
    Monday 4.2. 1833 - Commission de lunatico inquirendo on Sophia Frances Mary Caulfeild "A Commission of Inquiry, directed by the Lord Chancellor, was held ... before Perigrine Bingham, esq., and Joseph Trigge Schomberg, esq., barristers; and James Slade, esq., solicitor; to enquire whether Sophia Frances Mary Caulfeild was a lunatic, so that she was not sufficient for the government of herself, or her property; and if so, from what time." "Mr. Sergt. Merewether opened the case... he was sure that the Jury, before they deprived the unhappy lady... of her natural rights of personal liberty, and the uncontrolled power of her property, would require the most direct evidence that she was incapable of government; whilst, if from the evidence he should adduce, they should be of opinion that she was incapable of managing her own affairs, they would agree with him, that she ought to be protected by that humane law, which would guard her against the fraud and wickedness of others, and the no less dangerous consequences of her own acts." Witnesses include "Dr F. Fox: I am the son of Dr Fox, who has conducted the lunatic asylum at Brislington during the last 30 years. I have assisted my father for ten years, and am acquainted with disorders of insanity". "Elizabeth Kidney: I am nurse at Dr Fox's Establishment". "Martha Leakey: I am a nurse at Dr Fox's Establishment". "Dr Brabant:- I am a physician residing in Devizes - In the course of my practice I have been accustomed to see persons of unsound mind". "Anna Maria Slade: About 2 and a half years ago, I nursed Miss Caulfeild at Etchilhampton". "Rev Mr Medlicott:- In the year 1830, when I was curate to the Rev.Mr.Methuen, I recollect meeting Mrs Caulfeild at Mr Hitchcock's house at Etchilhampton". and several surgeons who attended her. Miss Caulfeild, at one point: "But first with regard to that good man, Dr Francis Fox; and does he say that I am of unsound mind? Dr F.Fox (addressing her) I think you are a lunatic."
    1836 History and present state of Brislington House near Bristol, an asylum for the cure and reception of insane persons, established by Edward Long Fox MD, A.D. 1804, and now conducted by Francis & Charles Fox, MD.D. 10 pages: 4 leaves of plates Bristol: Light & Ridler
    1837: 110 patients - 20 of them paupers
    1844 Report
    1.1.1844 60 private patients
    Proprietors: F.K. Fox MD and C.J. Fox MD
    1850 Report respecting the past and present state of Brislington House, near Bristol, a private asylum for the insane by Francis Ker Fox and Charles Joseph Fox, 25 pages Bristol: Leech & Taylor [Republished 1865 2 leaves of plates]
    1870: 105 patients - no paupers
    1872 Genealogical Memoranda relating to the family of Fox of Brislington, etc. [By Charles Edward Fox] London: Privately printed
    1881 Census: Lunatic Asylum, The Beeches (There are other houses as well) Keynsham, Somerset. Charles H. Fox, aged 43, born Brislington, head of household. Physician M.D. St Andrews Bonville B. Fox and John C.B. Fox , sons, in another part of the asylum. Francis K. Fox living in Devon.
    Other Foxs born Brislington include Francis F. Fox Oil Mechant; Arthur E.W. Fox , Physician; Edwin F. Fox, surgeon; Agnes, Edith and Madeline; Louis W., General Practitioner; Edward L., Physician; George F., solicitor; Annie N., Sister of Charity; Edwin C.P., Physician;
    1884 Genealogical memoranda relating to the family of Fox of Brislington, etc [by Charles Henry Fox] Bristol: Fawn. Privately printed
    1897 Genealogical memoranda relating to the descendants of the late Dr Edward Long Fox of Brislington House, near Bristol by Edward Long Fox, M.D. of Bristol. 4to Edinburgh: Privately printed
    April 1908 Brislington House Quarterly News Centenary Number [A history of its foundation and maintenance as a private lunatic asylum by the Fox family. With plates, including portraits, and a genealogical table. Includes the text of 'History and present state of Brislington.." (1836 above). Much of the text of this written by Annie Fox
    1947 to 1951 Last Proprietor: Mrs E.M. Fox
    website with advert for a
matron map: present location of Brislington House Nursing Home, Bath Rd, Brislington, Bristol, Avon, BS4 5RT

    Longwood House, Ashton, near Bristol
    Opened 1841
    1844 Report

    Castleton House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham
    Dr William Conolly, brother of
    John Conolly, was proprietor of Castleton House, Cheltenham, from 1835 to 1849
    1844 Report
    Proprietor: W. Conolly, MD
    1849 William Conolly moved to Hayes Park, Middlesex

    Eyre's, Upper Bath Road, Bristol
    1844 Report
    Proprietor T.D. Eyre
    1.1.1844 patients not stated

    Northwood's Winterbourne
    Opened 1833 (Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p. 57) says it was built by Dr H.H. Fox who was a son of E.L. Fox
    1844 Report
    Proprietor H.H. Fox MD
    1.1.1844 20 patients
    1852 James George Davey (1813-1895) proprietor (until 1875). External link
    Wellcome Library has a print: Northwoods asylum and surrounding grounds, Bristol, An establishment for the reception and cure of a limited number of insane patients of the higher classes of society. Dr. Davey, Northwoods, near Bristol' Engraved by William Miller. Drawn by S.D. Swarbreck.
    1870 Licensed to Dr D.G. Davey
    1881 Census James G. Davey, Physician, wife, daughter and two grandchildren living in Gloucester

    Ridgeway House, near Bristol
    1844 Report
    Proprietor C. Mules
    1.1.1844 11 patients

    Whitehall House, St George's, Bristol
    1844 Report
    Proprietor Mrs M. Taylor
    1.1.1844 9 patients

    Ogilvie's, Calne, Wiltshire
    1844 Report

    Wales, Welsh Border and West Midlands away from Birmingham

    1881 Census: Stretton House Private Asylum, Church Stretton, Shropshire. Resident proprietor William Hyslop, aged 51

    Thomas Arnold' House About 1764, Thomas Arnold (1742-1816) began treating the insane in his own house. There is a surviving newspaper advertisement dated "West Cotes" 4.5.1785 which refers to his receiving patients in his house in "Bond Street, Leicester". He claimed to cure two out of three who were sent to him. [1891: Leicester Lunatic Asylum opened] December 1801 to November 1812 "Thomas Arnold's house at Leicester received 142 patients", indicating that it may have been the third largest provincial licensed house. 1804 Robert Hall, Baptist Minister in Cambridge, was in such pain from physical illness that "a depression of mind" alarmed his friends. Their efforts to relieve it failed and, in November 1804 "Reason lost her balance, and this great man had for a season to be placed under the care of Dr Arnold of Leicester." Robert Hall resumed his ministry in Spring 1805. About a year later, however, he was placed under the care of Dr Cox near Bristol. Leicester was reputed to practice "mild and indulgent" treatment. The remedies of Cox were "herculean". This is why I have ascribed the injuries to Robert Hall's head to Cox's, not Arnold's   1815: "Leicester - Arnold" (only Leicester house).

    Wigston House, Great Wigston, Leicestershire
    1844 Report


    Powell's 7.6.1815 List has three Lincolnshire madhouses: At Horncastle, licensed to Fawsett; at Bennington, licensed to Stafford; at Gretford, licensed to Willis. (map)


    "Before working at the County Hospital, Charlesworth had worked with Doctor Harrison at Horncastle, who ran a private madhouse"
    1815: Licensed to Fawsett

    The Willis Houses

    Rev Francis Willis (1718-1807) (father of John, Thomas and Robert Darling) - John Willis (1751-1833) - Rev Thomas Willis -
    Robert Darling Willis (died 1821) - Francis Willis (1792-1859)
    The Willis family may have had connections with Whitmore House in Hoxton

    "After he left Lincoln Asylum in 1841 Robert Gardiner Hill went into general practice in Lincoln with another doctor - Harvey - but after a few years started a private mental hospital in Lincoln. Apparently he was extremely popular in the town for his good work and in 1851 they made him mayor ..... Robert Gardiner Hill then took a private home at Brentford but after two or three years bought Shillingthorpe Hall near Lincoln to do the same type of work on his own. He then went back to London and took over Earls Court House where he prospered and died." (Typed note in Dr Harold Gardiner-Hill's Family Book)

    Eastgate House, Lincoln
    Not listed in 1844 Report
    Entry in White Directory p.96 (possibly 1857) reproduced on Rossbret website says:

    Eastgate House Robert Gardiner Hill esq, FSA, one of the city surgeons, has an excellent Private Lunatic Asylum at his residence, called Eastgate House. During 1835 and several succeeding years, he was house surgeon at Lincoln Lunatic Asylum, and it was there that this eminent philanthropist first carried out the present humane "system of non- restraint in lunacy"...

    The birthplace of Hugh Gardiner Hill (below) may indicate that the family moved to London about 1856. But notice that Robert Gardiner Hill is said to have become the proprietor of Shillingthorpe House (Lincolnshire) in 1860. [Eastgate not on 1867 List]

    There is a nursing home in Lincoln at present called Eastgate House, 18 Wragby Road, Lincoln, LN2 5SL which cares for the elderly mentally ill.

    The Hill family: Robert Gardiner Hill married Charlotte Brown. Their first eight children were born in Lincoln. One of their sons was James Robert Hill (born 1844, died 1906). Their third child was Catherine Elizabeth Hill, born about 1845. Augusta Hill was born about 1850. The seventh child, Marianne Agnes, was born about 1852. The eighth child, Gardiner Hill, was born in Lincoln in 1853. Their ninth child, Hugh Gardiner Hill, was born in Ealing, London on 18.9.1856.

    Several of the children became involved in running asylums.

    The oldest son (of Tulse Hill London SW2) ran a private asylum called Fenstanton House in Streatham. (Became Fenstanton School, SW2 3PW) (external link to rough positions on map) - multimap showing Streatham and Fulham

    James Robert Hill followed in his father's footsteps, as did his son Ernest. Mrs Lindsay Lloyd, who is married to one of his descendants, provided me with family history. James ran Peterborough House in Fulham from 1885 to 1899?, and then went to Fenstanton ...

    External link Peterborough House

    Hugh Gardiner Hill (1856- ) became a surgeon and worked at Bethlem from 1880 to 1881, [1881 census - At Earls Court] Coton Hill from 1881 to 1883 and Cane Hill from 1883 to 1889. He was medical superintendent of the Wandsworth Asylum from 1889 to 1912.

    Hugh Gardiner Hill's son, Dr Harold Gardiner-Hill, researched Robert's history. Harold's grandson, David Gardiner Hill, provided me with family history.

    "Dr Harold Gardiner-Hill kept/made a Family Book which is primarily a cuttings album on Robert Gardiner Hill, James Robert Hill, Hugh Gardiner Hill, and Harold and family, including father in law - Sir Edward Farquhar Buzzard, the eminent neurologist, physician to the king and Regius professor of medicine in Oxford"

    The Brook Villa, West Derby, Liverpool

    Walton Lodge, near Liverpool

    Blakely House, near Manchester

    Heath Green, Newton, near Manchester

    Billington, near Whalley
    Proprietor: P. Kershaw
    1.1.1844: six private patients
    External link:
    Mad House Farm

    Marsden Hall, Nelson. Manchester
    1857 Hall and grounds were leased to a Dr Pinder who obtained permission to use the hall and grounds as a mental asylum.
    After Pinder's death, Dr. Bennett continued the asylum.
    1912 Hall and grounds turned into a public park

    Overdale Asylum
    James Holmes, born about 1853, died 5.1.1930, aged seventy six, became MB CM Edinburgh in 1875, and MD in 1877. He was resident assistant physician at Wye House Lunatic Asylum, Buxton, and honorary medical officer at the Mothers' Welcome, Bury. He then went to Overdale Asylum where he held positions as visiting physician and medical superintendent.
    [Rylands University Library]
    "Overdale House" was transferred from James Holmes M.D. and Blanche Crompton Holmes to Dr Gilbert Edward Mould and Miss Gertrude Rowlinson about 1902

    Clifton House, York
    1844 Report

    St Maurice House, York
    1844 Report

    Osbaldwick, near York
    1844 Report

    Terrace House, Osbaldwick
    1844 Report
    1870 Terrace House, Osbaldwick, licensed to Dr J Ure

    Acomb House, near York
    1844 Report
    Proprietor: H.B. Hodgson, surgeon
    1.1.1844: 10 private patients
    Friday 23.7.1858:
    A commission of lunacy was held on

    "Mrs Turner, who was a patient at Acomb House, near York. The jury declared her to be of sound mind and commented adversely upon the conduct of Mr Metcalf, the proprietor, who was accused of using grossly offensive language and of improper behaviour towards Mrs Turner. His licence was revoked..." Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.237)

    Charles Read in his serial novel Hard Cash (1863) wrote about the (fictional) inspection of a madhouse:

    "the mad people all declared they were very kindly treated... they know by experience that, if they told the truth, the justices could not at once remedy their discomfort, whereas the keepers, the very moment the justices left the house, would knock them down, beat them..."

    "Thus, in later days, certain Commissioners of Lunacy inspecting Accomb House, extracted nothing from Mrs Turner, but that she was happy and comfortable under the benignant sway of Metcalf the mild - there present. It was only by a miracle the public learned the truth, and miracles are rare". (end of chapter 34)

    Lime Tree House, Acomb, nearr York
    1870 licensed to Samuel Nelson (surgeon)
    1881 Census: Lime Tree House, Acomb, York. Proprietor: William J. Nelson, unmarried, aged 43, born in Acomb. Surgeon, General Practitioner and Private Asylum Proprietor

    Retreat, Rillington near New Malton
    1844 Report

    Weaverthorpe near Sledmere
    1844 Report

    Field Head House, Wakefield
    1844 Report

    Painthorpe House, Wakefield
    1844 Report

    Castleton Lodge, near Leeds
    1844 Report

    The Grange
    Thundercliffe Grange, Rotherham
    There were no private mental institutions in or near Sheffield until 1872 when The Grange at Kimberworth opened. This had eleven beds when it opened and 30 when it closed in 1946. It was then used as a hospital for mentally handicapped children, adopting the old title of Thundercliffe Grange.
    The Grange was a private mental home for ladies about 1900 and later used it was used a residential home for mentally handicapped children up to the end of the 1970s. (source)


    My thanks to Peter Higginbotham of the Peter found a sent me a sheet of data that has given me a framework to extend the asylum index to Scotland. I am also adding Ireland.

    Royal asylums

    David Henderson described as "pioneer mental hospital organisations constituted by Charter and Act of Parliament ... established in the following chronological order:"

    1781 Montrose
    1800 Aberdeen
    1813 Edinburgh
    1814 Glasgow
    1820 Dundee
    1826 Perth
    1839 Dumfries
    1863 Royal Scottish National Hospital for Mental Defectives

    See Scottish Society of the History of Medicine - Report of Proceedings 1962-1963.

    List of Scotland's district asylums and their other names: [From Kim Ross, Asylum geographies]

    Elgin - Bilbohall Hospital
    Argyll and Bute - Lochgilphead Hospital
    Inverness - Craig Dunain Hospital
    Perth - Murthly Hospital
    Stirling - Bellsdyke Hospital
    Banff - Ladysbridge Hospital
    Fife and Kinross - Stratheden Hospital
    Haddington - Herdmanflat Hospital
    Ayr - Glengall/Ailsa Hospital
    Roxburgh - Dingleton Hospital
    Midlothian and Peebles - Rosslynlee Hospital
    Glasgow - Gartloch Hospital
    Lanark - Hartwood Hospital
    Govan - Hawkhead/Leverndale Hospital
    Edinburgh - Bangour Village Hospital
    Aberdeen - Kingseat Hospital
    Renfrew - Dykebar Hospital

    Scotland: asylums from south to north

    Scottish border counties

    Roxborough District Became Dingleton Hospital
    external link:
    Erected 1870-1872 Designs by Messrs Brown & Wardrop of Edinburgh. Cost, inclusive of site, of £46,500. Accommodation for about 150 patients.
    1878 Accommodation for 210. Superintendent Samuel Grierson MRCS England
    1882-1885 external link:
    About three quarters of a mile West South West of the town of Melrose (map), on Bowden Moor, is the district lunatic asylum for the counties of Roxburgh, Selkirk, and Berwick, which with its grounds covers a space of 25 acres. The buildings occupy three sides of a rectangle; the principal front to the South West being 377 feet long, and the wings each 148 feet. They are mostly two stories in height, and two towers are 100 feet high.
    "From early on patients were discharged after a probationary period, and the second Medical Superintendent Dr J. Carlyle Johnstone introduced parole for patients and the removal of locks from some interior doors."
    1881: "It is year by year becoming more clearly recognised that many advantages result from the working of the open-door system, and it has now been adopted to a greater or less extent in most of the Scotch asylums" (Lunacy Board Report)
    See Recent Changes in the Modes of Administering Scotch Asylums (1881)
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Melrose branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr Robert Ross, 7 Eildon Terrace, Melrose.
    1.10.1949 Full implementation of post-war open door policy. "It appears to be the first mental hospital with open doors in the world" (Ted Hayes)
    "Dr George MacDonald Bell introduced his "open door" policy of removing locks from all ward doors to give patients the feeling of increased freedom. He also believed that the surrounding community should be involved as much as possible in the life of the hospital. In the following decades social psychiatry, work therapy and community psychiatry developed more and more."
    1950 Group therapy introduced on selected wards
    At an unknown date, Hamish Anderson (5.1.1916-8.1.1984) became a registrar at Dingleton.
    1957 Hamish Anderson left for Ingrebourne
    1962 Maxwell Jones
    Closed 2002
    June 2005 Article by Ted Hayes "Whatever happened to moral treatment" in The Communicator - (archive)

    The Crichton Institution, Dumfries
    June 1839 with 120 beds. Founded by Mrs Elizabeth Crichton "whose decision it was to apply her deceased husband's munificent legacy to this purpose".
    Dr W. A. F. Browne wrote What Asylums Were, Are and Ought to Be at Montrose "before going on to apply his advanced views, as far as possible, at the newly opened Crichton Royal in 1839".
    Dumfries and Southern Counties Royal
    1896 J. Carmont, Crichton Royal Institution Leicester, 1896
    [James Crichton-Browne lived 1840-1938]
    1908 to 1937: Charles Cromhall Easterbrook Physician Superintendent
    1940 C.C Easterbrook, The chronicle of Crichton Royal, 1833- 1936. Being the story of a famous mental hospital during its first century, and illustrating the evolution of the hospital care and treatment of mental invalids in Scotland. With foreword: Some early Crichton memories by Sir James Crichton-Browne, etc. [With plates, including portraits, and an end-paper map.] Courier Press, Dumfries. xii and 663 pages : including tables. frontispiece, plates, portraits, facsimiles, coats of arms.
    "takes each year separately and, as with a tomography, gives a complete picture of the hospital for that year"not only events but innumerable static particulars as well. It constitutes probably the most valuable source of information there is for the working of a mental hospital over the years without resorting to original documents." (Walk, A. 1982)
    April 1963 Thomas Ritchie a patient for five months.
    1980 G. B. Turner, The Chronicle of the Crichton Royal (1937-1971) C.N. Print, Cumbria, 1980
    "Now Mr George Turner, retired Hospital Secretary, has performed the astonishing feat of producing a new Chronicle of Crichton Royal 1937-71. (After that year the hospital administration was amalgamated with that of the local general hospitals.) In spite of Mr Turner's disclaimer, the work, a volume of over 280 pages of close type, certainly compares with Easterbrook's, following the same format, with the same meticulous attention to detail. Moreover, Dr A. C. Tait, the hospital's last Physician Superintendent, contributes an engrossing continuous narrative of the clinical and research work for which the Crichton, under the late Dr P. K. McCowan, especially after he had been joined by Professor Mayer-Gross as Director of Research, continues to be noted." (Walk, A. 1982)
    1989 M. Williams, History of the Crichton Royal Hospital 1839-1989 Solway Offset, Dumfries, 1989.
    Care Not Confinement Cataloguing and Preserving the Archives of the Crichton Royal Hospital

    Ayr District
    1878 Accommodation for 240. Superintendent Charles H. Skea, MD and LRCS
    County Lunatic Asylum Glengall
    see GenUKI census data - (archive)
    1943-1944 "Ailsa hospital was then called Glengall Mental Hospital and the priests from St Margaret's (the only Catholic church in Ayr then) went twice yearly for Mass and Confessions. Kyle Home ("the poorhouse"), the County Hospital and Heathfield Hospital (for infectious cases, including TB) were visited more regularly" (external link) - (archive)
    Became Ailsa Hospital Dalmellington Road, Ayr KA6 6AB
    email 7.4.2011 from Staff Nurse Robert (Rab) Wilson, who is writing a history of the hospital "They plan to shut Ailsa down in the near future, and relocate us to Ayrshire Central Hospital at Irvine. Many of the nurses and workers are not happy about this decision".

    Cuninghame Combination Poorhouse
    Erected 1857
    1858 "poorhouse governor obtained permission to provide separate accommodation for ten male and ten female `pauper imbeciles and idiots'. This developed into an asylum building adjoining the poorhouse. The poorhouse and asylum transferred to Ayrshire County Council in 1930 and to the National Health Service in 1948" (Archives catalogue)
    1958 Ravenspark Hospital
    "continues in use, mainly for geriatric and psycho-geriatric patients"

    Edinburgh and the Lothians


    "...apart from twelve cells in the basement of the Edinburgh Infirmary and a bedlam attached to the city workhouse, there was no provision for the insane in Edinburgh until the Royal Asylum opened in 1813" (Hunter, R.A. and Macalpine, I. 1969 p.278)

    Edinburgh Bedlam
    Edinburgh's Darien House hospital
    1698 Foundation of the Edinburgh Bedlam "Scotland's first purpose-built asylum"
    From The Edinburgh Book of Days by Michael T R B Turnbull The History Press, 29.2.2012. ERBE = Extract from the records of the Burgh of Edinburgh.

    The new English Bethlem, at Moorfields, was opened in 1676

    Edinburgh Infirmary

    1729 Edinburgh Infirmary founded
    1736 George 2nd granted a Royal Charter naming the informary the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. The charter is in Latin and has the Great Seal of Scotland attached.
    (Lothian exihibition)

    16.10.1774 Death in the Edinburgh Bedlam of Robert Fergusson, born 5.9.1750, Edinburgh poet, author of Auld Reekie.

    Robert Reid, 1809 Observations on the Structure of Hospitals for the Treatment of Lunatics Edinburgh: Ballantyne

    Edinburgh Asylum
    External link to history - archive
    "1792 Duncan launched an appeal for funds and, in 1806, Parliament granted the sum of £2,000 out of the funds of the estates forfeited in the aftermath of the Jacobite Rising of 1745. The villa of Morningside was purchased with four acres of ground, a Royal Charter was granted, and in 1809 the foundation stone was laid. The architect was Robert Reid. The Edinburgh Lunatic Asylum was opened in 1813, the original building being known as East House. To begin with only paying patients were accepted, but in 1842 West House, designed by William Burn, opened its doors to accomodate pauper patients. In 1844 it received the inmates of the City's Bedlam."
    Architect: Robert Reid
    Began with paying patients
    Edinburgh Royal: May have become Royal in the 1840s
    1842: pauper patients: "By arrangement with the City it took Poorhouse Insane pre-1930".
    David Skae sometime physician superintendent
    1844 Received patients from the Edinburgh Bedlam
    1894 Craig House opened
    21.3.1903 British Journal of Nursing "An alarming event of the year was the outbreak of an epidemic of asylum dysentery or colitis, in connection with which seven deaths occurred. Dr. Clouston is of opinion that one possible and likely means of the propagation of the disease was the ward cats, two of which mere found to be suffering from it"
    1972? Thomas Clouston Clinic
    1929 Jordanburn Nerve Hospital
    1931 Children's Clinic
    1965 Andrew Duncan Clinic
    1968 Young People's Unit Alcohol Problems Unit
    1982 Jardine Clinic
    1989 Royal Edinburgh Hospital Patients Council
    External link to Functionsuite ArtLink Hospital Arts
    One of two hospitals in Scotland with Patients Councils affiliated to the United Kingdom Advocacy Network (Last contact 2004)
    2005 Extraordinary Everyday - Explorations in Collaborative Art in Healthcare

    near Edinburgh:
    Craiglockhart or Edinburgh Hydropathic Hospital 1880-1915
    Craiglockhart Hydropathic was constructed between 1877-1880.
    It was opened in April 1880.
    "baths, douches, packings and poultices were a small part of a larger package selling rest, recuperation, sociability and the romantic allure of the Scottish landscape"
    (Bradley, Dupree, and Durie)
    1885 Craiglockhart in finacial difficulty. Company in liquidation.
    Craiglockhart War Hospital (military psychiatric hospital for shell- shocked officers) 1916-1919
    1916 Craiglockhart War Hospital for Officers established in the Institute building
    The building was requisitioned by the War Office for use as a military hospital for officers suffering from neurasthenia (shell-shock) from 1916-1919.
    Was Dr William H.R. Rivers working here from October 1915?
    Dr William H.R. Rivers worked at Craiglockhart War Hospital until the end of 1917
    April 1917: See Siegfried Sassoon
    25.6.1917 Wilfred Owen transferred from the Welsh Hospital, Netley.
    Owen and Sassoon met at Craiglockhart in 1917. The few montsh there were prductive for both of them.
    The Society of the Sacred Heart (convent) 1920-1965
    Craiglockhart College of Education (a Catholic teachers' training college) 1965-1984
    1986 Napier College of Commerce an Technology
    1986 Napier Polytechnic acquired the former Hydropathic hospital buildings at Craiglockhart.
    1988 The University established The War Poets Collection in 1988, on the 70th Anniversary of the signing of the Armistice: 11 November 1918.
    June 1992: Napier University
    Craiglockhart Campus, Edinburgh, EH14 1DJ

    "The University changed its name a few years ago and is now known as Edinburgh Napier University" - Email 26.3.2011 from
    Catherine Walker, B.A., M.A.,
    Edinburgh Napier University
    War Poets Collection
    Craiglockhart Campus
    Edinburgh EH14 1DJ

    External Link: Craigleith archive
    - Military Hospital (1914?) and the Ministry of Pensions Hospital (See 1920)

    Mid-Lothian District

    Bangour Village Hospital

    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Bangour branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr J.L. Wakelin, Beechwood, Dechmont, West Lothian, Scotland.
    1948 Purchase (30/-) of Tredgold's A Text-Book of Mental Deficiency (Amentia) (1947) for Bangour Village Medical Library
    1978/1979 Norman Clinton a psychiatric nurse.
    About 1988 "A group of patients in Bangour Village Hospital set up The Patients Council to address various issues which affected their lives whilst in hospital. Over the years this was transformed into Friendset, then the Patients Advocacy Service then to... The Mental Health Advocacy Project." Mental Health Advocacy Project website
    In 1989, St John's Hospital opened in nearby Livingston, and services were transferred from Bangour General Hospital, which closed in the early 1990s. The Village Hospital also started to wind down after the opening of St Johns, with the last remaining ward closing in 2004. (Wikipedia)
    16.8.1996 Gazette West Lothian Patients' Council, staffed by volunteers with experience of mental health problems, is based at Bangour Village Hospital. The council has received £2,400 from a Fife charity to help its work. (source)
    2004: Last ward closed.
    2010 memories
    The grounds of Bangour "were absolutely beautiful. You could walk for miles and you could be yourself if you were feeling everything was too much for you. You could go into the woods to take time out. The likes of st John's all that you've got is a car park to walk around" (Kenny CAPS2010 p.101)
    "You could get a cup of tea in the shop in Bangour Village for 5p but when we moved over to St John's it cost 60p a cup". (Kenny CAPS2010 p.102)
    (multi-map Dechnont)

    Haddington District
    "Near the town stands the County Lunatic asylum a handsome building opened in 1866, with accommodation for 90 patients"
    1903 Gazetteer on GenUKI

    Moving north from Edinburgh and the Lothians
    Jump forward for Glasgow

    Fife District
    April 1873: J. Fraser appointed Assistant Medical Superintendent of the Fife and Kinross District Asylum, Cupar, in place of J Batty Tuke, resigned.
    1878 Accommodation for 286. No superintendent listed
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Cupar branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was "Mr John F. Balmer, The Asylum, Cupar, Fife".

    Perth Royal
    James Murray's Royal Asylum (by 1929
    1948: James Murray's Royal Mental Hospital 1950 Murray Royal Hospital Address Muirhall Road Perth PH2 7BH Hospital website archive
    Dundee University archives
    1927 James Murray's Royal Asylum, Perth 1827-1927; historical sketch by Walter Duncanson Chambers.Perth : J.Young 1927 41 pafes, illustrated.
    "Murray Royal Hospital, Perth: 1827-1977 commemorates another of Scotland's 'Royals', this time a sesquicentenarian. Like the Crichton, it owes its foundation to a legacy, the founder, James Murray, having devoted to it the fortune bequeathed to him by a half-brother drowned at sea with his family while returning from India. The two institutions were built by the same architect, William Burn. Here too we find a trace of the influence of W. A. F. Browne on Scottish psychiatry, in the shape of a 'Browne Hall' named after him, though his only direct contact with the asylum must have been in his later capacity as Commissioner. The last 50 years of the Murray's history are lucidly chronicled by Dr Harry Stacker, but for the preceding hundred he has had the happy idea of reprinting the centenary history written in a more ample style by the late Dr W. D. Chambers, to whose achivements he pays tribute, as well as to those of Dr A. R. Urquhart from 1879 onwards, especially in the matter of mental nurse training." (Walk, A. 1982)

    Perth District


    Dundee Royal Lunatic Asylum - Stobswell
    Originally in the country. Corner of Cardean Street and Morgan Street.
    See hospital history: Dundee Royal Lunatic Asylum - archive
    Opened 1820- 1821
    Architect William Stark (died 1813)
    "An offshoot of the Dundee Royal Infirmary in King Street, the Dundee Royal Lunatic Asylum was built in the countryside to the east of Dundee and opened in 1820. It's founding rules were hugely influenced by the regime at the Retreat in York".

    Tayside Health Board Archive lists " Royal Dundee Liff Hospital (previously Dundee Royal Lunatic Asylum)" - archive

    Poor House for Dundee
    Opened 1836
    external link

    West Green
    1874 The farm of West Green acquired
    1880 New building for both pauper and private erected
    hospital history: Out in the Country
    1882: "the last of the patients from the old Dundee Royal Asylum in Stobswell moved to a new purpose-built asylum at Westgreen, near the small village of Liff, outside Dundee".
    Known as the Dundee District Asylum and latterly as Dundee Royal Liff Hospital.
    The Dundee District Lunacy Board was concerned with the increased number of patients resulting from the rapid growth of the city and purchased the asylum property at West Green in 1903 (external link)
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Dundee branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was "Mr M. McLellan, Westgreen Mental Hospital, Liff, Dundee"

    Baldovan Institute
    See hospital history: Special Needs: Baldovan Institute
    1852: Opened. Followed similar institution in Bath
    1959: renamed Strathmartine Hospital

    Angus - Montrose

    Montrose potted history - archive - Montrose is the northernmost coastal town in Angus and developed at a natural harbour in medieval times. It is 38 miles (61 km) north of Dundee between the mouths of the North and South Esk rivers. (Wikipedia)

    Montrose Royal
    Opened 1782
    The first of Scotland's "Royal Asylums" opened "through the benevolence and indefatigable exertions of Mrs Susan Carnegie". Prior to this, insane patients had been housed in the Old Tolbooth in the High Street.
    1803 Susan Carnegie suggested the Asylum obtain a Royal Charter, so that the Managers could receive donations, bequests and purchase land.
    1810 Royal Charter granted
    1834 William Alexander Francis Browne appointed medical superintendent,
    Browne delivered a series of five lectures to the Managers of Montrose Royal Lunatic Asylum which became, in May 1837, his book What Asylums Were, Are, and Ought To Be.
    1838 William A.F.Browne moved to Dumfries
    1858 James Howden was appointed Superintendent and remained for 40 years. The first patients were received in the new Asylum at Sunnyside during 1858
    Sunnyside Royal Hospital (Royal Asylum of Montrose)
    1866 The old Asylum closed and the building leased to the Montrose Harbour Commissioners

    1966 Susan Carnegie 1744-1821: her life of service by Alexander Allan Cormack (1891-1976) Aberdeen University Press

    1981 'A Sunnyside chronicle': a history of Sunnyside Royal Hospital produced for its Bi-Centenary. [1781-1981] by A. S. Presly, the Principal Psychologist, covers its two hundred years both chronologically and by subjects. The brochure of 55 pages is attractively got up, and there is a wealth of illustrations, with photocopies of old diagnostic tables, diet scales, wage schedules, theatrical playbills and similar bygones, and pictures of every aspect of asylum life. The hospital is not on its original site and we are shown the striking contrast between the rather humble first building and its stately Victorian successor at Sunnyside, also the later domestic-style villas. (Walk, A. 1982). Scotland's oldest asylum website is based on the above book.
    1982 Two Aberdeenshire Spas, Peterhead and Pannanich with some account of Susan Carnegie by Alexander Allan Cormack, Aberdeen University Press.
    June 1982 Psychiatric Bulletin 1982 6 pp 98-102 "From 'What it Was' towards 'What it Ought to Be" by The Montrose Bicentenary Kenneth M. G. Keddie, Consultant Psychiatrist, Sunnyside Royal Hospital
    a "detailed account of Montrose's earlier years, including the memorable four-year Superintendency of Dr W. A. F. Browne. Here he wrote his fighting book, What Asylums Were, Are and Ought to Be, before going on to apply his advanced views, as far as possible, at the newly opened Crichton Royal in 1839" (Walk, A. 1982)

    Greater Glasgow

    Between 1772 and 1857, seven asylums were erected in Scotland with Royal Charters. Thet were mainly close to large towns and were governed by Local Boards of Management. [See Glasgow 1814"

    In 1857, the Scottish Lunacy Act made provision for general supervision of the insane under a General Board of Control and provision of asylums of local rates.

    The first asylum opened by the newly formed Lanarkshire Lunacy Board was at Liquo, (Pronounced Leeky) near Bowhousebog. It opened as an annexe to Kirklands, Bothwell and accommodated 40 patients.

    Greater Glasgow: Lanarkshire

    1878 Bothwell, Kirklands, Bothwell. A Private Asylum. LIcensed for 60 patients. Proprietor: W.D. Fairless, MD St Andrews and Member RCS England
    (external link)
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Kirklands branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr Neil McCormack, Kirklands Mental Hospital, Bothwell, Scotland

    1895 Lanark County Asylum, Hartwood, Lanarkshire, Scotland, opened.
    (external link - archive)   (external link - archive)
    Originally Lanark District Asylum... situated in a rural area of the central lowlands of Scotland. The asylum was built for 500 patients and had its own staff - houses, gardens, farm, power - plant, reservoir, railway - line and cemetery. Imposing twin clock-towers, dominated the group of buildings. (Mark Gallagher)
    Archibald Campbell Clark was the first physician superintendent (See Psychiatric Bulletin)
    1898 Clinical Manual of Mental Diseases for Practitioners and Studente by A. Campbell Clark, M.D., F.F.P.S.G., Mackintosh Lecturer on Psychological Medicine, St Mungo's College Glasgow [and] Medical Superintendent of Lanark Couny Asylum, Hartwood. [internet archive copy]
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Hartwood branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr Thomas Prentice, The Cottages, Hartwood, Lanarkshire
    About 1935 In about 1935 the Hartwood Hill Adult Mental Colony was built about one and a half miles to the north-east of Hartwood. Its buildings were designed by James Lochhead on the colony system, after the model of Gogarburn Institution by Edinburgh "and demonstrates the interest in functional but simple, strikingly designed buildings at that date". Historic Hospitals. " With the coming of the war, the buildings, known as the Hill hospital, were used for evacuated psychiatric patients from Bangour Village Hospital. When the war ended the Hill hospital, Hartwoodhill Hospital, was used for psychiatric patients. By the 1950s there were approximately 2,500 patients at the Hartwood and Hartwoodhill sites." (Mark Gallagher)

    "Hartwood Hospital, Hartwood, Shotts, Lanarkshire" from the air. [about 1960?]

    1960 Thomas Ritchie admitted as a voluntary patient to "Hartwoodhill Hospital". "It took me less than a month to get the strength of the place and realise that it was no damned good for my condition, or anybody else's for that part. I discharged myself".
    1961 Dr Alexander John Graham (20.12.1925-16.08.2015) qualified as a psychiatrist. Saw Thomas Ritche at Hartwood in 1963. At some point he became the superintendant and initiated reforms.
    26.7.1971 Petition for the Redress of Grievances put forward by the patients - Start of SUMP (The Scottish Union of Mental Patients).
    "Ward 16 is the only mixed ward. Wards 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 14 ... in the Lower Hospital; 17, 19 and 20 ... in the Hill Hospital" are women's wards. Wards 6 to 15, 18, 21 and 22 are men's wards. 15 is the geriatric ward. Most complaints originate in ward 7, where the "worst cases" go, the female equivalent being ward 3. The "strata" of the wards on the men's side is (from top to bottom): 16, 18, 22, 15, 21, 9, 10, 8, 7. "The issue of fine socks is restricted to the Hill wards, 16, 18, 21 and 22". "Patients in 10, 9, 8 and 7 do not get any jam on the table".

    31.12.1977 1,700 beds "Psychiatric". Address Hartwood Hospital, Hartwood, Shotts, ML7 4JZ.
    25.9.1997 Death of Sinclair Stewart Sutherland, who had been the last physician superintendent of Hartwood. [See
    Psychiatric Bulletin]
    24.2.2011 "The Clinical Journey" "To mark the official closure of Hartwoodhill Hospital"

    Greater Glasgow: Govan

    Govan Poor House
    "The Southern General Hospital was originally the hospital of the Govan Poor House. Its earliest buildings were in Eglinton Street. In 1872 a new 240 bed general hospital and 180 patient lunatic asylum were built at the present site.
    (external link)
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Merryflats branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was "Mr R. Millar, Mental Wards, Southern General Hospital, Govan, Glasgow"

    Govan District Asylum at Hawkhead built for Govan District Lunacy Board and opened in 1895.
    (external link)
    Accommodation for 400 patients in 1895 and 520 by 1908.
    The Govan Parochial Asylum functioned as a reception and assessment unit for Hawkhead.
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Hawkhead branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr Hugh Murray, 7 Mental Hospital Cottages, Crookston, Cardonald, Glasgow
    1930 a Glasgow Corporation hospital
    1964 Leverndale Hospital

    Crookston War Hospital, Nitshill, Glasgow.

    Greater Glasgow: Glasgow

    Glasgow Asylum for Lunatics
    Parliamentary Road (1814 - 1842)
    Architect William Stark (died 1813)
    1824 Glasgow Royal Asylum for Lunatics
    1055 Great Western Road Glasgow
    About two and a half miles along the Great Western Road from Glasgow city centre. [G12 0XH]
    1845 Glasgow Royal Lunatic Asylum published Gartnavel Minstrel, possibly the earliest known example of "a publication written and edited by hospital patients" (See Wikipedia)
    5.5.1849 Unsuccessful application by Charles Lockhart Robertson for the post of Resident Physician and Superintendent in the Glasgow Royal Lunatic Asylum. He attached a recommendation from a clergyman as the Directors wanted to know about the "moral character of the Candidate".
    1931 Glasgow Royal Mental Hospital
    After 1937
    Richard Crocket (born 1914) assistant physician. Started his (London University) Diploma in Psychological Medicine. Refers to a "nest of analysts, or proto-analysts" in the hospital.
    1940 Richard Crocket went as locum psychotherapist to the Cassel Hospital
    (external source)
    About 1953 to 1956 Ronald Laing working at the hospital and and teaching in the Department of Psychological Medicine at Glasgow University
    1963 Gartnavel Royal Hospital
    Sunday 7.5.1972 Thomas Ritchie Scottish Union of Mental Patients) first visited. "It seems that there are locked wards in the place (for men and for women)". " Hartwood compares unfavourably with Gartnavel - which is not so bloody hot itself"
    31.12.1977 653 beds "Psychiatric". Address Gartnavel Royal Hospital, 1055 Great Western Road, Glasgow, G12 0XH.
    1990: Edward J. Sobieraj, "Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow : its foundation and early history" History of Nursing Society Journal Volume 3, number 2, pages 14 to 23. Includes bibliographic references
    1993: History 1843- 1993

    (external link)
    1878 Abbey a Parochial Asylum, Paisley. LIcensed for 98. Superintendent Mr Alexander Skene
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Abbey branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr Alex Cochrane, 1 Craw Road, Paisley.

    (external link)
    1909: Renfrew District Lunatic Asylum opened
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Dykebar branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr J. G. Ferguson, The Cottages, Dykebar, Paisley
    1948 joined the National Health Service under the Renfrewshire Mental Hospitals Board of Management (renamed the Dykebar & Associated Hospitals Board of Management in 1964)
    1968: under the Paisley and District Hospitals Board of Management.
    1974 passed to the Renfrew District of the new Argyll and Clyde Health Board.
    One of two hospitals in Scotland with Patients Councils affiliated to the United Kingdom Advocacy Network (Last contact 2005)

    Gartloch, Glasgow
    Gartloch Road, Glasgow, G69 8EJ
    on the Gartloch Road near the village of Gartcosh - 7 miles east of Glasgow city centre. Originally the asylum for Glasgow city.
    external link (from which much information taken) (archive)
    1889 Gartloch Estate was bought by the City of Glasgow for nearly £8,600 for the Glasgow District Lunacy Board to build an asylum for the poor people of the city.
    1896 The first patients were admitted. 540 beds.
    1899 The average number of patients resident in the asylum during the year was 465 and comprised 236 males and 229 females.
    1902 A tuberculosis sanitorium was opened. It closed after World War two
    1903 Gartloch Magazine - a "beautiful, tiny, hand-written magazine, carefully illustrated in pen, with each page filled with poems, ramblings, jokes and stories" is preseved in the Greater Glasgow Health Board Archives. It includes this poem:

    I love the hills and forest,
    I love the rain, the mist,
    The birds that fly above us,
    The grass the dew has kissed.
    I love these things and more besides,
    I love the Gartloch towers,
    The Bishop's loch and its canal,
    The garden and its flowers,
    The avenue across the bridge,
    The gloomy septic wood,
    I love them though I know them well,
    You wonder why I should?

    [From Kim Ross, Asylum geographies]

    1904 830 beds.
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Gartloch branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr William Richardson, Mid Cottages, Gartloch, Gartcosh, Glasgow.
    During the second world war, Gartloch was transformed into an Emergency Medical Services hospital. Psychiatric patients were transferred to other hospitals and a number of "temporary" hutted wards built.
    1948 Gartloch joined the National Health Service and was placed under the Board of Management for Glasgow North-Eastern Mental Hospitals.
    1972 Robin Farquarson a patient. First Scottish Union of Mental Patients member outside Hartwood
    1974 When the Greater Glasgow Health Board was created in 1974 Gartloch was placed within the Eastern District.
    31.12.1977 849 beds "Mental Illness, Geriatric". Address Gartloch Hospital, Gartcosh, Glasgow, G69 8EJ.
    1990 530 beds. 1993 Gartloch was under the Greater Glasgow Community and Mental Health Services NHS Trust.
    1996 Gartloch Hospital closed.
    2003 Development work to turn Gartloch into a luxury village began.

    (See Peter Higginbotham's website)
    "The Parish of Greenock operated a poorhouse at the north side of Wellington Street, between Duncan Street and Captain Street. A Parochial Lunatic Asylum stood on an adjacent site to the west"
    1878 Greenock a Parochial Asylum, Greenock. Licensed for 84. Superintendent Mr Hardie
    1879 "the parochial board erected new buildings for 750 inmates at a site on the Inverkip Road to the west of Greenock". The Builder: "Greenock Poor House and Asylum... the handsome pile now approaching completion on the lands of Smithston, about a mile and a half to the south-west of the town... The asylum will shelter 150 lunatic patients, and the poor-house 450 paupers". [Annie Ruddy, who lives locally, says it "used to be called Smithston's Lunatic Asylum"]
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Greenock branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was William Cameron, 10 Smithston Cottages, Greenock
    "After 1930, the poorhouse became a Poor Law Hospital known as the Smithston. In 1939, the premises were requisitioned by the Admiralty, and in 1941 were taken over by the Canadian navy who renamed the hospital HMS Niobe. With the advent of the National Health Service in 1948, it became Ravenscraig Hospital" [Quotes from Peter Higginbotham's website]
    1960s "As a little girl, I was captivated by its beauty and yet feared it so much because of what was presented to me as the 'strange inhabitants within'. I ached to go through the grounds and explore the beautiful towers and turrets that I could see". [Annie Ruddy]
    It "has latterly provided care for the elderly and mentally ill. In 2004, the hospital was under threat of closure." [Peter Higginbotham's website]
    Ravenscraig Hospital, Inverkip Road, Greenock, Renfrewshire PA16 9HA
    Biggest march Greenock has ever seen? (5,000) (Socialist Worker 7.8.2004)

    Stoneyetts Hospital, Chryston, Lanarkshire
    Opened 1913
    Built by Glasgow Parish Council. A certified institution under the Mental Deficiency and Lunacy (Scotland) Act of 1913.
    "Stoneyetts became seriously overcrowded and arrangements were made with Falkirk Parish Council for patients to be cared for at Blinkbonny Home.
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Stonyetts branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr George Dickson, Stonyetts Cottages, Chryston, near Glasgow

    Strathkelvin hospitals

    Waverley Park Home Kirkintilloch, Dunbartonshire
    Opened 1906: Girls only.
    Run by the Glasgow Association for the Care of Defective and Feeble- Minded Children.

    Lennox Castle Hospital, Lennoxtown, Stirlingshire;
    "built by Glasgow Corporation, also as a hospital for mentally deficient people. It had 1,200 beds when it opened in
    1936 and was the largest mental deficiency hospital in Britain: a substantial number of patients were transferred from Stoneyetts to Lennox Castle. During the Second World War a large part of the hospital was requisitioned under the Emergency Hospital Scheme." (external link)

    Woodilee Lunatic Pauper Asylum
    Opened 22.10.1875
    (external link)
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Woodilee branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr David T. Campbell, 2 Loch Road, Kirkintilloch, Dunbartonshire

    Vale of Leven

    Christie Ward, Vale of Leven Hospital Main Street, Alexandria G83 0UA.
    Opened about 1994. Praised by Suzie Johnston for its treatment of her. The ward has since been threatened with closure.


    Argyll District

    Stirling District Asylum
    Stirling District Lunatic Asylum established at the cost of £20,000 at about the same time as the Larbert Training School (below) and on a nearby site.
    1869 Frederick William Adolphus Skae (1842-1881), son of
    David Skae, appointed medical superintendent
    Larbert Asylum became Bellsdyke Hospital
    Bellsdyke Road, Larbert FK5 4SF (map)   (multimap)
    Buildings are being demolished or sold and a modern industrial 'park' has appeared on the Bellsdyke Road

    Larbert Training School for Imbecile Children
    Hospital for Imbecile Children
    Built 1862 designed by F.T.Pilkington.
    Scottish National Institution for the Education of Imbecile Children established at a cost of £13,000 on land bought from the Stenhouse estate.
    Licensed for 150 in 1878
    Licensed to William W. Ireland MD
    "On the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Idiocy and Imbecility" by William W. Ireland. Edinburgh Medical Journal June 1882, pp. 1072-85
    The word Royal was added during the first world war and the RSNH was born.
    Royal Scottish National Hospital at Larbert near Falkirk, Scotland.
    Old Denny Road, Larbert FK5 4EH
    Larbert: Royal Scottish National Hospital - Forth Valley Primary Care NHS Trust
    external link: Villages of Falkirk Larbert and Stenhousemuir


    1740s cells in the Aberdeen Infirmary at Woolmanhill

    Aberdeen Lunatic Hospital opened November 1800. "Built to replace cells provided in the original Infirmary at Woolmanhill since the 1740s for 'those who deprived of the use of their Reason', the new hospital admitted patients from Aberdeen and other parts of the North-East of Scotland and, at times, from further afield."
    Another source: Opened 1821
    1862: Elmhill House:, a separate building for private patients opened
    1890 A country branch established at Daviot.
    By the end of the century the entire asylum held a daily average of 867 patients.
    From 1904 onwards Aberdeen pauper patients sent to the Aberdeen District Asylum at Kingseat near Newmachar
    1933: Aberdeen Royal Mental Hospital
    Property at Wellwood in Cults was bought in 1930 and adapted as the nursing home for the early treatment of those suffering from nervous and mental disease.
    1964 Royal Cornhill Hospital

    Aberdeen District Asylum at Kingseat near Newmachar
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Kingseat branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was Mr S. Raeburn, Wood Cottages, Kingseat, Newmacahar, Aberdeenshire
    A Royal Naval Auxiliary Hospital during world war two

    Banff District

    Elgin District
    1925: The Branch Secretary of the Elgin branch of the National Asylum Workers Union was "Mr J. George, District Asylum, Elgin, Scotland"

    Inverness District



    Poor Law Regions map on Peter Higginbotham's web

    Belfast and Ulster

    Ulster Province contained these Counties Antrim (County Town: Belfast) - Down (to the south) - Londonderry - Tyrone (County Town: Omagh - Fermanagh - Armagh - which became Northern Ireland - plus Donegal - Cavan - Monaghan - which became the northernmost counties of the Irish Free State.

    Belfast District Asylum
    Opened under the
    1821 Act in 1829
    D.H. Tuke, D.H. 1882 p.424 refers to "Dr Robert Stewart - The medical superintendent of the Belfast Asylum, one of the best managed institutions of Ireland"
    Patients in 1851: 269
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: 262 Female: 201 Total: 463
    Lancet, 16.1.1897 The Belfast Asylum "The report on the Belfast Asylum of Dr O'Farrell, Inspector of Lunatics, has just been published. He says that all restraint appliances should be retained in the charge of the medical officers and used only by their direct instruction, and that there should be daily and accurate entries of every case in which restraint or seclusion has been employed." - From a pdf at:

    Email 12.10.2005 from Margaret Byrne: "the Belfast asylum was transferred to the Purdsyburn estate in 1896. This was built as a villa colony design and is still quite well preserved and in use". Margaret has since provided more information which I am using.
    "Purdysburn, the splendid mansion of Narcissus Batt, Esq., built after a design by Hopper, in 1825, in the Elizabethan style;" (Library Ireland

    The picture of the mansion is from the same pdf as the quote from the Lancet above.

    Purdysburn Hospital, Saintfield Road, Belfast, Antrim, BT8 8BH Ireland

    "In 1895 the [Belfast] Corporation purchased the estate at Purdysburn where an Asylum for the Lunatic Poor, as it was called, was built to replace the old Co. Antrim Asylum on the Grosvenor Road. Part of the estate was used for the Fever Hospital, opened in 1906" Another source says Purdysburn House and estate were bought from Narcissus Batt in 1894 because of the need to relocate and expand the asylum on the Falls Road

    In 1900 the Committee of Management decided (on the advice of their Medical superintendent, Lt. Col. William Graham M.D., to erect the new asylum on the Villa Colony principle. and the buildings were designed by George T. Hine Consulting Architect to the English Lunacy Commissioners. "The administrative buildings being on a scale for 1500 patients". Tulloch and Fitzsimmons, Belfast were local architects.

    Knockbracken Healthcare Park (formerly Purdysburn Asylum)

    The Vacuum (Belfast free magazine), issue 15, has an article by Jason Mills.

    Londonderry District Asylum
    Opened under the
    1821 Act in 1829
    1880: County Lunatic Asylum - Londonderry Board of Governors meets every second Thursday each month Res. Med. Supt. - Chas E. Hetherington, M.B., T.C.D. Visiting Physician - Barnewell P. White, M.D. Apothecary - Henry M. Prior Church of Ireland Chaplain - Rev. J. P. Tegart Roman Catholic Chaplain - Rev. H. O'Hagan Presbyterian Chaplain - Rev. Matthew Wilson Clerk - Thomas Campbell Storekeeper - M. J. Nilly Matron - Mrs. Eliza Grant
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:

    Down District Asylum
    Downpatrick, County Down
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:

    Armagh District Asylum
    First opened under
    1821 Act in 1825
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:

    The Retreat Armagh
    Opened 1824 by John Allen
    (external link)

    Omagh District Asylum
    1861: District Lunatic Asylum - Resident physician, Francis John West, M.D.; visiting physician, Henry Thompson, M.D.; clerk and storekeeper, George Quaile ; matron, Mrs. Hannan Hudson ; chaplains - Protestant, Rev. Richard Swift ; Presbyterian, Rev. John Arnold ; Roman Catholic, Rev. Daniel O'Doherty
    1880: District Lunatic Asylum - Omagh (for counties Tyrone and Fermanagh) Board of Governors for Co. Tyrone meets second Thursday in each month Duke of Abercorn, K.G.; Earl of Belmore, P.C., D.L.; Rt. Hon. Lord Claude Hamilton ; Col. the Hon. Wm. Stuart Knox, D.L.; Sir John M. Stewart, Bart, D.L.; John F. Lowry, J.P.; Thomas R. Browne, D.L.; Francis J. Gervais, D.L.; Colonel Francis Ellis, J.P.; Rev. W. Chartres, William F. Black, J.P.; Major Geo. P. McClintock, D.L.; Major A. W. Cole Hamilton, D.L.; John S. Galbraith, J.P.; Col. W. F. Lenox Conyngham, D.L.; Alex. O. S. McCausland, James Greer, Capt. Thomas Auchinleck, J.P.; James Crossle, J.P.; Wm. Scott, M.D., J.P.; T. W. D. Humphreys, J.P.; George Hall Stack, J.P.; Lieut. Colonel Dean Mann, J.P.; Rec. C. McCawley, P.P.; Alex. C. Buchanan, J.P.; Vaughan Montgomery, J.P.; Sir Wm. McMahon, Bart.; Rev. John Smith, Rev. Leslie A. Lyle, Robert William Lowry, J.P.; Wm. Scott, Rev. B. McNamee, Earl of Ranfurley, Major Geo. W. Vesey, D.L.; Wilkin Bird. Resident Medical Superintendent - Francis J. West, M.R.C.S.E. Visiting Physician - Edward C. Thompson, M.B. Apothecary - Francis Trenor Church of Ireland Chaplain - Rev. H. Faussett Presbyterian Chaplain - Rev. James Maconaghie Roman Catholic Chaplain - Rev. Patrick Grant Clerk - Charles J. McMullan Storekeeper - Richard Coffey Matron - Sophia Mathers
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:

    The three counties of Ulster Province that joined the Irish Free State were Donegal (furthest north-west county of Ireland) - Cavan - Monaghan

    Region West (A on external map): Psychiatric Hospitals: St. Mary's Hospital, Castlebar, Co. Mayo - St. Patrick's Hospital, Castlerea, Co. Roscommon - St. Bridget's Hospital, Ballinasloe, Co. Galway - St. Joseph's Hospital, Limerick - Our Lady's Hospital, Ennis, Co. Clare - St. Columba's Hospital, Sligo - St. Conal's Hospital, Letterkenny, Co. Donegal

    Letterkenny District Lunatic Asylum
    Donegal District Lunatic Asylum
    1866 (or 1865?)
    The patients in the hospital at the time of its opening were divided into three categories, Idiots, Lunatics and Vagrants.
    1880: District Lunatic Asylum - Letterkenny Board of Governors meets second Wednesday in each month Resident Medical Superintendent - Joseph Petit, L.R.C.S.I., L.K.Q.C.P.I. Visiting Physician - Fenwick Carre, F.R.C.S.I. Church of Ireland Chaplain - Rev. Richard E. Bailie Presbyterian Chaplain - Rev. Oliver Leitch Roman Catholic Chaplain - Rev. F. H. Gallaher Apothecary - W. Dunlop, L.R.C.P., and S. Edin. Clerk - Hugh Stevenson Matron - Mrs. Eliza Malseed
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:
    Became St Conal's Psychiatric Hospital
    There were 800 in-patients in the hospital in 1950; today there are 80.
    external link

    Monaghan District Luntic Asylum
    Monaghan, Co Monaghan
    Originally built to accommodate 300 patients, the number at one time increased to 950.
    1880: District Lunatic Asylum - Monaghan (for the Counties of Monaghan and Cavan) Board of Governors meet second Thursday each month The Earl of Dartrey, K.P.; Marquis of Headfort, D.L.; Lord Farnham, D.L.; Hon. H. Cavendish Butler, D.L.; Evelyn P. Shirley, D.L.; R. H. Dolling, D.L.; Lieut. Col. Jesse Lloyd, J.P.; R. C. Leslie French, D.L.; R. Burrowes, D.L.; John Madden, Ed. J. Sanderson, V.L.; Andre A. M. Ker, D.L.; Mervyn Pratt, J.P.; Captain T. Coote, D.L.; W. F. D. V. Keane, J.P.; Lieut. Col. Clements, D.L.; T. Clements, D.L.; B. S. Adams, J.P.; Right Rev. James Donnelly, D.D.; Right Rev. N. Connatty, D.D.; Plunkett, Kenny, D.L.; Martin N. Wall, J.P.; Captain J. B. Lynch, J.P.; S. F. Filgate, J.L.; Lord Rossmore, Sir John Leslie, D.L., M.P.; Lieut. Col. Gerald R. Dease, J.P.; Archdeacon of Clogher, D.D.; Edward Richardson, D.L.; H. G. Brooke, J.P.; Jos. Wright, Rev. J. R. Allison, Rev. J. Davidson, W. Henderson, J.P. Resident Medical Superintendent - John C. Robertson, L.R.C.P. & S. Edin., F.R.A.S., M.R.I.A. Assist. Resident Medical Superintendent - Conolly, Norman, L.K.Q.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I. Visiting Consulting Physician - A. K. Young Apothecary - Thomas M. Keown, L.J.M., P.S.I. Matron - Miss Hudson Clerk and Storekeeper - Robert Coffee House Steward - J. Patterson (late H.C. R.I.C.) Church of Ireland Chaplain - Rev. W. H. Bradley Roman Catholic Chaplain - Rev. Peter McGlone Presbyterian Chaplain - Rev. Robert McBride
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:
    Became St Davnet's Hospital

    Connaught Province (west of Ireland) contains Counties Galway (which includes Ballinasloe) to the south, with - Mayo (County Town: Castlebar, Leitrim, Sligo and Roscommon to the north

    Connaught District Asylum
    Opened under the
    1821 Act in 1833
    Accommodation for 150 patients. Catered for all counties of Connaught and was built at a cost of £27,000. Before 1833, any patients put in an asylum were taken with military escort to Dublin by side-car.
    With the building of Sligo in 1855, and Castlebar in 1861, the institution was renamed the Ballinasloe District Asylum
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:
    It still grew rapidly in size, at one time housing over 1500 patients.
    Resident Medical Superintendents since 1833 have been Dr E. Alton, Dr G. Fletcher, Dr J.L. Kerwan, Dr J. Mills, Dr B. Lyons, Dr Ada English, Dr J.C. McCarthy and Dr J.R. Shea. The Hospital was renamed St Brigid's in July 1960 and is now a 440 bed Psychiatric Hospital of the Western Health Board with expanding community care services. (Irish Medical Directory)

    Roscommon Branch District Mental Hospital
    Knock Road, Castlerea, Co Roscommon
    Designed by Boyd Barrett Architects from Cork. Uilt by Messrs Sisk and Co. also from Cork. Estimated cost £250,000
    Opened 1940 "by receiving 35 patients from the Parent Mental Hospital,
    St Brigid's in Ballinasloe, Co Galway.
    1948 Became a TB sanatorium for patients from Counties Roscommon, Donegal, Sligo, Longford, Mayo, Clare and Galway.
    1955 Reverted to a mental hospital. Tuberculosis patients mostly transferred to Merlin Park Hospital in Galway.
    At sometime became St Patrick's Hospital
    Early 1980s Development of community services reduced the inpatient population.
    1992 "A 30 bed Acute Admission Unit opened in the Roscommon County Hospital, and fewer and fewer patients were admitted to St Patrick's"
    July 1996 Remaining patients relocated
    August 1996 Department of Justice took over the complex of St Patrick's Hospital for prison development.
    (Irish Medical Directory)

    Sligo District Asylum
    Opened 1855
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:
    Became St. Columba's Hospital, Sligo
    "The main building dating from 1848, was sold in April 1992, one of the first public psychiatric institutions to be sold in Ireland." (Irish Medical Directory)
    External link photographs

    Castlebar District Asylum
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:
    Became St Mary's Hospital, Castlebar
    External link to history
    2005 Closed as a psychiatric hospital. Became administrative offices.

    Dublin and Leinster

    Leinster Province contains (north to south) Counties Louth, Longford, Westmeath (County Town: Mullingar), Meath, Dublin, King's (changed to Offaly in 1921), Kildare, Queen's (changed to Laois in 1921. The County Town is Maryborough), Wicklow, Kilkenny, Carlow, Wexford (Contains Enniscorthy)

    Region Dublin North East (B on external map): Psychiatric Hospitals: St. Ita's Hospital, Portrane, Co. Dublin - Central Mental Hospital, Dundrum, Dublin 14 - St. Vincent's Hospital, Fairview, Dublin 3 - St. Brendan's Hospital, Rathdown Road,Dublin - St. Bridget's Hospital, Ardee, Co. Louth - St. Davnett's Hospital, Monaghan - St. Loman's Hospital, Palmerstown, Dublin 2 - Cherry Hospital, Ballyfermot, Dublin

    Region Dublin Mid Lenister (D on external map): Psychiatric Hospitals: St. Fintan's Hospital, Portlaoise, Co. Laois - St. Loman's Hospital, Mullingar, Co. Westmeath - Newcastle Hospital, Newtownmountkennedy, Co. Wicklow - Vergemont Hall, Clonskeagh, Ranelagh, Dublin 8 - St. Patrick's Hospital, Dublin 8 -

    Health Service Executive web has regions, networks and psychiatric hositals
    External link includes list of hospitals approved for psychiatric training.
    The list begins with Dublin

    St Patrick's Hospital, Dublin
    Royal Charter

    Richmond District Asylum (Became St Brendans)

    "Richmond Lunatic Asylum, maintained by Parliamentary grants, was opened in 1815 to accommodate 200 and received 170 lunatics from the House of Industry. Treatment at Richmond has been so successful that the number of patients coming to Dublin from the counties has constantly increased. Thus Richmond has reached its capacity and the House of Industry now has a greater number than it held when Richmond was founded. It is now impossible to receive more patients from the country parts of Ireland. The committee considers that, besides Richmond and a satisfactorily conducted establishment at Cork, there should be four or five district asylums each capable of containing between 120 and 150 lunatics. It proposes that a bill be introduced in Parliament to divide the four provinces of Ireland into districts, the expense of each asylum to be borne by its local district. The principle of local support for infirmaries should be extended to asylums. Some suitably located public buildings no longer used for service could be converted for use as district asylums. The committee offers no suggestion on the apportionment of the sum to be levied locally, but does propose that the Lord Lieutenant in Council should fix the amount of contribution and nominate governors. He should also nominate honorary members to serve on a Board for general control purposes. The administration of Richmond may serve as a model for the other asylums. It should continue to be supported by Parliamentary grant, but the county and city of Dublin should provide some finance towards any other asylum located in or near the capital. Cork Asylum can be left under the care and auspices under which it has hitherto been conducted, but should be visited like the other asylums. Two or three cells should be left in each infirmary for the temporary custody of lunatics pending their transfer to the district asylums. An appendix gives letters, papers and a plan and elevation of the lunatic asylum, Kilkenny" (bobcriss summary of July 1817 Report

    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:

    Ireland Training List includes St. Brendan's Group of Hospitals, Dublin - Eastern Health Board Training Scheme: St. Brendan's Hospital/James Connolly Memorial Hospital Psychiatric Unit, Blanchardstown, Dublin/Vergemount Psychiatric Clinic, Clonskeagh, Dublin, incorporating St. Vincent's Hospital/St. Ita's Hospital, Portrane/ Ballyboden, Rathfarnham Complex/St. Joseph's Mental Handicap Service/St. Francis Day Hospital /Newcastle Hospital. Greystones, Co. Wicklow/Lincara Day Centre, Bray/ St. James's Hospital (Child/Adolescent)/ Beaumont/ Baggot St. Hospital.

    Portrane Lunatic Asylum
    Completed by 1902. Constructed because the
    Richmond Asylum was full
    External link to history
    "third phase" of asylum building "culminated in the 1890s in the building of the auxiliary asylum to the Richmond at Portrane, Co Dublin, the largest capital project ever undertaken by the colonial administration in Ireland". (Daly, A. and Walsh, D. 2004)
    1912: "Donabate is a small but interesting village and parish in the Barony of Nethercross. Area, 5,100 acres. Population 734 in 150 houses. It has a station on the Great Northern Railway system, about ten miles north of Dublin, and two miles from the sea at Portrane. The largest lunatic asylum in Ireland is within the parish at Portrane. Dr. Cullinan is Chief Medical Officer" (external link)
    1920: "The whole of the peninsula of Portrane has, in recent years, been altered by the erection of the great lunatic asylum in the grounds of Portrane House, a spacious mansion, now utilised in connection with this institution, and situated nearly in the centre of what was formerly an extensive deer park" (external link)
    1922 to 1989 Possibly 5,000 asylum residents buried in unmarked graves in the hospital's private cemetery (beside Seaview Park Portrane). In 1989, one headstone was put up in the field in memory of all who were buried there. Today, the residents are buried in the local Donabate cemetery (external link)
    Melissa Monteith's grandmother died in this hospital and we are seeking any information about its history, especially in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s
    Now St Ita's Psychiatric Hospital, Portrane, Co. Dublin
    External link: Portrane today
    11.2.2006: News story about sale of land

    Finglas, Dublin: "Here are likewise two lunatic asylums, with gardens and pleasure-grounds attached to each, - Dr. Harty's, which in 1829 had 22 patients; and Dr. Duncan's, reported at the same time as having 42" (external link)

    "Independently of the asylums for the insane already noticed, there are several in the vicinity of Dublin which are devoted to the accommodation of persons of fortune, one of these is established as Glasnevin. There is also one near Donnybrook, supported by the Society of Friends, and designed for patients of their own sect; this institution is, however, about to be enlarged, so as to admit those of all classes, and of every religious profession. (external link)

    Bloomfield Hospital, Bloomfield Avenue, Morehampton Road, Donnybrook, Dublin.
    Established by the Religious Society of Friends.
    Opened 1812: (external link)

    Dundrum: Central Criminal Lunatic Asylum for Ireland
    Opened at Dundrum in 1850
    1961 Renamed the Central Mental Hospital

    Mullingar District Asylum
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:

    Carlow District Asylum
    Opened under the
    1821 Act in 1832
    [Or Carlow/Kildare Lunatic Asylum in 1834]
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:
    Became St Dympna's Psychiatric Hospital
    Taken over by the South Eastern Health Board in 1971
    Currently 120 beds in use at the hospital

    Maryborough District Asylum
    Opened under the
    1821 Act in 1833
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:

    Enniscorthy District Asylum
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:

    Kilkenny District Asylum
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:

    Clonmell House of Industry

    House of Industry established in 1811 as: "a common receptacle for all descriptions of malfortunes, serving at the same time as a place of confinement for vagrants and lunatics as well as an asylum for the poor and helpless." See Peter Higginbotham's web

    "Mr Rice" visited the Clonmell Asylum in 1814-1815

    Clonmell District Asylum
    Opened under the 1821 Act in 1835
    Western Road, Clonmel, Co Tipperary
    In May 1830, a meeting of the Grand Jury for Tipperary held in Clonmel sent a Memorial to the Lord Lieutenant requesting that an asylum be erected near Clonmel to cater for the lunatic population of their district and which would also serve Waterford City and County. However in April 1831, the Authorities in Dublin Castle decided that Waterford would have its own Asylum on a site near the city, but they would only approve of a Clonmel Asylum if accommodation in Maryboro proved insufficient. However in 1832, it was decided to go ahead with the building of a small Asylum in Clonmel with a total of 60 beds. The architect was Mr William Murray of 36 Eccles Street in Dublin and the total cost was just over 16,000. The first meeting of the Governors of Clonmel Lunatic Asylum took place on 15th November, 1834. The first hospital Manager, Mr John Hitchcock had anything but cordial relations with his Governors, and in July 1841 was dismissed, mention being made of the 'confused and irregular state of his books' and 'frequent acts of intoxication'. Dr James Flynn, a medical doctor took over the reins of the Asylum, and he was a strong advocate of the case for appointing doctors as managers in other Asylums. (Irish Medical Directory)
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:
    Became St Luke's Psychiatric Hospital
    Late 1950s Over 900 patients
    1984 150th anniversary: A book of historical memories, photographs and memorabilia published by Eamon Lonergan, former Hospital Manager
    Now about 170 patients

    Cork and Munster

    Munster Province contains Counties Clare, Tipperrary, Waterford, Cork, Limerick and Kerry

    Region South (C on external map): Psychiatric Hospitals: General Hospital, Bantry, Co. Cork - St. Fintan's Hospital, Killarney, Co. Kerry - Our Lady's Hospital, Lee Road, Cork - Our Lady's Hospital, Lee Road, Cork - Sarsfield Court, Glanmire, Co. Cork - St. Senan's Hospital, Enniscorthy, Co. Wexford - St. Dymna's Hospital, Carlow - St. Otteran's Hospital, Waterford - St. Canice's Hospital, Kilkenny - St. Luke's Hospital, Clonmel, Co. Tipperary

    An asylum was erected at Limerick about 1777

    Limerick District Asylum
    Second opened under the
    1821 Act: in 1827
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:

    Waterford District Asylum
    Opened under the
    1821 Act in 1835
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:

    Cork Asylum
    Opened 1789 (the second Irish asylum)
    William Saunders Hallaran (1765-1825) was physician to the Cork asylum from the time it opened until his death. He was the author of Practical Observations on the Causes and Cure of Insanity (1818)

    The 1845 Irish Lunatics Asylums Act allowed for appropriating the Lunatic Asylum in the city of Cork to the Purposes of a District Lunatic Asylum

    Cork District Asylum
    Eglinton Asylum (I believe that is the correct spelling)

    "Perhaps because of the pre-occupation with the programme of workhouse construction, no new asylums were built in the early 1840s. However, legislation in 1845 provided for two new asylums - a criminal one in Dundrum, Dublin, and a 500-bed asylum Cork, designed by a local architect and opened in 1850. This latter, the Eglington Asylum, was originally in three separate blocks, later to be joined together, in the interest of providing more accommodation, to become the longest faade of any building in the country." (Daly, A. and Walsh, D. 2004)

    Opened 1852 (Tuke, D.H. 1882 p.421)
    Corridor form.
    Eglinton Asylum had three storeys (The Builder 27/11/1852 p.754) (Piddock, S. 2002)
    Cost including site £79,827..1/5d
    Number of beds: 500 (Tuke, D.H. 1882 p.421) - Too large for Conolly's ideal
    John N. Beamish, aged 24; Eglinton Lunatic Asylum Cork, Ireland; Cork Examiner; 21.3.1856; dja
    Thomas Power, M.D., Eglinton Asylum Cork Examiner; 12.9.1856
    Gerald Barry Wilson, born 1860, MD, RAMC, Assistant Resident Medical Officer, Eglinton Lunatic Asylum, Sunday's Well, Cork in 1870
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: 450 Female: 420 Total: 870 (Tuke, D.H. 1882 p.441)
    May 2005: "Eglinton Lunatic Asylum in Cork is currently being renovated to apartments. Only one third of the building is currently in stages of renovation leaving the other two thirds of the building gutted but in its original condition". (Garreth W. Joyce, photographer)

    Ennis District Asylum
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:
    External link: brief history

    Killarney District Asylum
    Patients on 1.1.1881: Male: Female: Total:

    The Priory Group Wikipedia

    The Priory Group was created in 1980 with the purchase of the Priory Hospital, Roehampton (founded 1872) by an American healthcare company.

    Over the following decades the Group acquired more hospitals and diversified its services.

    1993 the Priory Group moved into specialist education services with the purchase of Jacques Hall Foundation, then an adolescent therapeutic community, in Manningtree, Essex.

    1999 The Priory Group acquired by Westminster Health Care plc in 1999. Chai Patel became Chief Executive.

    "Specialist Health Services includes:

  • Secure mental health services provided at Thornford Park, Thatcham, Newbury Berkshire and Chadwick Lodge, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire.

  • Adult psychiatric services provided at Ticehurst House Hospital, Ticehurst, Sussex, Ticehurst Clinic, Hove, Sussex, Ticehurst Clinic, Canterbury, Kent (out- patients) [Also other srvices at Ticehurst]

  • Addiction services at Farm Place, Ockley, Surrey

    1.5.2002 3i invests £267 million in the management buy-out of Westminster Health Care. (Press Release)

    "As from 1st May 2002, the two Divisions of Westminster Health Care (namely Westminster Senior Living and Priory Healthcare) have become two separate and independent companies. The Senior Living Division will now trade as Westminster Health Care with Tony Heywood as the new Chief Executive. Dr Chai Patel will continue as Chief Executive of Priory Healthcare. Both the web sites will be refreshed in the coming weeks" (website)

    30.12.2003 Earliest internet archive of Priory Health care website. All but the front page was prevented from being archived.

    The Priory Group now (before 2006?) included 16 psychiatric units, including Ticehurst House.

    May 2009 Priory Group's older peoples division established. Now known as Amore Care.

    March 2011 The Priory Group acquired Craegmoor "allowing a growth in the Group's portfolios of hospital and specialist educational colleges". "As the market leader in autism and learning disability services, Craegmoor enables the Group to create a new division operating in that marketplace".

    Wednesday 16.10.2013 Secure services users conference

    May 2014 Art by patients from Thornford Park Hospital in Thatcham, Berkshire, Chadwick Lodge and Eaglestone View in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, Farmfield in Surrey, Cefn Carnau in Cardiff, Middleton St George Hospital near Darlington and Charles House in Salford featured in the Bridging the Gap exhibition held at Together's national office at 12 Old Street in London. (Press release)

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