Nineteenth century social science, medieval Europe and ancient Greece all distinguished between theology and science as ways of understanding or knowing the world. Theology being theo (God) and logy, from logos (word) meaning study or knowledge.

As there are several files on this site where this distinction is relevant, I have made this home page for them.

Chapter one of Social Science History on Empiricism, theory and the imagination, outlines the distinction that the French social scientist Auguste Comte made between theological, metaphysical and scientific (positivist) thinking. In chapter two (Hobbes, Filmer and Locke, 17th Century Models for a Science of Society) the thtories of Robert Filmer are an example of a theological explanation of society.

The ideas of Lord Ashley (7th Earl of Shaftesbury) are an example of theological thinking applied to society in the nineteenth century. The evangelical thinking of Lord Ashley is also found in the development of the Civil Service Christian Union and other organisations that can be traced through the archives of Edwin Roberts to the present day.

Quakers around Shoreditch is a history of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in the East End of London, written by Peter Daniels of Bunhill Meeting.

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